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General Psychology (PY110)

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General Psychology (PY110) Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Psychologists attempt to understand 1. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: General Psychology (PY110)


1
General Psychology (PY110)
  • Chapter 1
  • The Science of Psychology

2
Psychology
  • The scientific study of behavior and mental
    processes
  • Psychologists attempt to understand
  • 1. Observable Behavior (Overt) Actions or
    reactions such as speech and physical movement
  • 2. Mental Processes (Covert) Actions or
    reactions such as remembering and thinking, which
    cannot be directly observed

3
Four Perspectives
Biological
Behavioral
Cognitive
Socio-cultural
The four perspectives fit together like the
pieces of a jigsaw No one perspective is
better than another Each provides information
on behavior and mental processes
4
Perspectives Emphasizing Internal (Covert) Factors
  • Biological perspective
  • Concerned with our physiological hardware
  • The brain, nervous system, and glands
  • Cognitive perspective
  • Emphasizes our mental processes
  • Perception, memory, and problem solving

5
Perspectives Emphasizing External (Overt) Factors
  • Behavioral perspective
  • Explains that we behave as we do because of our
    past history of conditioning
  • Sociocultural perspective
  • Focuses on the impact of other people and cultures

6
Behavioral Perspective
  • Two types of conditioning

ClassicalConditioning
OperantConditioning
How we learn fear and emotional responses, taste
aversions, and certain other behaviors
Involves the relationship between our behavior
and its environmental consequences
7
Four Goals of Psychology
1
What
Why
2
Anticipate
3
Change or Modify
4
8
Major Research Perspectivesin Psychology
9
Research Methods
  • Observation
  • Naturalistic Observation
  • Participant Observation
  • Case Study
  • Survey
  • Experimental

10
Descriptive MethodsObservational Techniques
  • The researcher directly observes the behavior of
    interest
  • Naturalistic observation The observation occurs
    in its natural setting, without the researcher
    intervening.
  • Participant observation The observer becomes
    part of the group being observed.

11
Descriptive MethodsCase Studies
  • The researcher studies an individual in depth
    over an extended period of time to attempt to
    learn as much as possible about the individual
    being studied
  • Scope is Low, but Detail is High
  • Often used in clinical settings to gather
    information that will help in the treatment of
    the patient
  • Results of case studies cannot be generalized to
    other people

12
Descriptive MethodsSurvey Research
  • Uses questionnaires and interviews to collect
    information about the behavior, beliefs, and
    attitudes of particular groups of people
  • Scope is High, but Detail is Low
  • It is critical to note that the wording, order,
    and structure of the survey questions may lead
    the participants to biased answers
  • For instance, some questions might evoke
    socially-desirable responses in an effort to make
    certain impressions on the researchers
  • A representative (sample) of the total population
    must be selected at random to avoid biased
    results and allow results to be generalized
    across whole population

13
Experimental Research
  • Experimental Research is observations under
    controlled conditions
  • This control allows the researcher to isolate
    cause-and-effect relationships from the
    experimental results

14
Experimental Research
  • Experimental research seeks to establish cause
    and effect relationships between two variables.

Independent Variable (IV)
Dependent Variable (DV)
15
Designing an Experiment (Change)
  • When a researcher designs an experiment, the
    researcher begins with a hypothesis about the
    cause-and-effect relationship between two
    variables
  • One of the variables is assumed to be the cause,
    and the other variable is the one to be affected
  • The independent variable is the hypothesized
    cause, and the experimenter manipulates it
  • The dependent variable is the variable that is
    hypothesized to be affect by the independent
    variable and thus is measured by the
    experimenter

16
Designing an Experiment
Problem
1
State Problem
Hypothesis
2
Suggest Cause Effect Relationship
Experimental Design
Select Random Sample
Divide Sample in two groups
3
Experimental Group
Control Group
Manipulate with IV
Give Placebo or do nothing
Collect, Analyze, Interpret Data
Record Data
Record Data
4
Analyze Statistically
Results
5
Was Hypothesis Correct?
17
The Placebo
  • A placebo is a harmless pill that has no active
    ingredients
  • They are used to make the control group believe
    they are receiving the same treatment as the
    experimental group
  • The placebo effect is improvement due to the
    expectation of improving because of receiving
    treatment

18
The Double-Blind Procedure
  • A control measure in which neither the
    experimenter nor the participants know which
    participants actually got the treatment
    (experimental group) and or got the placebo
    (control group)
  • If the experimenter OR the participant does not
    know which group they are in, the experiment is
    called single-blind

19
Summary of Research Methods
20
Data Analysis - Averages
  • Designed to summarize a set of data with a single
    number
  • Three measures of central tendency
  • 1. The mean is the numerical average for a
    distribution of score
  • 2. The median is the score that is positioned in
    the middle of the distribution of scores when
    scores are listed from lowest to highest
  • If there is an odd number of scores, the median
    is the middle score
  • If there is an even number of scores, the median
    is the average of the two center scores
  • 3. The mode is the most frequently-occurring
    score in a distribution of scores
  • If two scores occur with equal frequency, both
    can be the mode

21
Data Analysis - Variation
  • Provides an idea of how scattered a set of
    results are
  • Two measures of variability
  • 1. The range is the difference between the
    highest and lowest scores in a distribution of
    scores
  • Like the mean, the range can be greatly distorted
    by extremely high or extremely low scores
  • 2. The standard deviation is the average extent
    to which the scores vary from the mean of the
    distribution
  • A small standard deviation means that scores do
    not vary very much from the mean
  • A larger standard deviation means that scores
    tend to vary greatly from the mean

22
Summary of Descriptive Statistics
23
The Normal Distribution
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