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AP Psychology UNIT ONE: HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit One:


1
AP Psychology
  • Unit One
  • History of Psychology

2
LEQ 1
  • What is psychology and what philosophical changes
    have occurred in the field throughout time?

3
What is Psychology
  • Psychology is the study of the behavior and
    mental processes of the human mind through
    scientific inquiry.
  • Psychology studies the behavior, and attempts to
    understand the mental process behind it.
  • Two important components to this definition are
  • Scientific inquiry
  • Behavior

4
What They Mean
  • Scientific Inquiry The method consistently used
    to both ask and answer questions.
  • Each question is based less on a set of findings
    or thoughts
  • Each inquiry (method) can be repeated to verify
    its validity and results.
  • Behavior is any action that other people can
    observe or measure.
  • Can include walking, sleeping, and eating
  • Includes automatic body functions like heart
    rate, blood pressure, and brain activity

5
The Goal of Psychology
  • Psychologists seek to observe, describe, explain,
    predict, and control the events they study
  • Evaluate competing ideas with careful observation
    and rigorous analysis.
  • This allows them to get a better understanding of
    behavior, and lets psychologists explain,
    predict, and control behavior
  • Example Pro sports teams give many players
    psychological evaluations before offering a big
    contract.

6
Question
  • What types of questions do psychologists seek to
    answer?
  • Eliminate or prove theories about
  • the brain
  • Sleep
  • Stress
  • Sensation
  • Intelligence
  • Lying

7
Question 1
  • Is it a myth that most people use 10 of their
    brains on average?

8
Answer 1
  • Yes it is a myth. We use all the components of
    our brain every day. We will see how this works
    in the second unit of this course

9
Question 2
  • During your most vivid dreams is your body
    paralyzed?

10
Answer 2
  • The answer is yes. Dreams occur during REM (rapid
    eye movement)- a stage of sleep. Voluntary
    muscles cannot move during this time

11
Question 3
  • Can psychological stress cause physical illness?

12
Answer 3
  • Yes. The link between mind and body can make you
    sick when stress is chronic

13
Question 4
  • Does the color red exist only as a sensation in
    the brain and not in the real world?

14
Answer 4
  • Yes. All sensations of color are created within
    the brain. Light waves have different
    frequencies, but no color. The brain assigns a
    color to a certain frequency.

15
Question 5
  • Is Bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder)
    caused by a conflict in the unconscious mind?

16
Answer 5
  • No. There is no evidence at this time that the
    unconscious mind plays any role in bipolar
    disorder. Because the disorder responds well to
    narcotics, it is a chemical imbalance.

17
Question 6
  • Is a new-born childs mind a blank slate?

18
Answer 6
  • No. Tabula Rosa has been proven to be false. The
    brain has built in abilities and protective
    reflexes. The brain also has what is called
    genetic potential.

19
Question 7
  • Does everything that happens to us leave a
    permanent memory?

20
Answer 7
  • No. There is no evidence that memory records all
    the details of our lives. What does get stored is
    what we experience that has value to us in some
    form. This memory will become distorted as it
    decays over time.

21
Question 8
  • Are we born with all the brain cells we will ever
    have?

22
Answer 8
  • Nope. Many parts of the brain develop as we move
    through life. Your brain does not fully develop
    until your late 20s- early 30s.

23
Question 9
  • Is intelligence a purely genetic trait that is
    fixed at the same level throughout someones life?

24
Answer 9
  • No. Intelligence is the result of heredity and
    the environment.

25
Question 10
  • Polygraph devices are extremely accurate in
    detecting that a person is being dishonest?

26
Answer 10
  • False. There is little evidence to support the
    effectiveness of a lie detector. The sensors can
    be set off by a number of psychological or
    physical actions.

27
Question to Ponder
  • Do you have a soul? If so, how do you define it?
  • On a sheet of paper, give me three points that
    answer this question
  • Please note this answer cannot use any religious
    ideology. While religion is important, using it
    will defeat the purpose of the question.

28
Foundations of Psychology
  • The origins of psychology
  • (AKA very dead people)

29
Pre-Scientific Psychology
  • The beginnings of Psychological Thought
    throughout the world can be traced to ancient
    writings.
  • India Buddha pondered how sensations and
    perceptions combine to form ideas
  • China Confucius stressed the powers of ideas
    and of an educated mind (educated leadership)
  • Israel Hebrew Scriptures anticipated todays
    psychology by linking mind and emotion to the
    body.
  • People were said to think with their hearts and
    feel with their bowels.

