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Geography Skills Handbook: TOOLS OF GEOGRAPHY

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Geography Skills Handbook: TOOLS OF GEOGRAPHY WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY? GEOGRAPHY is the study of the world's environment and man's interaction within the environment. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Geography Skills Handbook: TOOLS OF GEOGRAPHY


1
Geography Skills Handbook TOOLS OF GEOGRAPHY
2
WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY?
  • GEOGRAPHY is the study of the world's environment
    and man's interaction within the environment.
  • Geography has two strands or parts
  • PHYSICAL The study of the earth's natural
    features, such as mountains, rivers, soil,
    vegetation, and weather
  • and
  • HUMAN (Cultural) The study of human cultures and
    man made features.
  • All kinds of resources are used to study
    geography, but the most common are MAPS.

3
MAPS
  • A map is a 2 dimensional graphic of the earth or
    part of the earth.
  • A person who makes maps is called a cartographer.
  • Maps are important as a tool for geography
    because we can show so much information about the
    earth on one document.
  • There are parts to maps, types of maps, and even
    map projections that are very important as a
    basis for all of geography.

4
Geographic Information
  • Cartographers today use many sources of data
    collected for their maps.
  • GIS (Geographic Information Systems) is the most
    accurate to date GIS is using computers to plot
    points and use different sources such as
    satellites, maps, pictures (images)-to create an
    electronic layer. Each layer is given a code
    number which allows geographers to change and
    create maps easier on a computer.
  • Air Photography and Satellite Images can help
    gather information to then be placed on maps.
    Cartographers can interpret what they see and
    plot it on a map.
  • GPS (Global Positioning Systems) use satellites
    around the world to plot the exact point of
    location from an electronic receiver. Examples
    Garmin-Tom-Tom

5
PARTS OF A MAP
WHICH ONE IS WHICH???
  • Key/ Legend Shows information as symbols
  • Scale Used for measuring distance (like a ruler)
  • Scale can also be shown in ratio form (ex. 110)
    or by an equation (ex. 1 inch 10 miles)
  • Directional Arrow All maps must have AT LEAST
    an arrow showing relative direction. This is
    called orientation
  • Compass Rose Shows Cardinal Intermediary
    Directions

N
6
Other things to look for when reading a map
  • Boundaries outlined by different colors
  • Capital Cities are indicated with a circle
    around them.
  • Major cities indicated by a black dot.

7
TYPES OF MAPS
  • 1. Political Map- this is a map that shows
    political boundaries, borders, area of political
    entities (countries, states, territories,
    districts, zones, counties, provinces, etc) These
    types of maps may also show capitals/ other
    cities.
  • 2. Physical Map- This type of map uses colors to
    show elevation and other land/water features of
    the earth. This map may also show any physical
    feature such as mountains, oceans, rivers,
    valleys, etc.
  • 3. Thematic Map- This type of map shows themes
    or subjects on a map- basically any information.
    Anything can be shown on a map using symbols,
    colors, pictures, numbers, contour lines, etc.
    ALL THEMATIC MAPS MUST HAVE A KEY- this tells the
    reader what each picture/symbols/color/etc
    represents on the map i.e.
    represents a hospital

8
ATLAS
  • Any collection of maps, graphs, and charts is
    called an atlas.
  • We use atlases as a geographic resource for
    looking up all kinds of information
  • From where places are located
  • To population and economic information
  • To topographic information about the surface of
    the earth.

9
USING AN ATLAS
  • Remember to use the INDEX to help locate the
    location of cities, states, and countries around
    the world.
  • Use the KEY on the maps to read information
  • Use the SCALE of the map to find distances
  • Use the COMPASS ROSE to locate and pinpoint
    orientation or direction.
  • Use the Grid System once you look up the area in
    the index.

10
Parallels and Meridians LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE
  • Reading coordinates is very important in finding
    location in geography.
  • Remember that you read the x-axis (latitude)
    first and then read the y-axis (longitude)
    second. (x,y)

