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Title: Unit%207%20%20The%20Gilded%20Age


1
Unit 7 The Gilded Age
  • 1877 - 1900

2
The Gilded Age1877-1900
  • The Presidents

3
Rutherford B. Hayes 19th President of U.S.
  • 1 term 1877-1881
  • Republican Party
  • Removed remaining Federal troops from the South
  • Ended Reconstruction

4
James A. Garfield 20th President of U.S.
  • 1 term 1881
  • Republican Party
  • Assassinated

5
Chester A. Arthur 21st President of U.S.
  • 1 term 1881-1885
  • Republican Party

6
Grover Cleveland 22nd and 24th President of
U.S.
  • 2 terms
  • 1885-1889
  • 1893-1897
  • Democratic Party

7
Benjamin Harrison 23rd President of U.S.
  • 1 term 1889-1893
  • Republican Party

8
Grover Cleveland 22nd and 24th President of
U.S.
  • 2 terms
  • 1885-1889
  • 1893-1897
  • Democratic Party

9
William McKinley 25th President of U.S.
  • 2 terms 1897-1901
  • Republican Party

10
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11
The Gilded Age(Reshaping the Nation)
  • The Frontier West

12
The Frontier West
  • Gold in California!
  • Discovered January 24, 1848
  • Sutters Mill
  • California Gold Rush
  • Forty-niners (49ers)
  • More than 80,000 people came from across U.S.,
    Europe, and South America in 1849
  • California became a free state in 1850

13
The Frontier West
  • Comstock Lode, 1859
  • Danged blue stuff
  • One of the richest silver mines in the world
  • Miners come from across U.S., France, Germany,
    Ireland, Mexico, and China
  • Boom town grew into Virginia City, Nevada
  • By 1860s, 1/3 of miners were Chinese

14
The Frontier West
  • Other strikes
  • Colorado gold (Pikes Peak)
  • Denver Colorado Springs grew up near gold
    mines
  • 1870s major gold strikes in Black Hills of
    South Dakota (Indian Reservation)

15
The Frontier West
  • Thousands of people go west to supply miners
    needs
  • tools stores
  • food laundries
  • clothing boarding houses
  • supplies hotels
  • restaurants saloons
  • Miners paid high prices
  • Stagecoaches and mule teams could not carry
    enough supplies West quick enough

16
The Frontier West
  • Miners forced Native Americans off their lands,
    and foreigners were ill-treated
  • Few miners got rich quick
  • Eventually, most mining in the West was taken
    over by large companies
  • Boom towns ? Ghost towns
  • Many boom towns lasted only a few years until the
    ore played out

17
  • 1873 Levi Strauss and Jacob Davis patented blue
    denim pants with copper rivets

Within 2 years, workers throughout the West (such
as miners) were wearing these sturdy blue jeans
18
The Frontier West
  • Railroads
  • Federal government encouraged the building of
    railroads
  • Gave land to railroad companies
  • Ignored rights of Native Americans
  • Transcontinental Railroad
  • 1863 Two companies started a race
  • Union Pacific began in Omaha, Nebraska
  • Central Pacific began in Sacramento, California

19
The Frontier West
  • Building the Transcontinental Railroad
  • Labor was scarce during the Civil War
  • Railroad companies hired immigrant workers
  • Central Pacific hired thousands from China
  • Union Pacific hired newcomers from Ireland
  • Both hired African Americans and Mexicans

20
  • Promontory Point, Utah May 10, 1869
  • First transcontinental railroad was completed
  • Leland Stanford, Pres. of Central Pacific,
    hammered a golden spike in the rail joining the
    two tracks

21
The Frontier West
  • Railroads
  • More new railroad lines were built linking East
    and West
  • Brought rapid growth and settlement in West
  • Standard Time Zones created so trains could
    accurately schedule stops
  • New states
  • 1864 Nevada 1890 Idaho
  • 1876 Colorado 1890 Wyoming
  • 1889 North Dakota
  • 1889 South Dakota
  • 1889 Montana
  • 1889 Washington

22
  • Shooting buffalo from a train

23
The Frontier West
  • Buffalo
  • Provide food, clothing, and shelter for Native
    Americans
  • Horns and bones carved into tools and toys
  • Sinews used as thread or bowstrings
  • Fat protected skin from weather and insects
  • Commercial hunters killed up to 100 an hour
  • 2-3 million hides taken every year
  • Numbers dropped on the Plains
  • 13 million in 1860 ? few hundred in 1900

24
Frontier Plains Indians
  • After Civil War, many Americans moved west and
    settled in Great Plains
  • Great Plains
  • Good for farming and ranching
  • Gold strikes and railroads bring white settlers
    west

