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Title: Tissues


1
Tissues
  • Chapter 5

http//asweknowit.net/images_edu/dwa520tissues.jp
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2
4 Types of Tissues
  • All tissues can be classified into four major
    categories based on structure and function
  • Epithelial Covers and protect body surfaces,
    lines body cavities, moves substances in and out
    of blood (secretion, excretion absorption),
    form glands
  • Connective support, connection, transport,
    protection
  • Muscle moves the body its parts specialized
    for contractility
  • Nervous provides communication between body
    parts and coordinates body functions

3
Embryonic Development
  • Zygote becomes a blastocyst through mitotic
    division
  • Cells of the blastocyst regroup into primary germ
    layers
  • Endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm
  • Gastrulation
  • Histogenesis

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Epithelial Tissue
  • Subdivided into 2 types
  • Membranous
  • Covers the body some of its parts
  • Lines body cavities (pleural, pericardial,
    peritoneal), blood vessels, respiratory,
    digestive and genitourinary tracts
  • Glandular
  • Form the secretion units of the endocrine
    exocrine glands

6
Epithelial Tissue
  • Functions of epithelial tissues
  • Protection
  • Ex skin protects body from injury
    disease-causing micro-organisms
  • Sensory
  • Epithelial structures that specialize in sensory
    functions found in skin, nose, eye, ear
  • Secretion
  • Glandular epithelium secrete hormones, digestive
    juices sweat
  • Absorption
  • Ex gut absorbs nutrients exchange of
    respiratory gases
  • Excretion
  • Ex kidney tubules concentrate excrete urine
    and other waste products

7
Epithelial Tissue
  • Basement membrane
  • Thin, noncellular layer of adhesive
  • Connects epithelial tissue and underlying
    connective tissue
  • Avascular
  • without vascular
  • Epithelial cells do not have blood vessels
  • Oxygen nutrients diffuse from capillaries
    through connective tissue basement membrane to
    epithelial cells

8
Classification of Membranous Epithelial Tissue
  • Cell Shape
  • Squamous flat, plate-like
  • Cuboidal cube-shaped larger cytoplasm
  • Columnar narrow and cylinder-shaped
  • Pseudostratified single-layered all cells touch
    the basement membrane but may not extend to the
    top of the membrane
  • Layers of Cells
  • Simple single layer
  • Stratified cells are layered on top of one
    another
  • Transitional cell shape layers differ

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  • Founds in areas where diffusion or filtration are
    necessary
  • Examples of locations
  • Alveoli (air sacs)
  • Linings of blood lymphatic vessels
  • Surfaces of pleura, pericardium peritoneum

11
  • Examples of locations
  • Glands and their ducts

12
  • Examples of Locations
  • Mucous membranes such as stomach, intestine,
    uterus
  • Goblet cells (produce mucous) microvilli
    (increase surface area) are usually found on
    these cell types

13
  • Examples of locations
  • Respiratory tract, male urethra
  • Goblet cells cilia present

14
  • Examples of locations
  • Skin
  • Keratin (tough protein) provides (fig 5-8 not
    pictured)

15
  • Examples of locations
  • Areas subject to stress and tension changes
    (Urinary bladder)

16
Glandular Epithelium
  • Specialized for secretory activity
  • Unicellular glands
  • Single celled
  • Ex goblet cells
  • Multicellular glands
  • Function in clusters, solid cords or specialized
    follicles

17
Endocrine vs Exocrine
  • All glands are classified as endocrine or
    exocrine
  • Exocrine glands
  • Discharge/secrete into ducts
  • Ex salivary glands
  • Endocrine glands
  • ductless glands
  • Secrete hormones directly into blood or
    interstitial fluid
  • Ex pituitary and thyroid glands

18
Structural Classification of Exocrine Glands
  • (Table 5-2, p. 133)
  • Shape of gland
  • Tubular
  • Alveolar (sac-like)
  • Complexity of gland
  • Simple (one duct)
  • Compound gt 2 ducts (branched)

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Functional Classification of Exocrine Glands
  • Apocrine
  • Collect secretory products at apex (tip)
  • Apex of cell pinches off
  • Cell repairs itself repeats process
  • Ex milk-producing mammary glands
  • Holocrine
  • Collect secretory product inside the cell
  • Rupture to release (self-destructs)
  • Ex sebaceous glands (oil glands)
  • Merocrine
  • Discharge through plasma membrane
  • This type applies to most exocrine glands
  • Ex salivary glands

