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The Post World War Two World


The Post World War Two World Lovingly presented by Mr. Mosqueda (and of course, Mrs. Drake) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Post World War Two World

The Post World War Two World
  • Lovingly presented by
  • Mr. Mosqueda (and of course, Mrs. Drake)

The Costs of WWII
  • 50-70 million dead worldwide 400,000 American
  • An estimated 1 trillion dollars financial
    cost of WWII (341 billion spent by U.S.)
  • The Soviet Union (Russia its satellite nations)
    suffered the greatest losses (20 million
    deaths) was united by Joseph Stalin under a
    communist regime.
  • Much of Europe and Japan lay in ruins and
    required rebuilding.
  • 5 billion cubic yards of rubble lay in Germany
  • Britain, France, Germany, and Japan were no
    longer great military powers.
  • United States and Soviet Union (two nations with
    most success in defeating Hitler) become two
    competing world powers
  • Democracy vs. Communism the Cold War begins

Potsdam Conference (1945)
  • Prior to the end of WWII, President Truman met
    with Joseph Stalin (USSR) and other world leaders
    to discuss what to do with a defeated Germany.
  • Truman was afraid of Communism spreading across
    Europe under Stalins influence and did not want
    a repeat of the anger caused by strictly
    punishing Germany for war damages as was done
    after WWI.
  • Joseph Stalin wanted revenge on Germany and
    demanded severe reparations (U.S.S.R. had lost
    the most in the war).
  • At the conference, it was decided however, that
    the German economy must recover after the war or
    else total devastation would fall across Europe.

Potsdam Conference (1945)
  • Truman offered Stalin a deal where he could get
    some reparations from the German government, but
    he would have to donate food and supplies to the
    German people.
  • Also, Truman learned of the successful test of
    the atomic bomb (Trinity Test) during this
    conference and told Stalin about it.
  • Hearing the news that the U.S. had an atomic
    bomb, Stalin felt bullied into accepting the
  • Created tension between USA and USSR roots of
    the Cold War
  • Germany was divided into four temporary zones of
    occupation administered by the United States,
    USSR, Britain, and France until Germany was
    rebuilt (5 years).

Berlin Crisis/ Rebuilding of Germany
  • Truman believed that if Germany was restored, the
    rest of Europe would be OK.
  • By 1948, US realized that USSR was trying to
    sabotage the Marshall Plan in Germany.
  • 1/3rd of Germany (East) was under Soviet control,
    the rest (West) was free.
  • Germany separated into 2 countries when USSR cut
    off all ties to West Germany.
  • Truman sent supplies to Berlin, Germany in an
    event called the Berlin Airlift.
  • 80 tons of food carried into Berlin over 11
    months sustained 2.5 million residents
  • One of the greatest aviation feats in history

United Nations
  • Replaced the League of Nations, which failed
    after WWI because the United States did not join.
  • Purpose bring all nations of the world together
    to work for peace and development, based on the
    principles of justice, human dignity and the
    well-being of all people.
  • The United Nations came into existence on Oct.
    24, 1945, with 51 member countries and its
    headquarters in New York City.
  • Since 2007, the UN has been made up of 192
    countries who all agree to abide by its rules and
    support its goals.

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The Marshall Plan
  • Europe was facing major economic problems.
  • Plan named for U.S. Secretary of State George
  • Plan to rebuild Europe (1947)
  • Restore a working economy and fight against
    hunger and poverty
  • U.S. contributed 13 billion in aide.
  • Only countries who were not communist could apply
    to receive money under the Marshall Plan.

Rebuilding of Japan
  • U.S. bombing raids had devastated most Japanese
  • Hiroshima and Nagasaki lay in ruins with
    long-lasting effects of the atomic bombings.
  • All major cities (except Kyoto) in Japan were
    devastated with food shortages which would last
    for years.
  • The United States temporarily occupied Japan
    until 1952 to oversee recovery efforts and the
    writing of a new Japanese constitution.
  • Japanese Emperor Hirohito lost all political and
    military power made a mere symbol of the country
  • Right to vote given to all Japanese citizens
  • Human rights guaranteed
  • No army or warfare allowed
  • War crimes trials held with hundreds executed for
    war crimes

Nuremberg Trials
  • An International Military Tribunal was set up by
    the U.S., USSR, Britain, and France to try former
    Nazis for war crimes committed during the war.
  • 24 Nazis were accused and tried for such things
    as crimes against peace, waging aggressive
    warfare, and war crimes. All but 2 were
    convicted and sentenced to death or life
  • Nuremberg Trials were the first of many trials
    against high-level Nazi officials. Trials would
    continue into the 1960s and 70s.
  • These trials established the fact that, even in
    war, murder, rape, and unnecessary force are
  • Many Nazis escaped Europe and are hiding to this
  • The United States also allowed top Nazi
    scientists to enter the country to use their
    expertise to develop the space program.

