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Title: TAKS


TAKS Social Studies Review
1. Jamestown was the first English settlement in
North America. In what year was it founded?

John Smith
2. In what year did the Second Continental
Congress approve the Declaration of Independence?

3. Delegates from twelve states met in
Philadelphia to revise the Articles of
Confederation, but instead, they wrote a new
constitution for the United States. In what year
was this Constitution written?
4. In what year did the United States, under
leadership of President Jefferson, purchase the
Louisiana Territory from Napoleon, ruler of

5. The American Civil War began with the firing
on Fort Sumter and ended with the Confederate
surrender at Appomattox Court House. In what
year did the Civil War begin and when did it end?
Fort Sumter
6. What is meant by the term, representative
A form of government in which power is held by
the people and exercised through the efforts of
representatives elected by those people.
7. Aboard the Mayflower in Plymouth Bay, the
Pilgrims drafted a document in which they agreed
to accept majority rule and participate in a
government in the best interest of all members of
the colony. What was the name of this document?
Mayflower Compact
8. What was the name of the first written
constitution in the American colonies?
Charter Oak
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
9. What was the name of the first representative
assembly in the colonies? It was founded in 1619
in Virginia.
House of Burgesses
10. Great Britains trade with her American
colonies was based on an economic theory which
stated that the colonies were to serve as a
source of raw materials for Great Britain and as
a marketplace for British goods. What is this
economic theory called?
11. While they were fighting the Seven Years War
in Europe, the British and French fought a war in
America. What was the name of the war fought in
America and which side won?
The French Indian War British Victory
12. Congress put a tax on imported goods in order
to protect American factories in the Northeast
from British competition. The South bitterly
opposed the tax. What was this tax called?
Protective Tariff

13. In his Farewell Address in 1796, President
Washington stressed three dangers facing the
nation? List them.
  1. The rise of political parties which he believed
    could divide Americans.
  2. Sectionalism - political divisions based on
    geographic loyalties.
  3. Alliances with foreign nations.

14. Name the foreign policy statement formulated
by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and
presented by President James Monroe in 1823 which
reflected American nationalism. It warned
European nations not to interfere with young
Latin American republics and stated that the
United States would not get involved in European
Monroe Doctrine
15. In the 1830s, President Andrew Jackson
ignored the ruling of the Supreme Court and
forced the Cherokees to move from their home in
Georgia to Indian Territory west of the
Mississippi River. What was the 800 mile journey
of the Cherokees called?
The Trail of Tears
16. In 1787, the Confederation Congress passed a
law which established a system for setting up
governments in the western territories so they
could eventually join the Union on an equal
footing with the original 13 states. The law
required new states to prohibit slavery. What
was the law called?
Northwest Ordinance
17. In the 1840s, what was the popular
expression based on the belief that the United
states was destined to secure territory from the
Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean?
Manifest Destiny
18. In 1794, Congress levied an excise tax on
certain domestic goods. The tax resulted in a
rebellion in western Pennsylvania. What was this
rebellion called?
The Whiskey Rebellion
19. Issued by President Abraham Lincoln on
September 22, 1862, to go into effect on January
1, 1863, it declared that all slaves in the
rebellious Confederate states would be free. It
did not apply to slaves living in border states
or to areas in the South occupied by federal
troops. What was this document called?
Emancipation Proclamation
20. Name the speech delivered by President
Lincoln on November 19, 1863, which begins with
the words, Four score and seven years ago.
The Gettysburg Address
21. What is the name given to the period
following the Civil War from 1865 to 1877?
22. What name was given to the system of
agricultural production based on large-scale land
ownership and the exploitation of labor which
developed in the South?
Plantation System
23. What term is used to refer to the switch from
hand labor to machine labor which began in
England and spread to the United States in the
late 1700s?
Industrial Revolution
24. What name is given to the war between the
United States and Great Britain in the early
1800s which resulted from British violations of
United States freedom of the seas?
War of 1812
25. What do you call an economic system in which
individuals depend on supply and demand and the
profit margin to determine the answers to the
four basic economic questions of what to
produce, how to produce, how many to
produce, and for whom to produce?
Free Enterprise System
26. What document, signed by King John,
declared that the king and government were bound
by the some law as other citizens of England?
It contained antecedents of the ideas of due
process of law and the right to a fair and speedy
trial. These are also included in the U.S. Bill
of Rights.
The Magna Carta
27. Name the document, signed by King William and
Queen Mary in 1689 which guaranteed certain
rights to English citizens and declared that
elections for Parliament would happen frequently.
Its influence can be seen in our Bill of Rights.
English Bill of Rights
William and Mary
28. What document, adopted by the Second
Continental Congress in 1776, begins with the
words, We hold these truths to be self- evident,
that all men are created equal, that they are
endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable
rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and
the pursuit of Happiness?
Declaration of Independence
29. What do we call the series of essays written
by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James
Madison, which explained and urged ratification
of the U.S. Constitution?
Federalist Papers
30. What name was given to our first national
constitution? It was adopted by the Second
Continental Congress in 1781 and created a weak
national government with most power at the state
Articles of Confederation
31. What do we call the current document which
outlines the powers of our national government
and divides our government into three branches
legislative, executive, and judicial?
32. What do we call the first ten amendments to
the Constitution? They were ratified in 1791.
The Bill of Rights
33. The first amendment guarantees five
fundamental rights of American citizens. List
these rights.
Freedom of Religion
Freedom of Speech
Freedom of the Press
Right to Assemble
Right to Petition
34. What term is used to define a type of
government in which everyone, including all
authority figures, must obey the law?
Limited Government
35. What is the term that describes a philosophy
of limited government with elected
representatives serving at the will of the
people? This philosophy says that the only
legitimate government is one based on the consent
of the governed.
36. Name the system which authorizes each branch
of government to share its powers with the other
branches and provides methods for each branch to
limit the activities and powers of the others.
Checks And Balances
37. What do we call the distribution of power
between a federal government and the states
within a union?
38.The division of the powers of government among
the executive, legislative, and judicial branches
is called what?
Separation of Powers
39. Which branch of government (known as
Congress) makes the laws?
40. Which branch of government, headed by the
president, enforces the laws and sees that they
are carried out?
Executive Branch
41. Which branch of government, headed by the
Supreme Court, interprets the law?
42. What term is used to describe the concept
that political power rests with the people who
can create, alter, and abolish government. People
express themselves through voting and free
participation in government.
Popular Sovereignty
43. What did the 14th Amendment do?
It declared that all persons born or naturalized
in the United States (except Indians) were
citizens, that all citizens were entitled to
equal rights regardless of their race, and that
their rights were protected at both the state and
national levels by due process of law.
44. What did the 13th Amendment do?
Abolished Slavery (in 1865)
45. What did the 15th Amendment do?
It granted black men the right to vote.
46. What do we call the power of the Supreme
Court to declare a law unconstitutional?
Judicial Review
47. Those favoring ratification of the
Constitution and adoption of the federalist form
of government were called what?
48. Those opposed to the Constitution because
they feared the power of the national government
in the new federal system (such as Patrick Henry
and George Mason) were called what?
Patrick Henry
George Mason
49. During the Jackson administration, South
Carolina, led by John C. Calhoun, declared the
protective tariff null and void within its
borders. This led to a crisis call what?
Nullification Crisis
John C. Calhoun
50. In 1803, Chief Justice John Marshall and the
Supreme Court declared a law unconstitutional for
the first time, thus establishing the principle
of judicial review. What was the name of this
Supreme Court case?
Marbury V. Madison (1803)

