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Adult Development

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Adult Development Vocational Choice Fall, 2008 WED 466 Unit 4 * * Holland s personality job-fit model is based on the notion of fit between an individual s ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Adult Development


1
Adult Development
  • Vocational Choice

2
General Objective
  • Understands the psychological foundations of
    workforce education.

3
Career Development
  • is a lifelong process involving psychological,
    sociological, economic, and cultural factors that
    influence individuals selection of, adjustment
    to, and advancement in the occupations that
    collectively make up their careers.

4
Good vs. Bad Theories
  • Good theories have well-defined terms and easily
    interpreted constructs.
  • Good theories explain the career development
    process for all groups.
  • Good theories explain why people choose careers
    and become dissatisfied with them.
  • Good theories are parsimonious.

5
Early Theories
  • Have limited applicability to special groups
    women, European men and women.
  • Are culturally oppressive because they are rooted
    in Eurocentric beliefs
  • Reflect independent, not dependent career
    decision making.

6
Theories with Major Impact on Research and
Practice
  • Holland (1997)
  • Super (1990)
  • Lofquist Dawis (1996, 1991)
  • Lent, Brown, Hackett (1995, 1996, 2002)
  • Gottfredson (1981, 1996)

7
The Western European worldview is that people
should act independently when they make career
decisions Many Native Americans, Asian
Americans, and Hispanics believe that the welfare
of the group should be placed ahead of the
concerns of individuals.
8
Career Choice and Development Categories
  • Trait and Factor Theories
  • Developmental Theories
  • Theories Based in Learning Theory
  • Socioeconomic Theories

9
Philosophical Assumptions
  • Positivist (modernist)
  • Trait-and-factor theories
  • Developmental theories
  • Theories rooted in learning theory
  • Post Modern (phenomenological/ constructivist)

10
Trait-and-Factor Theories
  • Hollands Theory of Vocational Choice
  • Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)
  • Browns Value-Based Theory

11
Hollands Theory of Vocational Choice
  • Individual personality is the primary factor in
    vocational choice.
  • Interest inventories are personality inventories.
  • Daydreams about occupations are precursors to
    occupational choice.
  • Identify is related to a small number of focused
    vocational goals.
  • Career success and satisfaction is related to
    choosing an occupation that is congruent with
    ones personality.

12
Hollands Six Personality Types
  • Realistic
  • Investigative
  • Artistic
  • Social
  • Enterprising
  • Conventional

13
Hollands Personality-Job Fit Theory
Type
Personality
Occupations
Realistic
Shy, Stable, Practical
Mechanic, Farmer, Assembly-Line Worker
Investigative
Analytical, Independent
Biologist, Economist, Mathematician
Social
Sociable, Cooperative
Social Worker, Teacher, Counselor
Conventional
Practical, Efficient
Accountant, Manager Bank Teller
Enterprising
Ambitious, Energetic
Lawyer, Salesperson
Artistic
Imaginative, Idealistic
Painter, Writer, Musician
14
Hollands Six Work Environments
  • Realistic Environment
  • Investigative Environment
  • Artistic Environment
  • Social Environment
  • Enterprising Environment
  • Conventional Environment

15
Occupational Personality Types
Realistic
Investigative
I
R
Conventional
A
C
Artistic
S
E
Social
Enterprising
16
Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)
  • People have two types of needs.
  • Biological (survival)
  • Psychological (social acceptance)
  • These needs give rise to drive states.
  • Work environments have requirements that are
    analogous to individual needs.
  • Workers select jobs because of the perception
    that the job will satisfy their needs.

17
Predicting Worker Success
  • (i.e., worker adjustment)
  • Skills
  • Job-related skills
  • Aptitudes
  • Potential to develop job-related skills
  • Personality
  • Combination of skills and aptitudes

18
Values-Based Theory of Occupational Choice
  • Values
  • Human nature
  • Person-nature relationship
  • Time orientation
  • Activity
  • Self-control
  • Social relationships
  • Collateral
  • allocentrism

19
How Values Develop
  • Enculturation is the process by which individuals
    incorporate the beliefs and values of their
    cultural group and form a values system
  • Most individuals are monocultural
  • Acculturation involves the enculturation of
    beliefs from a culture different from ones own.