Creation of Israel
  • In 1948, the U.N. recommended a new state
    (country) to be created near Palestine in Israel
    as a Jewish homeland.
  • Israel was occupied by the British at the time
  • Arab lands taken when new boundaries were drawn
  • Arab countries did not allow/accept the creation
    of the new nation and promised war.
  • State of Israel declared May 14, 1948
  • David Ben-Gurion becomes Prime Minister
  • USA (Truman) immediately recognized Israels
    independence as a new nation.
  • US remains a strong supporter of Israel today,
    angering many Islamic nations (root of modern

Creation of Israel UN Plan
  • Israel to be divided between Arabs (Muslims) and
    Israeli Jews according to map at left with the
    holy city of Jerusalem being administered by a
    neutral international commission.
  • In spite of plan, the territories are disputed by
    both Arabs and Jews.
  • 1967 In the Six Day War, Israel seized the West
    Bank and Gaza Strip from Palestinians, causing
    ongoing violence between the groups. These
    regions were occupied by Israel until 2005 when
    Israel gave up the Gaza Strip and the northern
    part of the West Bank to Palestians.

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NATO and the Warsaw Pact
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed
    by treaty on April 4, 1949
  • Alliance formed between the U.S., Belgium,
    Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy,
    Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal,
    The UK, and Greece.
  • Designed to prevent possible attacks by Communist
  • Members agree to defend one another if attacked.
  • Warsaw Pact formed in response to NATO by eight
    Communist nations Albania, Bulgaria,
    Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland,
    Romania, and the USSR.
  • Member nations agreed to defend each other if
  • In 1956, however, the USSR took military action
    against Hungary, one of its own member nations,
    killing thousands.
  • The break up of the Soviet Union (USSR) and the
    fall of the Berlin Wall in 1991, greatly weakened
    the Pact.

NATO/Warsaw Pact
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • If one country is attacked, then the rest would
    provide assistance
  • West Germany allowed to join
  • Communist Countries (Eastern Europe) signed the
    Warsaw Pact

Todays Secret Word
  • Communism
  • A system of government where all citizens
    contribute equally to society and have equal
    ownership in everything produced.
  • Eventually capitalism would be destroyed and
    turn into communism
  • Karl Marx ?

Least Fair ? Fair ? Most Fair
Communism Idealistic self-government where people
contribute equally for the good of the entire
country (never happened)
Capitalism free county where people own
Businesses to make money American Dream (USA
since 1787)
Socialism The government controls everything To
ensure everything is fair and equal (communist
Countries during Cold War)
Workers of the world, unite! You have nothing to
lose but your chains!
The Iron Curtain
From the Baltic Sea to the Adriatic Sea, an iron
curtain has descended across Europe. Behind that
line all the capitals of Central EuropeAll are
subject to Soviet influence and are controlled by
  • The presence of the Soviet Army in Eastern Europe
    ensured pro-communist governments would be
  • Satellite Nations
  • Followed policies of USSR (Soviet Union)
  • Separated communist nations in East from the
    capitalistic nations in West
  • Tension with USA and Western Europe
  • Japan is allied with USA

Asian Conflicts
  • 1949 Communists win the Chinese Civil War
  • Mao Zedong (Chairman of the Communist Party)
    becomes leader of China
  • Chang Kai-shek flees to Taiwan
  • American fear of communism grows

Truman Doctrine
  • The USA started a policy of containment
  • Prevent communism from spreading across the globe
  • Stalin and communists leaders try and push
    communism across the middle east
  • President Truman made a speech
  • USA will not allow communism to spread any
    further, will attack if necessary
  • Socialistic countries attack free countries,
    destroying peace (disease)
  • Truman Doctrine

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The Cold War
  • Rivalry between USA (Western Europe) and Soviet
    Union (Eastern Europe)
  • Both sides began developing weapons (arms race)
  • No actual fighting actually took place
  • People scared that attack was imminent
  • Lasted from 1945-1990
  • Built bomb shelters in back yards Video Clips
  • Do It Yourself Fallout Shelter
  • Happy Days

