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Immigrants and Urbanization

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Immigrants and Urbanization We cannot all live in the city, yet nearly all seem determined to do so. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Immigrants and Urbanization


1
Immigrants and Urbanization
  • We cannot all live in the city, yet nearly all
    seem determined to do so.

2
New Immigrants
  • Escape difficult living conditions
  • Poverty
  • Famine
  • Land shortages
  • Religious or Political persecution
  • Birds of Passageintended to immigrate
    temporarily in order to make money and then
    return to their homelands.

3
Europe
  • 1870-1920 almost 20 million Europeans arrived in
    the United States.
  • Before 1890Western and Northern (Great Britain,
    Ireland, and Germany)
  • After came from Southern and Eastern Europe
    (Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Russia)
  • 1905 alone a million people arrived from these
    countries through the Golden Door

4
Immigrants
  • Villages of Jews in Russia came to America
    because they were driven out by pogroms.
  • Organized anti-Semitic campaigns that led to the
    massacre of Jews.
  • Rise in population in Europe.
  • Scarcity of land for farming

5
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6
China and Japan
  • West Coast
  • Smaller numbers
  • Built the first Transcontinental railroad
  • Farming, mining, and domestic service
  • Japanese govt. allowed Hawaiian planters to
    recruit Japanese workers and immigration began.
  • Large spread movement

7
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8
West Indies and Mexico
  • Eastern and Southern United States
  • Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and other Islands.
  • Mexicans became U.S. residents without leaving
    their homes.
  • Result of the annexation of Texas in 1845
  • Treaty with Mexico in 1848 territories from
    Mexico
  • National Reclamation Act (Newlands
    Act)encouraged the irrigation of arid land, new
    farm land was createdTexas, Arizona, and
    California.

9
Journey
  • Steamship
  • Atlantic Ocean from Europe approx. 1 week
  • Pacific from Asia took nearly 3 weeks
  • Stormy, uncomfortable, and frightening
  • Traveled in steerage or cargo holds below a
    ships waterline.
  • Not allowed on deck, crowed together, unable to
    exercise or catch a breath of fresh air, slept in
    louse-infested bunks, share toilets.
  • Disease spread quickly
  • Some died before they reached the land of
    opportunity.
  • The first sight of America was unbelievable.

10
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11
Ellis Island
  • Loneliness, homesickness, and anxiety of not
    knowing whether they would be admitted to the
    United States.
  • Pass inspection
  • 20 of immigrants were detained for a day or more
    before being inspected.
  • 2 had to return home
  • Five hours or more

12
Ellis Island
  • Physical exam from a doctor
  • Government Inspectordocuments and determined if
    they met the legal requirementspassing a
    literacy test in their native language and had to
    show that they had at least 25.00.
  • From 1905 to 1907 as many as 11,000 immigrants a
    day went through Ellis Island.

13
Angel Island
14
Angel Island
  • Chinese entered the U.S. through Angel Island.
  • San Francisco Bay
  • Harsh questioning, long detention while
    government officials decided whether to admit or
    reject an immigrant.
  • Filthy, ramshackle buildings, confined like
    prisoners.
  • Immigrants riot in 1919 to protest conditions.
  • Writings on the wall.

15
Culture Shock
  • Confusion, anxiety
  • Con men and thieves took advantage of the
    newcomersstole their money and possessions.
  • Where are they going to live?
  • Where am I going to work?
  • What did they say? What are they doing?
  • Find people who are like me.

16
Survival
  • Ethnic communities
  • Build neighborhood churches or synagogues.
  • Social clubs
  • Aid societiesfurnished medical treatment for
    members and helped with medical cost.
  • Founded orphanages and old peoples homes,
    cemeteries
  • Newspapers in their own language
  • hyphenated Americans

17
Melting Pot
  • Mixture of people of different cultures and races
    who blended together by abandoning their native
    languages and customs.
  • Refused to give up their cultural identities
  • Anti-immigrant feelings emerged

18
Nativism
  • Favoritism to native born Americans
  • Anti-immigrant groupsdemanded restrictions on
    immigration.
  • right countries British, German, and
    Scandinavian.
  • wrong countriesSlav, Latin, and Asiatic races.
  • Suspicion and fear of foregineers
  • Roman Catholic and Jews
  • American Protective Association1887
  • Vicious anti-Catholic attacks
  • Colleges, businesses, and social clubs refused to
    admit Jews.

19
Nativism
  • Anglo-Saxonsuperior race
  • German ancestors of the English
  • Immigration Restriction League1884
  • undesirable classesfrom southern and eastern
    Europe.
  • Congress passed a bill requiring literacy test
    for new immigrants in 1896
  • President Vetoed the bill.

