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The Hysterical Self: Psychology in the Clinic

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... (1883-1886) at Vienna General ... Stages of the Hysterical Attack AUGUSTINE Beginning of the Attack Tonic Rigidity Stage 1 Contracture ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Hysterical Self: Psychology in the Clinic


1
The Hysterical Self Psychology in the Clinic
2
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3
Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893)
Clinico-Anatomic Method
Inscribed to Freud, on the day Freud left the
Salpêtrière
4
Charcot (profile, far left) at theatrical
reading, with writers Emile Zola and Edmond de
Goncourt
5
Photographic Iconography of theSalpêtrière
(1876-77)
6
Charcots Four Stages of Grand Hysteria
  • Tonic rigidity limb contractures that mimicked a
    typical epileptic fit.
  • Dramatic body movements contortions, illogical
    movements clownism.
  • 3. Passionate Attitudes expressions of vivid
    emotional states.
  • 4. State of delirium

7
Stages of the Hysterical Attack
8
AUGUSTINE
9
Beginning of the Attack
10
Tonic RigidityStage 1
11
Contracture of the Face Stage 1
12
Stage 2Clownisms, Illogical Movements Circular
Arch
13
Passionate Attitudes Stage 3 Menace
14
Passionate Attitudes Stage 3 Menace
15
Passionate Attitudes Stage 3 Aural
Hallucinations
16
Passionate Attitudes Loving Supplication
17
Passionate Attitudes Ecstasy
18
Passionate Attitudes Crucifixion
19
Metalloscopy Use of Magnets to shift areas of
anaesthesia
Zones of Hysterical Anesthesia
20
Artificial Contracture
21
Catalepsy produced by sound
22
Charcot and Blanche Wittman
23
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A Case of Traumatic Male Hysteria
25
Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919)
Suggestive Therapeutics (1886) head of the
Nancy School
26
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27
Pierre Janet (1859-1947)
Dissociation Traumatic event and accompanying
memories split off from consciousness Imperative
Suggestion suggestion that these memories
didnt exist
28
Janets Somnabulisms
  • Monoideicdominated by one idea, usually a
    transient episode.
  • Polyideic--complex states or ideas called fugue
    states, could involve a loss of identity for
    extended period.
  • Recriprocal or Dominating Somnabulism (double
    personalities)relatively permanent transition
    into another state
  • memory impaired across these states

29
Reciprocal Somnambulism Lady MacNish/Mary Reynolds
30
Alfred Binet (1857-1911)
On Double Consciousness (1890) Alterations of
the Personality (1896)
31
Examples of Automatic Writing with an anesthetic
hand Binet (1890 and 1896)
32
Insensible Armhearing a Metronome Sensible
arm Insensible arm while subject counted to
five Sensible Arm Subject held
dynamometer, connected to a recording
cylinder. Binet (1896, p. 201)
33
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
it still strikes me as strange that the case
histories I write should read like short stories
and that, one might say, they lack the serious
stamp of science.
Studies on Hysteria
34
Freuds Neuropathological Training
  • At the Institute of physiology in Vienna, headed
    by Ernst Brücke (1876)
  • In the neuro-anatomical laboratory of Theodor
    Meynert (1883-1886)
  • at Vienna General Hospital

35
Freuds 1877 publication on the function of the
large Reissner cells in the spinal cord of
primitive fish Petromyzon, assigned to him by
Professor Ernst Brücke.
36
Freuds unpublished
manuscript for a scientific psychology of
1895
37
Berggasse 19, Vienna (May 1938)
38
Joseph Breuer (1842-1925)
STUDIES ON HYSTERIA 1895 Breuer and Freud
39
Anna O./ Bertha Pappenheim (1859-1936)
TALKING CURE or CHIMNEY SWEEPING hysteric
s suffer mainly from reminiscences Studies in
Hysteria
40
Cathartic Method or Abreaction
  • An original response to a traumatic event is
    suppressed, and the affect or emotion is not
    expressed
  • The original affect then expresses itself in
    bodily symptoms, a process called hysterical
    conversion
  • Cure consists of verbally reviewing the event,
    and releasing the original affect.

41
Janet vs. Freud
  • Dissociation, Splitting vs. Repression
  • Mental Weakness of Patients vs. Active Forgetting
  • Degeneracy (Hereditary weakness) for synthesis of
    psyche vs. psychic conflict, competing wishes, or
    opposing forces.
  • Experimental Psychology vs. Therapeutics
  • Hypnosis vs. Insistence on Remembering
  • Inability to remember vs. Resistance to remember
  • Innate Incapacity vs. Dynamic conflic

42
Carl Jung (1875-1961)
Psychological Complex Uncovered with the use
of association tests with patients
Collaborated with Freud 1906-1912
43
Freuds couch for use offree association
technique
44
Freud and his Couch
45
  • Active Repression patient was motivated to
    actively repress traumatic information from
    consciousness.
  • Content of repressed material was often sexual.
  • Freuds formulated the Seduction Theory in
    1890s and rejected it in 1897.

46
Controversial 1980s Historiography on Freud
47
Freuds Structural Model of the Mind, 1923
  • ID locus of fantasies, desire, unconscious
  • EGO emerged from Id, but had adapted to society
  • EGO-IDEAL (Super-ego) source of repression,
    moral conscience

48
  • In 1900 Freud published Traumdeutung, or
    Interpretation of Dreams
  • Manifest Content of Dreamits story-line, a
    conscious process
  • DREAM CENSORlets some information out,
    represses, disguises other information
  • Latent Content of Dreamdream thoughts,
    unconscious, often unacceptable wishes

49
Traumdeutung, Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
  • Condensation dream concentrates or compresses a
    number of different ideas into one a composite
    picture.
  • Displacement transformation of dream thoughts
    into more acceptable thoughts in order to conceal
    unconscious meaning.
  • Representation all material gathered into a
    single situation in the dream.
  • Symbolization a certain set of symbols exist in
    unconscious, and become part of the dream.

50
International Psychoanalytic Congress, Weimar 1911
51
Freuds Secret Committee (1922)
52
  • Hotel Log Hints at Illicit Desire That Dr.
    Freud Didnt Repress

Sigmund Freud with his wife, Martha Bernays
Freud, center, and her sister, Minna Bernays,
left, in 1929. from New York Times December 24,
2006
53
Freud, Hall, Jung
54
Morton Prince James Jackson Putnam Boston
School of Psychotherapy
55
Freuds Visit to Clark University, 1909
56
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58
1945
59
Alfred Hitchcock and Salvador Dali Spellbound
60
Our story deals with psychoanalysis, the method
by which modern science treats the emotional
problems of the sane. The analyst seeks only to
induce the patient to talk about his hidden
problems, to open the locked doors of his mind.
Once the complexes that have been disturbing the
patient are uncovered and interpreted, the
illness and confusion disappear ... and the
evils of unreason are driven from the human
soul. Spellbound, 1945
61
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