  • High school students plan for impending attack

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Duck and Cover! (Video)(http//
US/USSR/Russian Nuclear Weapon Stockpile
Changed in 2007 due to North Koreas recent
nuclear tests, Irans nuclear ambitions and the
more than 26,000 weapons owned by USA and Russia
Countries with Nuclear Weapons
  • United States (NPT) 1945 (9,938)
  • Russia (NPT) 1949 (16,000)
  • England (NPT) 1952 (200)
  • France (NPT) 1960 (350)
  • China (NPT) 1964 (200)
  • India 1974 (70-120)
  • Israel (undeclared) (75-200)
  • Pakistan 1998 (30-80)
  • North Korea (withdrew from NPT) 2006 (1-10)
  • South Africa (disassembled)
  • Iran (in development)
  • Belgium, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Turkey,
    Canada, Greece (share weapons, borrowed from USA)

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The Korean War
  • At the end of WWII, the USA sent troops to disarm
    the Japanese troops stationed there
  • Pushed troops to the 38th Parallel
  • North Communist (Soviet)
  • South Nationalists (USA)
  • Two governments organized, each wanted power of
    the whole country
  • June 25, 1950 North Korea invades South Korea
  • Video Clip Truman justifies invasion and asks
    for war powers

38th Parallel
  • Divided N and S Korea
  • Line of demarcation most heavily armed border in
    the world

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Korean DMZ
155 Miles long, 2.5 Miles Wide
From the South
From the North
Soldiers from both sides patrol the area and
occasional violence happens
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End of Korean War
  • Eisenhower fulfills his promise to visit Korea
  • Considers using nuclear weapons to end the war,
    finds that they would not be effective
  • UN signs an armistice to end fighting.
  • 38th Parallel remains most heavily fortified
    border in the world

Kim Jong il
Tallest flagpole in the world (525 ft)
Korean War
  • President Truman calls on the UN to act
  • With UN approval, Truman sends Douglas MacArthur
    to Korea, pushes troops back to 38th Parallel to
    Chinese border
  • China enters the war, fighting with the
    communists, sending US/UN troops back across the
    38th Parallel
  • MacArthur angry, wants to block Chinas ports and
    drop the Atomic Bomb
  • Truman fires MacArthur (Video Clip)
  • Keep peace, show who is Commander-in-Chief
  • Truman MacArthur a Prima Donna

MacArthurs Farewell Address
  • I have just left your sons fighting in Korea
  • Old soldiers never die they just fade away."
    "And like the old soldier of that ballad, I now
    close my military career and just fade away an
    old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave
    him the light to see that duty. Good-bye."

Korean War
  • War continued through July, 1953
  • More than 33,600 US solders died (battles)
  • More than 20,600 died from accidents and disease
  • Police Action
  • Expanded Cold War to Asia
  • Japan, South Korea, Taiwan Philippines, Australia
  • China, Vietnam (Communist)

Affluent Society
  • After the war, the economy grew quickly
  • Income tripled
  • GI Bill ? College and for soldiers returning
    from the war
  • Consumerism
  • Spend money on luxury items
  • Refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, coffee makers.
    Blenders, etc

The Baby Boom
  • Baby Boomwhen men came home from the war, they
    started having babies
  • One child born every seven seconds

  • Families began moving to the suburbs
  • Idealistic lifestyle
  • Mass-produced homes
  • Phoenix began growing
  • Leave it to Beaver
  • Happy Days

Gender Roles
  • Women started staying home with kids
  • Reversed progress
  • Happy Housewife
  • Women encouraged to learn how to cook, clean and
    look beautiful for their husbands
  • Video clip Lifestyles

Gender Roles
  • Lets face it, that wonderful man in your house
    is providing you with many opportunities for you
    and your childrenall young married women should
    set their sights on a happy home, a host of happy
    friends and a bright future by helping minimize
    your husbands stress and supportive of his job.

New Technology
  • Televisions became affordable
  • 80 of homes had a TV
  • Variety shows, Kids/Family Shows and Westerns
    were popular
  • Video Clip Technology

  • Rock and Roll
  • Elvis Presley, Bill Haley Rock Around the Clock
    is considered the first Rock and Roll Song
  • RB
  • Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Fats Domino
  • Video Clip Entertainment

Elvis gets drafted
  • 1957 Elvis Presley gets drafted into the US Army
    and serves 2 years

Juvenile Delinquents/Bad Guys
  • Cool to be bad/rebellious
  • James Dean
  • The Fonz
  • Teenagers seek their identity and independence

The Red Menace
  • Beginning in the 1940s, Truman was accused of
    harboring spies in the highest level of
  • Thousands of people were fired
  • Alger Hiss
  • Denied being a communist, sent to prison for
    perjury (5 yrs)
  • Controversy guilty or not?
  • Stationary salesman,
  • Died in 1996