21
Figure 5-12, p. 132
22
Connective Tissue
  • Most widespread tissue in the body
  • Functions
  • Connection
  • Support
  • Transport
  • Protection
  • Insulation

23
Characteristics of Connective Tissue
  • Common origin mesoderm
  • Matrix
  • Intercellular material
  • Few cells, fibers, fluid, ground substance
    (material between cells)
  • Fibers
  • Collagenous fibers
  • Reticular fibers
  • Elastic fibers

24
Fibers
  • Collagenous fibers
  • white fibers
  • Made of collagen (fibrous protein)
  • Tough, strong
  • Reticular fibers
  • Delicate
  • Reticulin protein
  • Support small structures (ex capillaries)
  • Elastic fibers
  • Extensible elastic
  • Elastin protein
  • Found in stretchy tissue (ex cartilage of the
    external ear)

25
Classification of Connective Tissue
  • Fibrous
  • Loose (areolar)
  • Adipose
  • Reticular
  • dense
  • Bone
  • Cartilage
  • Hyaline
  • Fibrocartilage
  • elastic
  • Blood

Reference Table 5-3, pp. 134-135
26
Fibrous Connective Tissue
  • Loose connective (areolar) tissue (fig 5-13)
  • Stretchable
  • most abundant connective tissue in the body
  • Connects adjacent structures
  • Ex btwn other tissues and organs
  • Ex superficial fascia

27
Fibrous Connective Tissue
  • 2. Adipose tissue (fig 5-14)
  • Contains mainly fat cells
  • Supportive/protection pads around kidneys other
    body structures
  • Storage deposit for excess food
  • Insulating material, conserves body heat

28
Fibrous Connective Tissue
  • 3. Reticular Tissue (Fig 5-16)
  • 3D web of reticular fibers
  • Forms the framework of the spleen, lymph nodes
    bone marrow
  • Meshwork filters harmful substances out of the
    blood

29
Fibrous Connective Tissue
  • 4. Dense Fibrous Tissue (fig 5-17, 5-18, 5-19)
  • Densely packed fibers
  • Regular Dense CT
  • Fibers arranged in regular, parallel rows
  • Collagen fibers
  • Flexible, strong
  • Tendons (muscle to bone) ligaments (bone to
    bone)
  • Irregular Dense CT
  • Fibers intertwine
  • Withstand stress from any direction
  • Ex dermis (inner layer of skin) outer capsule
    of kidney spleen

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Bone Tissue
  • We will cover this when we cover the skeletal
    system
  • Just know that bone is a type of connective
    tissue ?

32
Cartilage
  • Only 1 cell type chondrocyte
  • Located in lacuna
  • Avascular receive nutrients via diffusion
  • Injuries to cartilage heal slowly due to poor
    nutrient delivery

33
Cartilage - Types
  • Hyaline cartilage
  • Most common
  • Covers ends of long bones (where joints
    articulate)
  • Found in supporting rings of respiratory tubes
  • Fibrocartilage
  • Strongest, most durable
  • Intervertebral disks
  • Menisci in knee joint
  • Elastic cartilage
  • Fine elastic fibers
  • High degree of flexibility
  • External ear

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Blood
  • Unusual type of connective tissue
  • No ground substance
  • Matrix plasma (55)
  • Formed elements blood cells (45)
  • Erythrocytes RBCs
  • Leukocytes WBCs
  • Thrombocytes platelets
  • Transport function
  • Respiratory gases, nutrients, waste products

36
Muscle Tissue
  • 3 types
  • Skeletal muscle tissue
  • Smooth muscle tissue
  • Cardiac muscle tissue

37
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
  • Muscles (attached to bone)
  • striated voluntary muscle
  • Structure striations, multi-nucleated, long,
    tread-like cells, bundles of microfilaments

38
Smooth Muscle Tissue
  • Aka visceral muscle tissue
  • Lines walls of hollow internal organs (viscera)
  • Stomach, intestines, blood vessels
  • non-striated involuntary muscle
  • Structure long, narrow cells, non-striated

39
Smooth Muscle Tissue
40
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
  • Walls of the heart
  • striated involuntary muscle
  • Structure striations, dark band (intercalated
    disks (where plasma membranes meet up)

41
Nervous Tissue
  • Rapidly integrates activities of various parts of
    the body
  • Rapid communication is made possible b/c of the
    excitability conductivity characteristics of
    the nervous tissue

http//www.mindcreators.com/Images/NB_Neuron.gif
42
Nervous System
  • 3 Parts
  • Brain
  • Spinal cord
  • Nerves
  • Nervous Tissue
  • Common origin ectoderm
  • Two cell types
  • Neurons (nerve cell)
  • Neuroglia (supporting cells)

