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I. Purpose Clauses

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I. Purpose Clauses The most common place where the Subjunctive mood appears in Latin is in subordinate (dependent) clauses which require their verb to be in the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: I. Purpose Clauses


1
I. Purpose Clauses
  • The most common place where the Subjunctive mood
    appears in Latin is in subordinate (dependent)
    clauses which require their verb to be in the
    Subjunctive.
  • Of these, the most common type is the Purpose
    Clause, a subordinate clause which expresses the
    reason why the subject does the action of another
    (usually the main) verb.
  • Whenever Latin wishes to use a Subordinate Clause
    to express the reason why a person does an
    action, the verb of the Purpose Clause MUST go in
    the Subjunctive mood.

2
I. Purpose Clauses
  • NB
  • (1) There are other ways to express purpose in
    Latin that do not use a subordinate clause, but
    ALL Subordinate Clauses of Purpose MUST have
    their verb in the Subjunctive.
  • (2) The most common way to express Purpose in
    English is through an infinitive, i.e.,
  • He went to the store to buy milk.
  • Main Verb Infinitive of Purpose
  • This construction is NEVER possible in Latin. The
    Infinitive can NEVER be used in Latin to express
    purpose.

3
I. Purpose Clauses
  • A Purpose Clause in the Subjunctive will always
    be introduced by one of three subordinating
    conjunctions, so they are easy to spot
  • (1) ut Introduces a positive purpose clause,
    i.e., the thing the subject wants to happen.
  • Translation in order that, so that
  • (2) ne Introduces a negative purpose clause,
    i.e., the thing the subject wants not to happen.
  • Translation in order that not, so that not,
    lest
  • (3) qui, quae, quod When the subject of the
    Purpose Clause is also in the Main Clause but is
    not the subject, the Relative Pronoun can be used
    to introduce a Purpose Clause. This is called a
    Relative Clause of Purpose. As always, the verb
    is in the Subjunctive.
  • Translation who, which is / are to verb

4
I. Purpose ClausesThe Sequence of Tenses
  • The verb of the Purpose Clause will always be in
    either one of two tenses
  • (1) Present Subjunctive
  • (2) Imperfect Subjunctive
  • Which of these two tenses is used is determined
    by the Tense of the Main Verb according to the
    Sequence of Tenses.

5
I. Purpose ClausesThe Sequence of Tenses
  • The Sequence of Tenses is the rule which tells us
    which tense of the Subjunctive will be used in a
    subordinate clause, depending on
  • (1) The Tense of the Main Verb
  • (2) The Relative Time between the Main Verb and
    the Subordinate Clause.

6
I. Purpose ClausesThe Sequence of Tenses
Tense of Main Verb Contemporaneous / Future Time Time Prior
Primary Sequence - Present - Future - Future Perfect (Perfect) Present Subjunctive Perfect Subjunctive
Secondary Sequence - Imperfect - Perfect - Pluperfect Imperfect Subjunctive Pluperfect Subjunctive

7
I. Purpose ClausesThe Sequence of Tenses
  • The Sequence of Tenses looks much harder than it
    is. In fact, it is very straightforward.
  • According to the chart, if the Main verb is
  • (1) Present or (2) Future / Future Perfect,
  • The Verb of the Purpose Clause will be in the
    Present Subjunctive.
  • If the Main verb is (1) Imperfect, (2) Perfect,
    or
  • (3) Pluperfect
  • The Verb of the Purpose Clause will be in the
    Imperfect Subjunctive.

8
I. Purpose Clauses
  • Exempla
  • In the following sentences, identify the main
    verb and purpose clause, and note whether the
    Purpose Clause is in Primary or Secondary
    Sequence.
  • (1) Venus de Olympo profecta in campum ingreditur
    et natum veste tegit ut ab armis Diomedis
    defendatur.
  • (2) Venus exclamans cum dolore timoreque filium
    demisit, quem Apollo suscepit et aere obscuro
    texit ne quis videns eum pugnare posset.
  • (3) Apollone manibus eum tegente, tamen Diomedes
    contendit ut Aenean occideret armaque fulgentia
    spoliaret.

9
I. Purpose Clauses
  • Exempla
  • (1) Venus de Olympo profecta in campum ingreditur
    et natum veste tegit ut ab armis Diomedis
    defendatur.
  • Main Verb ingreditur
  • Purpose Clause ut ab armis Diomedis defendatur.
  • Sequence Primary
  • Translation Venus, having set out from Olympos,
    enters into the camp and covers her son with her
    cloak so that he be defended from the arms of
    Diomedes.

10
I. Purpose Clauses
  • Exempla
  • (2) Venus exclamans cum dolore timoreque filium
    demisit, quem Apollo suscepit et aere obscuro
    texit ne quis videns eum pugnare posset.
  • Main Verb demisit
  • Purpose Clause ne quis videns eum pugnare
    posset.
  • Sequence Secondary
  • Translation Venus, shouting with pain and fear,
    dropped her son, whom Apollo caught and covered
    with a darm cloud so that no one, seeing him,
    would be able to attack him.

11
I. Purpose Clauses
  • Exempla
  • (3) Apollone manibus eum tegente, tamen Diomedes
    contendit ut Aenean occideret armaque fulgentia
    spoliaret.
  • Main Verb contendit
  • Purpose Clause ut Aenean occideret armaque
    fulgentia spoliaret.
  • Sequence Secondary
  • Translation With Apollow covering him with his
    hands, nonetheless Diomedes strove on so that he
    might kill Aeneas and strip off his gleaming
    armor.

12
II. Relative Clauses of Purpose
  • Exempla
  • In the following sentences, identify the main
    verb and purpose clause, and note whether the
    Purpose Clause is in Primary or Secondary
    Sequence.
  • (1) Rex Gallorum ad Caesarem legatos mittet qui
    pacem cum imperatore petant.
  • (2) Magister plurrima exempla scripsit quae
    iuvenes Latinam legere docerent.

13
II. Relative Clauses of Purpose
  • Exempla
  • (1) Rex Gallorum ad Caesarem legatos mittet qui
    pacem cum imperatore petant.
  • Main Verb mittet
  • Purpose Clause qui pacem cum imperatore petant.
  • Sequence Primary
  • Translation The king of the Gauls will send
    envoys to Caesar who are to seek peace with the
    general.

14
II. Relative Clauses of Purpose
  • Exempla
  • (2) Magister plurrima exempla scripsit quae
    iuvenes Latinam legere docerent.
  • Main Verb scripsit
  • Purpose Clause quae iuvenes Latinam legere
    docerent.
  • Sequence Secondary
  • Translation The teacher wrote very many examples
    which were to teach his students to read Latin.
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