Joseph McCarthy
  • Republican Senator from Wisconsin
  • Made a list of people whom he accused of being
    communist spies
  • Celebrities, reporters, etc
  • Became a national figure
  • Explosive allegations became national headlines
  • Played into peoples fears
  • USSR nuclear technology
  • Fall of China
  • Feud with Edward R. Murrow
  • Movie Clip Good Night and Good Luck
  • http//

  • Reckless and unsubstantiated method of seek and
    destroy at all costs
  • Intense paranoia against communism and personal
  • Video Clips
  • McCarthyism
  • Have You No Sense of Decency?

  • House Un-American Activities Committee
  • Investigative committee in the House of
  • Investigate suspicious behavior
  • Investigated Hollywood Celebrities
  • Hollywood 10 Blacklist

Hollywood Blacklist
  • Movie stars were blacklisted based on political
    beliefs and associations
  • Accused of being communists after refusing to
    assist HUAC investigations
  • "Are you now or have you ever been a member of
    the communist party?"
  • Many had a difficult time finding work afterwards
  • Some gave names to the committee to take pressure
    off themselves

Larry Adler, actor and musician Luther Adler,
actor and director Stella Adler, actress and
teacher Edith Atwater, actress Howard Bay,
scenic designer Ralph Bell, actor Leonard
Bernstein, composer and conductor Walter
Bernstein, screenwriter Michael Blankfort,
screenwriter Marc Blitzstein, composer True
Boardman, screenwriter Millen Brand, writer
Oscar Brand, folk singer Joseph Edward
Bromberg, actor Himan Brown, producer and
director John Brown, actor Abe Burrows,
playwright and lyricist Morris Carnovsky, actor
Vera Caspary, writer Edward Chodorov,
screenwriter and producer Jerome Chodorov,
writer Mady Christians, actress Lee J. Cobb,
actor Marc Connelly, playwright Aaron Copland,
composer Norman Corwin, writer Alan Lomax,
folklorist and musicologist Avon Long, actor and
singer Joseph Losey, director Peter Lyon,
television writer Aline MacMahon, actress Paul
Mann, director and teacher Waldo Salt,
screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003 208) Bill
Scott, voice actor (Cohen 2004 178) Art Smith,
actor (Schwartz 1999) Lionel Stander, actor
Howard Da Silva, actor Roger De Koven, actor
Dean Dixon, conductor Olin Downes, music critic
Alfred Drake, actor Paul Draper, actor and
dancer Howard Duff, actor Clifford J. Durr,
attorney Richard Dyer-Bennett, folk singer José
Ferrer, actor Louise Fitch (Lewis), actress
Martin Gabel, actor Arthur Gaeth, radio
commentator William S. Gailmor, journalist and
radio commentator John Garfield, actor Will
Geer, actor Jack Gilford, actor Tom Glazer,
folk singer Ruth Gordon, actress and
screenwriter Lloyd Gough, actor Morton Gould,
pianist and composer Shirley Graham, writer Ben
Grauer, radio and TV personality Mitchell
Grayson, radio producer and director Horace
Grenell, conductor and music producer Uta Hagen,
actress and teacher Dashiell Hammett, writer E.
Y. "Yip" Harburg, composer Robert P. Heller,
television journalist Lillian Hellman,
playwright and screenwriter Nat Hiken, writer
and producer Michael Wilson, screenwriter
Rose Hobart, actress Judy Holliday, actress
Roderick B. Holmgren, journalist Lena Horne,
singer and actress Langston Hughes, writer
Marsha Hunt, actress Leo Hurwitz, director
Charles Irving, actor Burl Ives, folk singer
and actor Sam Jaffe, actor Leon Janney, actor
Joseph Julian, actor Garson Kanin, writer and
director George Keane, actor Donna Keath Pert
Kelton, actress Alexander Kendrick Adelaide
Klein, actress Felix Knight, singer and actor
Howard Koch screenwriter Tony Kraber, actor
Millard Lampell, screenwriter John La Touche,
lyricist Arthur Laurents, writer Gypsy Rose
Lee, actress and ecdysiast Madeline Lee,
actress1 Ray Lev, classical pianist Philip
Loeb, actor Ella Logan, actress and singer
  • Margo, actress and dancer
  • Myron McCormick, actor
  • Paul McGrath, radio actor
  • Burgess Meredith, actor
  • Arthur Miller, playwright
  • Henry Morgan, radio and TV comedian
  • Zero Mostel, actor
  • Jean Muir, actress
  • Meg Mundy, actress
  • Lynn Murray
  • Ben Myers
  • Dorothy Parker, writer
  • Arnold Perl, radio writer
  • Minerva Pious, actress
  • Samson Raphaelson, screenwriter and playwright
  • Bernard Reis
  • Anne Revere, actress
  • Kenneth Roberts, writer
  • Earl Robinson, composer and lyricist