25
Frontier Plains Indians
  • U.S. government forced Indian leaders to sign new
    treaties, giving up their land
  • Some Native Americans refused
  • attacked trains
  • burned settlers homes
  • killed miners and U.S. soldiers
  • Across Great Plains, soldiers and Indians went to
    war
  • 1864 Chivington Massacre
  • Militia colonel massacred Cheyenne camp and
    killed 200, mostly women children

26
Frontier Plains Indians
  • Sioux
  • Lakota, Dakota, Nakota
  • Sun Dance
  • Important religious ceremony

27
Frontier Plains Indians
  • Red Cloud
  • Lakota War Chief
  • Protested white settlers moving to Black Hills
    (sacred to Lakota)

28
Frontier Plains Indians
  • Federal government wants peace
  • Urged Native Americans to live like whites
  • Took Lakota children to a school in Indiana
  • New treaties in late 1860s
  • Indians moved to reservations in Oklahoma and
    South Dakota
  • Limited area set aside by the federal government
    for Native Americans.

29
Frontier Plains Indians
  • Sioux War of 1876
  • 1874, prospectors found gold in Black Hills of
    South Dakota
  • Thousands of miners go there
  • U.S. army sent to drive Indians to reservation
    and away from miners

30
Frontier Plains Indians
  • Col. George A. Custer
  • Led U.S. army soldiers
  • Battle of
  • Little Big Horn
  • June 1876
  • Lakotas and Cheyennes war with U.S. army
  • Custer knew he was outnumbered, but attacked
    anyway
  • Custer and his men were trapped and killed

31
Frontier Plains Indians
  • Crazy Horse

32
Frontier Plains Indians
  • Black Hills, SD
  • Eventually, more soldiers arrived and forced
    Indians onto reservations
  • A few Lakota leaders fled to Canada
    (including Sitting Bull)
  • Plains Indians suffer
  • Losing battles
  • Buffalo being destroyed
  • Starvation
  • Broken treaties
  • Forced onto reservations (federal government
    provided food and supplies)

33
Frontier Plains Indians
  • Ghost Dance
  • Lakota religious ceremony
  • Celebrated time when Indians lived freely on
    Plains
  • White settlers alarmed thought Indians were
    preparing for war convinced government to
    outlaw Ghost Dance

34
Frontier Plains Indians
  • December 1890
  • Police officers enter Standing Rock Reservation
    to arrest Lakota Chief Sitting Bull
  • Settlers claimed him responsible for spread of
    Ghost Dance
  • Officers and Indians struggle
  • Sitting Bull accidentally shot and killed
  • Groups of leaders fled reservation
  • Army troops pursued and brought them to Wounded
    Knee Creek

35
Frontier Plains Indians
  • Wounded Knee Creek
  • Indians began to surrender and giving up guns
  • A shot was fired
  • Army opened fire with rifles and machine guns
  • Nearly 300 Native Americans (men, women, and
    children) were killed
  • About 30 soldiers died
  • Fighting at Wounded Knee marked end of Indian
    wars and end of Ghost Dance religion

36
Frontier Plains Indians
Corpse of Big Foot several days after his death
when troops came to bury the frozen bodies
  • Lakota Chief Big Foot

37
Frontier Plains Indians
  • Long history of broken treaties between U.S. and
    Native Americans
  • Life on reservations changed Native American
    culture
  • Federal government wanted Indians to give up old
    ways (language, religion, customs, etc.)
  • Assimilation
  • Process of becoming part of another culture
  • Indians became dependent on federal government
    for food and supplies

38
Frontier Plains Indians
  • 1887 Dawes Act
  • Divided up some Native American lands and gave
    parcels to individual families
  • Encouraged Indians to become farmers
  • Promoted assimilation
  • Broke up some reservations
  • Policy failed

39
Plains Ranching Farming
  • After Civil War, growing cities in East demanded
    more beef
  • Ranchers began cattle drives north to ship their
    cattle by rail to Chicago
  • Chisholm Trail (best known trail)
  • Sedalia Trail (Shawnee Trail)
  • Abilene, Kansas, was major shipping point

40
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41
Plains Ranching Farming
  • Cattle drives
  • Hot, dirty, tiring work
  • 10-14 hour days
  • Took about 3 months
  • Hazards
  • Stampedes
  • Crossing rivers
  • Swamps
  • Grass fires
  • Attacks from cattle thieves
  • Cowboys celebrated when they reached a railroad
    town
  • Difficult for sheriffs to keep the peace

42
Plains Ranching Farming
  • 1862 Homestead Act
  • Government gave 160 acres to anyone who could
    farm it for 5 years
  • By 1900s, half million farmers settled on Great
    Plains
  • 1870s
  • Cattle ranches began springing up in West
  • Water scarce on open range
  • Ranchers fight over water holes and streams
  • Farmers began moving onto open range
  • Half a million by 1890
  • Land set aside for Yellowstone National
    Park in 1872