30
Pre-Scientific Psychology
  • Socrates (469-399 B.C)
  • Viewed the mind as separable from the body
  • They believed that the mind and body did not
    function in unison.
  • Over 2000 years ago in ancient Greece, Plato
    recorded his teachers greatest advice know
    thyself
  • Socrates suggested that we can learn about
    ourselves by carefully examining our thoughts and
    feelings.
  • This method is known as Introspection, which
    means to look within.
  • Plato and Socrates made these conclusions without
    the benefit of scientific support

31
Ancient Greece
  • Aristotle was another philosopher that believed
    the mind is not separable from the body.
  • He used observation of human behavior to discover
    that knowledge is not preexisting (instinct
    notwithstanding)
  • Knowledge is, instead, developed from experience
    and parental training

32
Prescientific Psychology
  • Believed in soul (mind)-body separation, but
    wondered how the immaterial mind (soul) and
    physical body communicated.
  • Is the soul our consciousness?
  • Believed brain fluid was part of the soul
  • First discovery of nerve pathways
  • Believed in dualism-humans have a physical and
    mental nature.
  • Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

http//ocw.mit.edu
33
Prescientific Psychology
  • Bacon is one of the founders of modern science,
    particularly the experimental method.
  • Use of experiments, experience, and common sense
  • Developed the idea of Novum Organuum
  • Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

34
Novum Organuum
  • States that the human understanding, from its
    peculiar nature, easily supposes a greater degree
    of order and equality in things than it really
    finds!
  • What do you think this means?
  • Do we seek to impose order where it doesnt
    exist?
  • How does this apply to humans?

35
Phrenology
  • This is the school of thought that says the size
    and shape of the skull directly related to a
    persons psyche
  • By feeling the bumps on a persons skull,
    psychologists could a persons psychological
    capabilities. (the more bumps, the better, and
    uglier).
  • This science also forced all psychologists that
    the mind was in the skull, not the heart or
    liver.
  • One thing phrenology did get right is called
    brain area specializations.

36
Prescientific Psychology
  • Empiricism the view that knowledge comes from
    experience and science flourished through
    observation and experimentation
  • Locke held that the mind was a tabula rasa, or
    blank sheet, at birth, and experiences wrote on
    it.
  • An Essay of Human Understanding
  • John Locke (1632-1704)

37
Prescientific Psychology
  • What is the relation of mind (soul) to the body?

Mind and body are connected Mind and body are distinct
The Hebrews Socrates
Aristotle Plato
Augustine Descartes
38
Scientific Psychology
  • Historical Approaches to Psychology Early
    Schools of Thought
  • These folks are dead too.

39
Psychology is Born
  • Psychology was born in December of 1879 at the
    University of Leipzig in Germany
  • Wilhelm Wundt developed an experimental apparatus
    that tested how quickly a person responded to
    hearing a ball hit a platform
  • The different tests required the participants to
    press a telegraph button when they heard the ball
    hit the platform
  • The difference was 1/10 of a second each time
  • Wundt wanted to see what the faster mental
    process was (hearing the ball strike or pressing
    the button)
  • The test itself was fundamentally flawed. The
    significance is that he used a scientific
    approach (not anecdotal evidence) to back his
    claims.

40
Psychologys New Path
  • Psychology soon began to develop into several
    schools of thought that describe how our minds
    work and why
  • Structuralists
  • Functionists
  • Gestalt Psychology
  • Humanistic
  • Behaviorists

41
Structuralism founded by Wilhelm Wundt
  • Structuralists were concerned with discovering
    basic elements of conscious experience.
  • Used introspection a method of self-observation
    where people report their thoughts and feelings
    based on stimuli (smellmemory)
  • Set up the first psychological laboratory
  • Conscious experience was broken down into two
    categories
  • Objective sensations five senses
  • Subjective feelings emotional responses to
    mental images

42
Functionalism
  • Functionalism- focus on emotions, memories, will
    power, habits, and streams of consciousness.
  • Why do certain parts of our brain function the
    way they do?
  • William James speculated that thinking, feeling,
    learning, and remembering serve one major
    function to our ancestors, to help them survive
    and adapt.
  • Later on, these senses and functions contribute
    to our complexity of thought.
  • Published 1st psychology text book the
    Principles of Psychology
  • Study how animals and people adapt to their
    environments

43
Gestalt Psychology
  • The focus on attempting to explain our tendency
    to integrate pieces of information or feelings
    into a whole.
  • For ideas, events, or actions to make sense to
    us, we have to place it in the context of a
    larger event. (justification)
  • How often do we take pieces of an idea, facts,
    emotions, or feelings and organize them into an
    idea that places them into a useful singular
    whole?