Gale Sondergaard, actress Hester Sondergaard,
actress Lionel Stander, actor Johannes Steel,
journalist Paul Stewart, actor Elliott
Sullivan, actor William Sweets, radio
personality Helen Tamiris, choreographer Betty
Todd, director Louis Untermeyer, poet Hilda
Vaughn, actress J. Raymond Walsh, radio
commentator Sam Wanamaker, actor Theodore Ward,
playwright Fredi Washington, actress Margaret
Webster, actress, director and producer Orson
Welles, actor, writer and director Josh White,
blues musician Irene Wicker, singer and actress
Betty Winkler (Keane), actress Martin Wolfson,
actor Lesley Woods, actress Richard Yaffe,
journalis Phoebe Brand, actress (Schwartz 1999
Buhle and Wagner 2003 50) Charles Dagget,
animator (Cohen 2004 178) Phil Eastman, cartoon
writer (Cohen 2004 178) Carl Foreman, producer
and screenwriter (Buhle and Wagner 2003 xi)
Michael Gordon, director (Dick 1982 80) John
Hubley, animator (Cohen 2004 178) Lester
Koenig, producer (Herman 1997 356) Lewis
Leverett, actor (Schwartz 1999) John McGrew,
animator (Cohen 2004 178) Bill Melendez,
animator (Cohen 2004 178) Paula Miller, actress
(Schwartz 1999)
Review McCarthyism
  • Video clip (McCarthyism and Segregation)

I Like Ike
  • 1952 Presidential Election
  • General Dwight Eisenhower elected (Republican)
  • Campaigns against Korea, Communism and
  • Promises to personally visit Korea
  • First soldier since US Grant (Civil War) to be
    elected president

(No Transcript)
National Interstate and Defense Highways Act
  • Spend 25B to create 41,000 miles of highways
    across the United States in 10 years
  • Assists with transportation and defense
  • Even s E/W
  • Odd s N/S

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Earl Warren
  • President Eisenhower appointed Earl Warren to be
    chief justice
  • Wanted to run for president
  • Conservative/Republican governor of California

Brown v. Board of Education
  • Schools were segregated
  • The system of separate but equal in public
    schools is not adequate because of inferior
  • Oliver Brown was concerned about his daughters
    (Linda) school. Not only did it receive less
    funding, but there was a white school much
    closer to his house
  • Hired famous lawyer Thurgood Marshall of the
  • Challenged Jim Crow Laws (video clip)

  • Video Clip

Brown v. Board of Education
  • Unanimous decision
  • Segregation of students in public schools
    violates the Equal Protection Clause of the
    Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities
    are inherently unequal. District Court of Kansas
  • Ended Segregation
  • Thurgood Marshall eventually becomes the first
    African American on the Supreme Court

End of Segregation
  • Decision of the courts outlawed segregation in
    all public schools immediately

  • Not everyone was happy with the decision
  • Senator Henry Byrd (D-VA) organized a program to
    close schools, rather than desegregate
  • Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas
  • George Wallace (1963)
  • Eisenhower called Warren the biggest mistake of
    my presidency (too liberal)
  • Eisenhower enforces law

Little Rock Nine
  • Governor Orval Faubus (Arkansas) called the
    National Guard to stop nine African American
    students from entering Little Rock High School
  • Showdown with President Eisenhower who ordered
    the national guards to stand down
  • Sent additional troops to Arkansas for protection
  • Faubus shut down the schools for two years
    afterwards in retaliation
  • Video Clip BvB and Little Rock Nine

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Rosa Parks
  • One year after BvB, an African American woman
    named Rosa Parks was riding in a bus
  • Refused to give up her seat to a white man
  • People always say that I didn't give up my seat
    because I was tired, but that isn't true. I was
    not tired physically, or no more tired than I
    usually was at the end of a working day. I was
    not old, although some people have an image of me
    as being old then. I was forty-two. No, the only
    tired I was, was tired of giving in.

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Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • African Americans began boycotting the busses
  • Help from Martin Luther King
  • Successful protest, segregation on public
    transportation declared unconstitutional
  • Beginning of the Civil Rights Movement