20
Propositions of Browns Values-Based Theory
  • Highly prioritized work values are the most
    important determinant of career choice from
    people who value individualism.
  • Individuals who hold collective social values and
    come from families who hold the same values defer
    to the wishes of the family in occupational
    decision-making.

21
Propositions of Browns Values-Based Theory
(continued)
  1. When taken individually, cultural values
    regarding activity do not constrain the
    occupational decision-making process.
  2. Males, females, and people from differing
    cultural groups enter occupations at varying
    rates.
  3. The process of choosing an occupation value
    involves a series of estimates.

22
Propositions of Browns Values-Based Theory
(continued)
  1. Occupational success is related to job-related
    skills acquired in formal and informal
    educational settings, job-related aptitudes and
    skills, SES, preparation in the work role, and
    the extent to which discrimination is
    experienced.
  2. Occupational tenure os partially the result of
    the match between the cultural and work values of
    worker, supervisors, and colleagues.

23
Developmental Theories
  • Supers Life Span, Life Space Theory
  • Gottfredsons Theory of Circumscription and
    Compromise

24
Supers Life-Span, Life-Space Theory
  • People differ in their abilities, personalities,
    needs, values, interests, traits, and
    self-concepts.
  • People are qualified, by virtue of these
    characteristics, each for a number of
    occupations.
  • Each occupation requires a characteristic pattern
    of abilities and personality traits.

25
Supers Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (continued)
  • Vocational preferences and competencies change
    with time and experience.
  • The process of change is a series of life stages.
  • Growth Stage
  • Exploratory Stage
  • Establishment Stage
  • Maintenance Stage
  • Decline Stage

26
Supers Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (continued)
  • The nature of the career pattern is determined by
    the individuals parental socioeconomic level,
    mental ability, education, skills, personality
    characteristics, career maturity, and the
    opportunity to which he/she is exposed.
  • Success in coping with environmental demands
    depends on the readiness of the individual to
    cope (career maturity).
  • Career maturity is a hypothetical construct.

27
Supers Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (continued)
  • Life stage development can be guided partly by
    the maturing of abilities and interests and
    partly by aiding in reality testing and in the
    development of self concepts.
  • The process of career development is developing
    and implementing occupational self-concepts.
  • Several factors influence the process of
    synthesis of or compromise between individual and
    social factors.

28
Supers Life-Span, Life-Space Theory (continued)
  • Work satisfaction and life satisfactions depend
    on the extent to which the individuals find
    adequate outlets for abilities, needs, values,
    interests, personality traits, and self-concepts.
  • The degree of satisfaction people attain from
    work is proportional to the degree to which they
    have been able to implement self-concepts.
  • Work and occupation provide a focus for
    personality organization.

29
Gottfredsons Theory of Circumscription and
Compromise
  • Four assumptions regarding how career aspirations
    develop
  • Begin in childhood
  • Are attempts to implement ones self-concept
  • Depend on the degree to which the career is
    congruent with self-perceptions
  • Are guided by occupational stereotypes

30
Cognitive Maps of Occupations
  • Are organized along the dimensions of
  • Masculinity/femininity of the occupation
  • Fields of work

31
Gottfredsons Developmental Stages
  • Ages 3-5 Orientation to size and power
  • Ages 6-8 Orientation to sex roles
  • Ages 9-13 Orientation to social valuation
  • Ages 14 Choices explored

32
Summary
  • Theories of career choice and development provide
    guides to this complex phenomenon.
  • All theories (except Browns) are predicated on
    the belief that the individual holds an
    independence social value and will chose his/her
    own occupation.
  • Indiscriminate application of a theory is
    inappropriate and unethical.
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