20
Anti-Asian Sentiment
  • Chinese
  • Customs, unfamiliar language, look
    differentlonghair, braids, cotton jackets, broad
    cotton pants, wide brimmed hats.
  • Jobs scarce
  • Violent Anti-Chinese riots
  • Knights of Labor fought for restrictions on the
    Chinese.
  • Workingmens Partyheaded the anti-Chinese
    movement in California.
  • The Chinese must go!

21
Chinese Immigrants
22
Chinese Exclusion Act
  • 1882 Congress slammed the door on Chinese
    immigration.
  • Students, teachers, merchants, tourist, and govt.
    officials.
  • Ten years
  • 1892 extended another ten years.
  • 1902 Chinese immigration was prohibited
    indefinitelyrepealed in 1943.

23
Japanese Immigrants
  • 1906 Board of Education in San Francisco
    California they segregate all Chinese, Japanese,
    and Korean children.
  • In Japan anti-American riots break out.
  • Theodore Roosevelt stepped in
  • Gentlemens Agreement 1907-1908
  • Japans govt. agreed to limit immigration to the
    United States.

24
Open Response
  • Part A As an Italian immigrant living in New
    York discuss 3 problems faced by cities in the
    late 1800s and early 1900s.
  • Part B What solutions do you feel as an Italian
    immigrant would be the most effective and what
    solutions did the government offer.

25
The Problems of Urbanization
  • Section 2

26
Urbanization
  • Growth of cities
  • City dwellers
  • Cheaper and more convenient place to live.
  • Unskilled laborers steady jobs
  • Social support of other immigrants
  • 1890 twice as many Irish in New York than Dublin,
    Ireland.
  • Worlds largest Polish population was in Chicago.
  • Ethnic neighborhoods

27
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28
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29
Americanization Movement
  • Education for newcomers
  • English Language
  • American History
  • American Government
  • Cooking
  • Social etiquette

30
Country to City
  • Overcrowding becomes a problem
  • Farmers merged
  • Rural people could not find jobs in agriculture
  • AA who lost jobs
  • Chicago and Detroitescape racial violence,
    economic hardships, and political oppression
  • Low paying factory jobs
  • Domestic servants

31
Urban Cultural Opportunities
  • Varied and exciting life
  • Each city had its own personality
  • New York City1st moving picture
  • ChicagoBuffalo Bills Wild West Shows
  • BostonBallpark to watch Boston Nationals.

32
Boston
Nationals
  • .

33
Urban Problems
  • Housingbuy on the outskirts, rent rooms in
    boarding houses.
  • Row Housessingle family dwellings that shared
    side walls with other similar houses.
  • To many families living in one house together.

34
Urban Problems
  • Garbage not picked up regularly dumped in air
    shaftsattracted rats and vermin.
  • Residents would nail windows shut.
  • Dumbbell tenements became worse place to live
    than single family residents.

35
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36
Transportation
  • Big problem
  • Street cars 18873
  • 1888 1st practical electric street car line in
    Richmond, VA.
  • Old transportation in good repair and build new
    ones to meet demands.

37
Street Car in early 1900s
38
Water
  • Safe water to drink
  • Public water works
  • Rare to have indoor plumbing
  • Collect water in pails
  • Cholera and typhoid fever were obvious
  • Chlorination was introduced in 1893
  • Filtration in 1903

39
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40
Sanitation
  • Horse manure
  • Sewage flowed through open gutters
  • Foul smoke in the air
  • Garbage in alleys and streets
  • Scavengersprivate contractors hired to sweep the
    streets, collect garbage, and clean outhouses.
    They didnt do their job!!
  • Sewer lines and sanitation departmentscities
    issued in 1900 helped a little.

41
Fire
  • Limited water supplies
  • Wooden dwellings
  • Candles and kerosene often used for heat.
  • Volunteer firefighters
  • Cincinnati, Ohio first to pay firefighters
  • By 1900 most cities had paid firefighters
  • Great Chicago Fire
  • The San Francisco Earthquake
  • Page 285

42
Crime
  • Social reformsyoung, educated, men and women
    from the middle class.
  • Social Gospel Movement
  • Preached Salvation to the poor.
  • Walter Rauschenbusch of New York and Washington
    Gladden of Ohio Applied Christianity
  • Erect churches in poor communities
  • Treat workers more fairly

43
Settlement House Movement
  • Community centers in slum neighborhoods provided
    assistance and friendship to local men, women,
    and childrenimmigrants.
  • Run by middle class, college educated women.
  • Educational, cultural, and social services.
  • Classes in English, health, crafts, drama, music,
    and painting. College extension courses.
  • Reading circles
  • Sent nurses to homes of the sick provided
    whatever aid was needed.
  • Support of deserted women, insurance for
    bewildered widows, damages for injured operators,
    furniture from the clutches of the installment
    store.