43
Plains Ranching Farming
  • Sodbusters
  • Plains farmers
  • James Oliver designed special sod-busting plow
  • Farmers built windmills to reach water often
    hundreds of feet below surface
  • Hazards
  • Grass fires strong winds
  • Grasshoppers (swarms in summers)
  • Winter winds, icy gusts, snow drifts
  • Sod houses
  • Soil held together by prairie grass roots

44
Plains Ranching Farming
  • 1879 Exodusters
  • Large group of African Americans move to Kansas
  • Invited by Governor
  • 40,000 70,000 by 1881
  • Southern blacks escape the South as they lost
    freedoms
  • White southerners didnt want to lose cheap labor
    and tried to stop them

45
Plains Ranching Farming
  • 1880s
  • Era of open range and cattle drives ended
  • Harsh winters in late 1880s led to loss of herds
  • Winter of 1886-1887 90 of cattle on northern
    plains died
  • Ranchers and farmers began using barbed wire
    because of lack of timber

46
Plains Ranching Farming
  • Oklahoma Land Rush
  • Last major land rush
  • Began at noon on April 22, 1889
  • Boomers charged in to stake land
  • Sooners snuck in and staked much of best land
    (illegally)
  • 1890
  • No more frontier in U.S.

47
Plains Ranching Farming
  • Populist Party
  • Peoples Party
  • Formed in 1891 to help farmers and laborers
  • Called on government to help
  • Falling farm prices
  • Regulation of railroad rates
  • Income tax
  • 8 hour work day
  • Limits on immigration
  • Free silver (to increase the supply of money)
  • Also wanted direct election of senators and
    secret voting ballots

48
Plains Ranching Farming
  • William Jennings Bryan
  • Great Commoner
  • 1896 Presidential candidate for Democrats
    Populists
  • Narrowly lost to Republican candidate William
    McKinley

49
Plains Ranching Farming
  • Populist Party
  • Broke up after 1896 when prosperity returned, but
    many ideas lived on
  • 8 hour work day later became the standard for
    American workers
  • 1913 Constitutional Amendment authorizing Income
    Tax

50
The Gilded Age(Reshaping the Nation)
  • Cities Industry

51
Bessemer process
  • Henry Bessemer
  • patented in 1855
  • First inexpensive industrial process for
    mass-production of steel from molten pig iron
  • Key principle removal of impurities by
    oxidation
  • air blown through the molten iron

52
1871 Chicago Fire
  • One of largest U.S. disasters in 19th C
  • October 8 10
  • Destroyed 4 sq. mi.

53
1882 Chinese Exclusion Act
  • First anti-immigration legislation in U.S.
  • Banned all but a few Chinese immigrants
  • Not lifted until 1943

54
1883 Pendleton Act
  • Civil Service Reform Act
  • Created Civil Service Commission
  • Civil Service exams
  • Give government jobs based on merit, not politics
    (spoils)
  • Result of Pres. Garfields assassination in 1881

55
1886 Haymarket Riot - Chicago
  • Workers strike at McCormick Harvester Co.
  • Workers clash with police trying to break up
    strike
  • Police open fire and kill 4 workers
  • Next day, thousands of workers gather to protest
  • A bomb explodes
  • Police open fire, killing 10 wounding 50

56
1890 Sherman Antitrust Act
  • Outlawed trusts
  • and anything that harmed interstate commerce
  • Supreme Court did not support
  • Trust
  • Different companies agree to work together

57
Gilded Age1877-1900
  • Economic, territorial, industrial, population
    expansion
  • Gilded Age coined by Mark Twain
  • Unbalance of wealth
  • Shallow worship of wealth
  • Sharp division in social classes

58
  • Gilded Age
  • Expansion of industry in North leads to growth of
    big business
  • Large forces of unskilled laborers work long
    hours in dangerous conditions for low wages
  • Growing cities
  • Crowded conditions
  • Filth (lack waste garbage removal)
  • Lack of clean water
  • Disease
  • Transportation problems

59
Gilded Age
  • Social Darwinism
  • Government should allow free competition in
    business to allow the best individuals to succeed

60
Gilded Age
  • Robber barons
  • Leaders who used trusts to control an industry
  • Trust
  • Different companies agree to work together
  • Monopoly
  • A firm controlling all competition in an industry

61
Robber Barons
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • Steel
  • Built one of most powerful influential
    corporations in U.S. history
  • U.S. Steel
  • Carnegies fortune and career were inspired by an
    1873 visit with inventor and engineer Henry
    Bessemer (Bessemer process for mass production of
    steel)

62
Robber Barons
  • J. P. Morgan
  • Financier/banker
  • Dominated corporate finance and industrial
    consolidation
  • General Electric

63
Robber Barons
  • John D. Rockefeller
  • Oil (refining)
  • Established oil industry

64
Robber Barons
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt
  • Railroads shipping

65
William McKinley 25th President of U.S.
  • 2 terms 1897-1901
  • Republican Party
  • Spanish American War
  • Assassinated
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