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Genetic Engineering

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Title: Genetic Engineering Author: classroom Last modified by: Stephanie Reid Created Date: 10/26/2005 4:52:56 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Genetic Engineering


1
Genetic Engineering
  • Chapter 13

2
Changing the Living World
  • Selective breeding
  • Breeding animals with characteristics we want to
    produce offspring with those
  • Plants Potatoes or flowers
  • Animals dogs or farm animals

3
Changing the Living World
  • Hybridization
  • Cross different individuals to get offspring with
    favorable traits
  • The result is a hybrid an individual produced
    from the crossing of two different organisms.

4
Changing the Living World
  • Inbreeding
  • Breed similar individuals over and over to get
    offspring with favorable traits

5
Changing the Living World
  • Increasing variation
  • Inducing mutations
  • Radiation
  • Chemicals
  • Produce mutants an individual showing the
    mutation

6
Changing the Living World
  • Producing new bacteria
  • Small size allows for millions to be treated
  • Oil eating bacteria

7
Changing the Living World
  • Producing new plants
  • Chemicals that prevent chromosomal separation
  • Polypoidy
  • Larger and stronger plants

8
13-2 Manipulating DNA
  • How can scientists manipulate the code?
  • Scientists use their knowledge of the structure
    of DNA and its chemical properties to study and
    change DNA molecules.

9
13-2 Manipulating DNA
  • Tools of Molecular Biology
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Making changes in the DNA code of a living
    organism
  • DNA Extraction
  • Open a cell (mechanical and chemical methods)
  • Use a chemical to separate the DNA from the rest
    of the cell parts (an alcohol)

10
13-2 Manipulating DNA
  • Cutting DNA
  • DNA molecules are very long
  • Restriction enzymes
  • Enzymes that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of
    nucleotides
  • Sticky ends these are the cut ends of the DNA

11
13-2 Manipulating DNA
  • Separating DNA
  • Gel electrophoresis
  • A mixture of DNA fragments is placed at one end
    of a porous gel (negative end), and an electric
    voltage is applied to the gel
  • The molecules will move from negative to positive

12
13-2 Manipulating DNA
13
13-2 Manipulating DNA
  • Using the DNA Sequence
  • Once it is separated it is manageable
  • It can now be
  • Read
  • Studied
  • Changed

14
13-2 Manipulating DNA
  • Reading the Sequence
  • How do you read unknown DNA?
  • You can use
  • DNA Polymerase
  • Four nucleotides
  • Chemical markers

15
13-2 Manipulating DNA
  • Cutting and Pasting
  • DNA synthesizers
  • Enzymes join artificial pieces of DNA with
    natural pieces
  • Recombinant DNA
  • Enzymes join genes from one strand of DNA with
    genes from another strand of DNA

16
13-2 Manipulating DNA
  • Making Copies
  • PCR or Polymerase chain reaction
  • Photocopying DNA over and over
  • Use strands of DNA that are called primers

17
13-3 Cell Transformation
  • Transformation
  • When a cell takes in foreign DNA and joins it
    with the existing DNA
  • This external DNA becomes part of the cells DNA

18
13-3 Cell Transformation
  • Transforming Bacteria
  • Foreign DNA is joined to plasmid
  • Plasmid small, circular DNA molecule
  • Genetic marker a gene that makes it possible
    see which bacteria are carrying the plasmid (that
    is marked) and which bacteria are not.

19
13-3 Cell Transformation
  • Transforming Plant Cells
  • Using bacterium that normally infect plant cells
    and cause tumors
  • Taking away the cell wall some plant cells will
    take up DNA on their own
  • If successful recombinant DNA will be found in a
    chromosome of the cell

20
13-3 Cell Transformation
  • Transforming Animal Cells
  • DNA can be injected directly into the nucleus of
    an egg
  • Enzymes help insert the new DNA into the eggs
    existing DNA
  • New DNA contains markers that tell which cells
    picked up the DNA

21
13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering
  • Transgenic Organisms
  • Organisms that contain genes from other species
  • Firefly and tobacco plant
  • Genetic engineering has increased the growth of
    biotechnology

22
13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering
  • Transgenic microorganisms
  • Bacteria reproduce quickly
  • Uses
  • Can grow human proteins
  • Insulin, growth hormone, and clotting factor

23
13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering
  • Transgenic Animals
  • Mimic human body for testing
  • Faster growing animals
  • No more food poisoning
  • Grow human proteins

24
13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering
25
13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering
  • Transgenic Plants
  • Natural insecticide
  • Resist weed killing chemicals
  • Food resistant to spoiling
  • Weather resistant plants
  • Grow vitamins or proteins

26
13-4 Applications of Genetic Engineering
  • Cloning
  • Clone - A member of a population of genetically
    identical cells produced from a single cell
  • Dolly The cloned sheep from 1997
  • Save endangered species
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