43
Anatomy of Neurons
  • Cell body soma
  • Cell processes
  • Axon ? transmits nerve impulses away from cell
    body
  • Dendrites ? carry signals towards axon

http//www.nida.nih.gov/jsp/MOD3/images/NEURON2.gi
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44
Tissue Repair
  • After mechanical damage or tissue injury
  • Phagocytic cells remove dead or injured cells
  • Regeneration growth of functional new tissue
    (via mitotic division)
  • Repair capacity based on tissue type

45
Epithelial Connective Tissue Repair
  • Greatest capacity to regenerate
  • Epithelial Tissue
  • Cut/injury ? cell division ? tissue regeneration
  • Connective Tissue
  • Cut/injury ? activation of cells that make
    collagen fibers ? injury site filled w/ dense
    fibrous CT
  • Small injury dense fibrous CT replaced by
    normal tissue
  • Deep/large injury dense fibrous CT forms scar

46
Muscle Tissue Repair
  • Limited repair capacity
  • Damaged muscle tissue replaced with fibrous CT
  • Results in loss of some or all ability to
    function normally

47
Nervous Tissue Repair
  • Limited ability to regenerate
  • Some neurons outside the brain and spinal cord
    can regenerate (slow process)
  • Majority of the time brain spinal injuries
    always result in permanent damage

48
Body Membranes
  • Membrane thin, sheet-like structure
  • Two types
  • Epithelial membranes
  • Composed of epithelial tissue and underlying
    connective tissue
  • Connective Tissues membranes
  • Composed entirely of connective tissue

49
Epithelial Membranes
  • Cutaneous membrane
  • Cover body surfaces exposed to external
    environment (skin)
  • Serous membrane
  • Single membrane covering two different surfaces
  • Parietal membrane lines walls of body cavities
  • Visceral membrane covers surface of organs
  • Secrete thin, watery substance to prevent rubbing
  • Mucous membrane
  • Line body surfaces open to exterior
  • Ex respiratory, digestive, urinary
    reproductive tracts

50
Connective Tissue Membranes
  • Synovial membranes
  • Lines spaces between bones joints
  • Secrete thick, colorless, lubricating fluid
    (synovial fluid)
  • Fluid helps reduce friction btwn bone surfaces

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52
Mechanisms of Disease Tumors Cancer
  • Neoplasm new matter (tumor)
  • Abnormal growth of cells
  • Benign Tumors
  • Do no spread to other tissues
  • Slow growth
  • Encapsulated
  • Usually not lethal unless interfere w/ organs

53
Mechanisms of Disease Tumors Cancer
  • Malignant tumors (cancer)
  • Not encapsulated
  • Spreads (metastasizes)
  • Cancer cells spread via blood or lymphatic system
  • Rapid growth/spread to nearby tissue

54
(Known) Causes of Cancer
  • Genetic Factors
  • Inherited cancer genes oncogenes
  • Tumor suppressor gene fails to operate
  • Usually genetic predisposition coupled with
    cancer-causing mechanisms
  • Ex breast cancer
  • Carcinogens (cancer markers)
  • Affect genetic activity ? abnormal cell
    reproduction
  • Also called mutagens
  • Ex chemicals, sun, viruses
  • Age
  • Some cancers arise based on age
  • Ex leukemia (young) colon cancer (older adults)

55
Detection of Cancer
  • Self-examination
  • Breast and testicular exams
  • Medical Imagining
  • X-ray
  • Ex mammogram detection of breast cancer
  • CT, MRI, ultrasound
  • Produce cross-section of body images for tumor
    detection
  • Blood tests
  • Look for tumor markers (ex PSA)
  • Biopsy
  • Removal of tumor tissue

56
Cancer Treatment Options
  • Stage and grade cancer
  • Helps determine outcomes
  • Surgical removal (if possible)
  • Could leave behind malignant cells
  • Chemotherapy cytotoxic (cell-killing) drugs
  • Destroys remaining malignant cells
  • Radiation therapy
  • Destructive x-ray or gamma radiation destroys
    cancer cells
  • Immunotherapy
  • Boosting immune system again viruses

57
Anthonys Textbook of Anatomy and Physiology 17th
Edition. Thibodeau, Gary A. PhD and Patton, Kevin
T. PhD. Mosby, Inc.
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