44
Settlement House Movement
  • Charles Stover and Stanton Coit
  • Opened in New York City in 1886
  • Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr
  • Founded Chicagos Hull House in 1889.
  • By 1910 about 400 settlement houses were
    operating in cities across the country.

45
Politics in the Gilded Age
  • Section 3 and 4

46
Political Machine
  • Offered services to voters and businesses in
    exchange for political or financial support.
  • Gained control of local government in Baltimore
    New York, San Francisco, and other major cities.
  • Pyramid
  • Baselocal precinct workers and captains
    reported to a ward boss.
  • Ward bosses helped the poor and gained their
    votes. (Favors)
  • Top of the Pyramidcity boss, controlled the
    activities of the political party throughout the
    city.
  • Precinct captains, ward bosses, and the city boss
    work together.--guarantee success of the machine.

47
The Role of the Political Boss
  • Controlled access to municipal jobs, business
    licenses, and influenced the courts and other
    agencies.
  • Built parks, sewer systems, waterworks, and gave
    money to schools, hospitals, and orphanages.
  • Reinforce voter's loyalty, win additional
    political support, extend influence.

48
Immigrants and the Machine
  • Political bosses usually 1st and 2nd generation
    immigrants.
  • Grammar school
  • Worked their way up from the bottom.
  • Speak to immigrants in their own language.
  • Understood the challenges
  • Provide solutions
  • Naturalization
  • housing
  • jobs
  • Immigrants provided votes!!!!
  • Big Jim PendergastIrish American saloonkeeper.
    Controlled Missouri state politics.

49
Election Fraud and Graft
  • Fake names
  • cast as many votes needed to win
  • graftillegal use of political influence for
    personal gain.
  • kick backs --a portion of the earnings to the
    machine.
  • Favors to businesses were granted in return for
    cash
  • Until 1890 police forces were hired and fired by
    political bosses.

50
The Tweed Ring Scandal
  • William M. Tweed Boss Tweed
  • Tammany Hall, New York City's powerful Democratic
    Political Machine
  • Construction of the Courthouse cost Tax payers
    13 millionactual cost 3 millionpocketed by
    Tweed and followers.
  • Tweed Ring broke in 1871
  • Tweed indicted on 120 counts of fraud and
    extortion sentenced to 12 years in jail.
  • Reduced to 1 year.
  • Tweed escaped after he was put in jail for the
    2nd time.
  • Captured in Spainofficials recognized him from a
    political cartoon.

51
Boss Tweed
  • William M. Tweed

52
Patronage Spurs Reform
  • Giving of government jobs to people who had
    helped a candidate get elected.
  • Andrew Jackson Spoils System.
  • Government employees not qualified for the job.
  • Personal gain
  • Merit System hiring
  • Civil Servicegovt. administrationgo to the most
    qualified person.

53
Reform Under Hayes, Garfield and Arthur
  • Republican president Rutherford B. Hayes 1876
  • used other means
  • could not get Congress to support reform
  • Named independents to his cabinet
  • Commission to investigate the nation's
    customhouses
  • fired 2 top officials
  • Decided not to run for re-election in 1880

54
Garfield
  • Independent candidate from Ohio
  • V.P. Chester A. Arthur
  • Reformers get most of his patronage jobs
  • July 2, 1881 Garfield was shot in a Washington
    D.C. train station.
  • mentally unbalanced lawyer Charles Guiteaubeen
    turned down for a job.
  • Garfield died from his wounds on September 19.
  • Arthur turns to a reformerurged Congress to pass
    civil service law.

55
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56
President Garfield
57
Pendleton Civil Service Act
  • 1883
  • bipartisan civil service commission to make
    appointments to federal jobs through a merit
    system based on candidates performance on an
    examination.
  • By 1901 40 of all federal jobs had been
    classified a civil service position.

58
Harrison, Cleveland, and High Tariffs
  • Democratic Party opposed high tariffs
  • Democratic Party wins 1884 election with nominee
    Grover Cleveland--1st time in 28 years
  • Congress refused to help Cleveland lower tariffs
  • Ran for re-election but lost due to his
    competitor being financed by people who wanted
    higher tariffs than they wereBenjamin Harrison.

59
Harrison
  • supported by people who wanted higher tariffs
  • won the presidency due to electoral votes
  • Signed the McKinley Tariff Act of 1890 which made
    tariffs their highest yet.

60
Cleveland
  • 1892 Elected againonly president to serve two
    non-consecutive terms.
  • supported a bill for lowering the McKinley Tariff
    Act but refused to sign it b/c it also provided
    for a federal income tax.
  • Wilson-Gorman Tariff became law in 1894 w/o the
    presidents signature.
  • 1897 William McKinley became president and raised
    tariffs again.

61
Cleveland
62
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