44
Humanistic Psychology
  • Developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
  • Focus on current environmental conditions as
    influential in growth
  • Developed the cognitive revolution-study in the
    importance of internal processes, but expanded to
    explore the ways we perceive, process, and retain
    information scientifically
  • Cognitive neuroscience- study of interaction of
    thought processes and brain functions

45
Behavioralism
  • Behavioral Psychology- The scientific study of
    observable behavior in humans in their
    environment
  • Early Behaviorists include John B. Watson and
    B.F. Skinner
  • Behaviorists study how people / animals learn
    or modify their behavior based on their responses
    to events in the environment
  • Behaviorists dismissed the idea of introspection
  • Example He put a hungry rat in a maze, and put
    food in the same place to observe behavior.
  • B.F. Skinner showed that when a behavior is
    reinforced, or rewarded, the behavior will happen
    often.

46
Modern Psychology
  • The study of psychology today using modern
    theories and technology to unlock the brain.

47
Psychologys Debate
  • What are the relative contributions of biology
    and experience?
  • Nature-Nurture- Humans either develop their
    traits through experience or they come equipped
    with them.
  • Was Plato right in assuming character and
    intelligence are inherited?
  • Was Socrates right in assuming we are a blank
    sheet?

48
Darwin
  • 1859- Origin of Species explained that diversity
    of life as a result of natural evolution
  • Natural Selection-nature selects the best traits
    that best enable an organism to survive and
    reproduce in a particular environment.

49
Levels of Analysis
  • Three levels of analysis- three complementary
    outlooks
  • Biological Influences
  • Psychological Influences
  • Social-cultural Influences
  • Biopsychosocial approach- considers the influence
    of biological, psychological, and social-cultural
    influences

50
Levels of Analysis
51
Sub-Fields of Psychology
  • Types of Research
  • Basic Research science tat aims to increase the
    scientific knowledge base
  • Ex study changes that humans go through from
    womb to tomb
  • Applied Research Scientific study that aims to
    solve practical problems
  • Ex study why employees work harder in the
    morning or the afternoon, and why

52
Clinical Psychology
  • A branch of psychology that studies, assesses,
    and treats people with psychological disorders
  • Administer and interpret tests, provide
    psychotherapy, manage mental health programs, and
    conduct basic and applied research

53
Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology
  •  
  • Neuroscience - Study how the body and brain
    enable emotions, memories and sensory
    experiences 
  • Evolutionary - Study how natural selection of
    traits promotes the perpetuation of ones genes
  • Behavior Genetics - Study how much our genes and
    our environment influence our individual
    differences
  • Psychodynamic - Study how behavior springs from
    unconscious drives and conflicts
  • Behavioral - Study how people learn from
    observable responses and behavior
  • Cognitive - Study how we encode, process, store,
    and retrieve information
  • Sociocultural - Study the influence of culture,
    ethnicity, and socioeconomic status on our
    behavior
  • Socioeconomic status your status or
    self-perception in society

54
Psychiatry
  • A branch of medicine dealing with psychological
    disorders
  • Practiced by physicians who sometimes provide
    medical treatments as well as psychological
    therapy
  • Can be open to counterfeiters who are looking to
    make money, and it isnt illegal.

55
Psychology as a Science
  • LEQ 2 How and why do Psychologists study
    behavior?

56
Need for Scientific Approach
  • Are gut feelings always right?
  • Have you been overconfident, yet proved to be
    wrong?
  • Are there limits of intuition and common sense?
    YES

57
Fallacies of the Brain
  • Hindsight Bias
  • The tendency to believe, after learning an
    outcome, that one would have foreseen it
  • Also know as the I knew it all along phenomenon
  • Overconfidence
  • our everyday thinking is limited by two things
  • Hindsight bias common sense after the fact
  • Human tendency to be overconfident

58
Critical Thinking
  • Critical Thinking
  • does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions
  • examines assumptions, evaluates evidence, and
    assesses conclusions
  • Leads to a scientific approach

59
The Scientific Method and Psychology
  • this approach is used to give credibility to
    psychological studies
  •  Form a Theory an explanation using an
    integrated set of principles that organizes and
    predicts observations
  •  Hypothesis- A testable prediction
  • A hypothesis is tested by making observations
    that
  • describe behavior
  • detect correlations that help predict behavior
  • allow for experiments that explain behavior
  • These are research strategies
  •  Operational Definition (Procedures) A
    statement of procedures used to define research
    variables
  • The procedures allow for replication of the study
  •  Replication repeating a research study to see
    whether the basic findings are consistent
  • A repeated study is done with a different set of
    participants

60
Types of Psychologists
  • Counseling Psychology- assist people coping with
    emotional or personal challenges
  • Clinical Psychologist- assess and treat mental,
    emotional, and behavior disorders
  • Psychiatrist- medical doctors who are licensed to
    prescribe medication and treat physical causes of
    psychological disorders

61
Any Questions
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