X- AXIS
Y- AXIS
11
GLOBAL GRID LINES
Parallels
Meridians
Imaginary line on the earth opposite of the Prime
Meridian - the date changes as one travels east
or west across it
It runs between Russia and Alaska and the south
Pacific Islands
12
longitude and latitude coordinates are measured
in degrees. The shape of the Earth is a Sphere.
It is 360 degrees around a sphere (like a
circle). Each degree is divided into 60 minutes,
which in turn is divided into 60 seconds. Each
degree of latitude and longitude is 1/360th of
the distance around the Earth. Latitude and
longitude are determined by measuring the angle
between the equator or Prime Meridian and any
point on earth. It is read in degrees and
minutes. For Example (3936'24"N, -866'26"W) you
would say, 39 degrees, 36 minutes, and 24 seconds
north of the equator and 86 degrees, six minutes
and 26 seconds west of the Prime Meridian.
13
Speed and Distance-Sailors needed a grid system
to give absolute location-Their exact spot on the
earth.
14
Parallels and Meridians
Parallels
Grid
Meridians
15
THE GLOBAL GRID
The Earth is divided by latitude and longitude
lines. There are several important lines to know
on the earth's surface
1 is the ARCTIC CIRCLE found at 66 ½ o NORTH of
the Equator 2 is the TROPIC OF CANCER found at
23 ½ o NORTH of the Equator
3 is the EQUATOR which splits the earth into two
hemispheres at 0o Latitude 4 is the TROPIC OF
CAPRICORN found 23 ½ o SOUTH of the Equator. 5
is the ANTARCTIC CIRCLE found at 66 ½ o SOUTH of
the Equator
6
6 is the PRIME MERIDIAN which runs north to
south at 0o LONGITUDE
16
READING COORDINATES
  • Read the coordinates for LATITUDE first. 33o
    NORTH latitude
  • Read LONGITUDE next.97o WEST longitude
  • Which means that coordinates for Dallas, Texas
    would look like this
  • 33oN, 97oW

17
GRID MAPS
  • Grid maps are another way to look at finding
    location. Instead of latitude and longitude
    lines, use grid squares to find a specific place
    on a small area of the earth.

Cheddar, England is found in grid square A-9
18
MAP PROJECTIONS
  • To find just the right map to use, ask yourself
    What am I trying to show on my map?
  • You dont want to use a map that has too much
    distortion (being mis-shapen on a map)
  • Usually you ask the question for one of the
    following four map topics
  • AREA
  • DIRECTION
  • DISTANCE
  • SHAPE

19
TYPES OF MAP PROJECTIONS
20
MERCATOR
  • Mercator Map Projection Shows accurate
    direction, but area shapes are severely
    distorted at the poles and most accurate at the
    equator. Mercator projections are based on
    cylinders.
  • Sailors would use these for true direction

Look how big I am on a Mercator Map!!!
21
ROBINSON
  • Robinson Map Projection Shows accurate shape
    size of continents, but water areas are expanded
    to fill in area. Robinson projections are based
    on ovals. These maps are good for data
    collections like in a classroom or lab.

DONT I LOOK LIKE THE PULL-DOWN MAP IN THE
CLASSROOM??
22
Goode -INTERRUPTED
Why does my projection look so much different
from all the others? .. (sniff).I want to have
a nice and even shape, too!
  • Interrupted Map Projection Shows accurate area
    shape of continents, but oceans have open
    pie-shaped wedges are to adjust for distance.

23
CONICAL
  • Conical map Projection comes from placing a cone
    over part of the globe-best suited for limited
    east-west areas that are not to far from the
    equator. It shows accurate distance, direction,
    shape for the limited area mapped.
  • They are cone shaped!

24
AZIMUTH /Planar (aka POLAR)
  • Polar Map Projection Used for mapping
    hemispheres instead of whole Earth. Shows
    accurate distance direction but shape and size
    are distorted at the edges. Polar view is called
    Azimuth.

Just call me polar since I only show one pole
at a time. It sure beats being confused with
asthma maps!!!
25
Winkel-Tripel Projection
  • Most general reference world maps use this
    projection. Adopted by the National Geographic
    Society in 1998. It has a good balance between
    size and shape of land areas as they are shown on
    the map-with the polar areas depicting less
    distortion of size compared to other maps.

26
Great Circle Routes
  • Airline Pilots would use these maps to follow
    Great Circle Routes (the shortest path between
    two points along the curve of the Earth)

27
The great circle on a spherical surface is the
path with the smallest curvature, and, hence, an
arc. THE GREAT CIRCLE ROUTE is the shortest path
between two points on a spherical surface.
On the Earth, the meridians are on great circles,
and the equator is a great circle. Other lines of
latitude are not great circles, because they are
smaller than the equator their centers are not
at the center of the Earth
28
(No Transcript)
29
The Great Circle Route
30
Great Circle Route- Upper view
31
Great Circle Route Finder
Great Circle Calculate distance between two
locationsRoute Finder
32
Small-Scale /Large Scale-Maps
Large scale Map-small area with great detail
Small Scale-Large Area with little detail
33
Geographers use Charts and graphs for determining
what factors in various situations are important
Bar graph
Be able to distinguish the difference between
them!
Line Graph
Circle Graphs
Chart/Table
34
MANY USES FOR MAPS
  • You MUST be familiar with maps for many different
    reasons
  • Driving (Road Maps)
  • Locating places (Political Maps)
  • Traveling (Political or Physical Maps)
  • Researching (Thematic Maps)
  • Building (Topographic Maps)
  • And basically knowing where you are in relation
    to your surroundings!!!!

35
The end!!!!!
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