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Understanding Census Geography

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Understanding Census Geography Lisa Neidert NPC Workshop: Analyzing Poverty and Socioeconomic Trends Using the American Community Survey July 12 July 15, 2010 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Understanding Census Geography


1
Understanding Census Geography
  • Lisa Neidert
  • NPC Workshop Analyzing Poverty and Socioeconomic
    Trends Using the American Community Survey
  • July 12 July 15, 2010

2
Census Geography
3
Geographic Areas with 1-year and 3-year data
4
Geographic Areas with 1-year and 3-year data
5
Whats available in the ACS for single year data
via maps
  • Maps showing counties and places for each state
    (or the nation)
  • http//www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/users_guide
    /acs_2008_reference_maps.htm

6
Counties with single year data ACS 2008
7
Almost all counties DE, MA
8
Few counties, no places VT and WY
9
State with American Indian Places AK, AL, LA,
NC, OK
10
Counties with 3-year data ACS 2006-2008
11
States where all counties are over 20,000
  • Connecticut
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • Rhode Island

12
What geographies are available in the 2006-2006
ACS
http//www.census.gov/acs/www
/acs-php/2006_2008_beginner_users_guide.php
13
Geographical Areas (Texas) Covered in 2006-2008
  • ACS 20062008 Geographical Areas

14
Whats available in the ACS via Look-up tables
  • Geographic entities available for 1-year data
    (2008)
  • Geographic entities available for 3-year data
    (2006-2008)

15
Not ready for prime-time census tracts and zip
codes
  • Need 5-year estimates file
  • 2005 2009
  • Available 2010 for Census Tracts
  • 2011 for Zip Codes
  • Annual updates thereafter
  • 2006 2010
  • 2007 2011, etc.
  • Possible delay for 5-year data
  • only an unsubstantiated rumor

16
Example Census Tracts for community districts
17
Zip codes
  • Not census geography
  • However, big demand for zip code data
  • Census Bureau builds ZCTAs via census blocks
  • ZCTA FAQs
  • http//www.census.gov/geo/ZCTA/zctafaq.html
  • Fun resource
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zip_code

18
What to do with a 2011 release of zip code data?
  • See Exercise 4
  • http//www.psc.isr.umich.edu/dis/workshop/npc2010/
    Exercise4_DealingWithDelays.pdf
  • This exercise shows how to build zip code
    characteristics from census tract characteristics

19
What are PUMAs?
  • Public Use Microdata areas
  • Combination of population geographies that sum to
    at least 100,000 population.
  • In rural areas, several counties will form a
    PUMA. In an urban area, a county will be
    subdivided into multiple PUMAs.
  • PUMAs do not cross state boundaries

20
PUMAs. . . .
  • PUMAs do not have good comparability over time
    (1990, 2000).
  • PUMA geographies for the ACS are the same as the
    2000 boundaries
  • PUMAs are reasonable substitutes for counties
  • Smallest geography available in the microdata.

21
PUMAs
  • Can be valuable for bypassing geographic
    restrictions when one wants national information
    at the county level
  • Create pseudo counties based on a cross-walk
    between PUMAs and counties

22
Statistics based on 1-year ACS data Unit is
county
23
Statistics based on 3-year ACS data Unit is county
24
Statistics based on 1-year ACS data Unit is PUMA
25
Illinois example PUMA to county example
26
PUMA to County Widget
  • Based on PDQ-Explore output
  • http//www.psc.isr.umich.edu/dis/data/resource/det
    ail/1527
  • Based on American FactFinder output
  • http//www.psc.isr.umich.edu/dis/data/resource/det
    ail/1528
  • Try one this week

27
Class Exercises Today
  • http//mblog.lib.umich.edu/NPC2010/archives/class_
    exercises/index.html
  • Poverty Hot-spots (ACS 2008)
  • Census tract data (Census 2000)
  • Bulk downloads, zip code (Census 2000)
  • Dealing with Delays Creating zip code
    characteristics from census tract data

28
PUMAs via Maps
  • Reasonable tool for rural parts of a state
  • Somewhat unwieldy for urban areas
  • Multiple maps per state
  • http//usa.ipums.org/usa/volii/2000pumas.shtml

29
PUMAs via text
  • Describes PUMA composition
  • By
  • County
  • County subdivision
  • Place
  • Census tract
  • http//usa.ipums.org/usa/volii/2000pumas.shtml
  • http//www.psc.isr.umich.edu/dis/data/ref/PUMA/SUP
    ERPUMA-2000-5pct.html

30
Metropolitan areas
  • Defined by Office Management Budget (OMB)
  • http//www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/met
    rodef.html
  • Historical Definitions
  • http//www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/pas
    tmetro.html
  • Researcher is free to follow own definitions
  • Census Bureau follows OMB definitions
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