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6-4 Notes Classifying Organisms

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6-4 Notes Classifying Organisms Chapter 6, Lesson 4 What is currently the highest level of classification? A animalia B domain C kingdom D order Which of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 6-4 Notes Classifying Organisms


1
6-4 Notes Classifying Organisms
  • Chapter 6, Lesson 4

2
Historic Classification Systems
  • Aristotle, a Greek philosopher, was one of the
    first people to put organisms into categories.
  • He categorized things as animals, plants, or
    minerals, and then according to where they
    livedair, land, or sea.

3
Historic Classification Systems
  • In the mid-1700s, Swedish botanist, Linnaeus
    developed a classification system that grouped
    organisms by similar physical structures

4
Historic Classification Systems
  • Linnaeuss system went from kingdom (most
    general) to species (most specific).

5
Historic Classification Systems
6
Historic Classification Systems
  • Members of a species group have the greatest
    number of traits in common and can breed and
    produce fertile offspring.
  • Only species are subject to natural selection and
    evolve.

Felis catus
7
Historic Classification Systems
  • Linnaeus also developed a system for naming
    species that is still used.
  • Each species has a two-word scientific name
    called its species name.
  • The first word identifies its genus.
  • Humans species name is Homo sapien.

8
Historic Classification Systems
  • All small cats have Felis as the first word of
    their species name, because that is their genus.

domestic cat Felis catus
sand cat Felis margarita
jungle cat Felis chaus
wild cat Felis silvestris
9
Historic Classification Systems
  • Basic features such as cell type, presence of a
    cell wall, or single-celled versus multicellular
    define each of the 6 kingdoms
  • Eubacteria
  • Archaebacteria
  • Protists
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia

10
Modern Methods of Classification
  • The modern study of classification, called
    systematics, uses DNA and molecular biology to
    identify related organisms.
  • The more shared DNA sequences two species have,
    the more recent ancestor they probably share.

11
Modern Methods of Classification
  • Scientists use haplotypes, samples of 1000 base
    pairs, to compare DNA sequences among organisms.
  • DNA hybridization measures the percentages of DNA
    that are the same between two organisms.

12
Modern Methods of Classification
  • Molecular biology led to a new highest level of
    classification called Domain, which is based on
    differences in a particular genetic sequence.
    There are 3 domains
  • Bacteria
  • Archaea
  • Eukarya

13
Modern Methods of Classification
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Modern Methods of Classification
  • As more sophisticated techniques are developed,
    the classification system will continue to become
    more refined.

16
Modern Methods of Classification
  • The current system of classification (from
    highest to lowest)
  • Domain
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

17
Cladograms
  • Scientists create diagrams called cladograms to
    group organisms based on certain characteristics.
  • A cladogram shows common ancestry, and helps
    scientists to better understand evolution.

18
Cladograms
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Cladograms
MYA
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Cladograms
The National Museum of Natural History -
Washington, D.C
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6.4 Classifying Organisms
What was Linnaeus classification system based
on? A whether things were plant, animal, or
mineral B where organisms livedair, water, or
land C similar DNA sequences D similar physical
structures
33
6.4 Classifying Organisms
What approach measures the percentage of DNA that
is similar between two organisms? A DNA
hybridization B DNA sequencing C haplotypes
D systematics
34
What is currently the highest level of
classification? A animalia B domain C kingdom D or
der
35
Which of the following does not provide
independent evidence for the theory of evolution
through natural selection? A fossil
record B comparative anatomy C systematics D molec
ular biology
36
SCI 3.
Which of the following is not a
kingdom? A protista B fungi C eukarya D animalia
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