51. In 1819, Maryland was opposed to the
establishment of a national bank and challenged
the authority of the federal government to
establish one. The Supreme Court ruled that the
power of the federal government was supreme over
that of the states and that the states could not
interfere. What was the name of this case?
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
52. Name the landmark Supreme Court case in
1857 which confirmed the status of slaves as
property rather that citizens. Chief Just Robert
Taney wrote that a slave could not be heard in
federal courts because he was not a citizen and
had no protection under the constitution. Also
Congress had no authority over slavery in the
territories, and upon statehood, each territory
would determine whether it would be a slave state
or a free state.
Dred Scott
Dred Scott v. Sanford ( 1857)
53. Unalienable (inalienable) rights are
fundamental rights or natural rights guaranteed
to people naturally instead of by the law. List
three of these rights found in the Declaration of
Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness
54. What do we call a person of foreign birth who
is granted full citizenship?
Naturalized Citizen
55. What term applies to those individuals
who played a major role in declaring U.S.
independence, fighting the Revolutionary War, or
writing and adopting the U. S. Constitution?
Founding Fathers
56. The process of defying codes of conduct
within a community or ignoring the policies and
government of a state or nation when the civil
laws are considered unjust is called what?
Henry David Thoreau
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Mahatma Ghandi
Civil Disobedience
57. What do we call the movement to bring an end
to slavery in the United States?
Abolitionist Movement
58. A movement occurred in the 1730s and 1740s
in response to inflexible Puritan doctrine. A
lay ministry developed which preached personal
salvation by good works in contrast to
predestination as preached by Puritans. Others,
led by Jonathan Edwards, urged believers to
develop a personal relationship with God to gain
their personal salvation. What was the movement
The Great Awakening
59. Efforts to reform society took on renewed
purpose in the early 19th century. What was one
factor that led to increased reform activity?
Charles G. Finney
Second Great Awakening
60. What do we call evidence produced by someone
who participated in an event or lived during the
time being studied?
Primary Sources
61. What do we call descriptions or
interpretations of events prepared by people who
are not involved in the events described?
Secondary Sources
62. Born in Boston, he was the leader of the
Sons of Liberty and organized the Committees of
Correspondence. Who was he?
Samuel Adams
63. He was an inventor, published Poor
Richards Almanack, and negotiated the Treaty of
Alliance with France during the Revolutionary
War. Name him.
Benjamin Franklin
64. Who was king of England during the American
George III
65. He was the principal author of the
Declaration of Independence, founder of the
Democratic-Republican Party, and the President
who purchased the Louisiana Territory from
Thomas Jefferson
66. He was the leading propagandist of the
American Revolution. He wrote Common Sense,
which led Americans to declare independence, and
The Crisis, which inspired American soldiers
during the Revolution.
Thomas Paine
67. He was the Commander of the Continental Army
during the American Revolution and the First
President of the United States of America. He was
also known as the Father of our Country.
George Washington
68. Known as Old Hickory, he contributed to
the democratic spirit in America, becoming the
symbol of the common man. He won the Battle of
New Orleans during the War of 1812 and was
elected President in 1828 and 1832.
Andrew Jackson
69. He was a South Carolina senator who supported
states rights and defended slavery.
John C. Calhoun
70. He was known as the Great Compromiser for
his ability to smooth sectional conflict through
balanced legislation. First a senator then a
representative to the U.S. Congress from
Kentucky, he served as Speaker of the House for
the majority of his thirteen years of service
Henry Clay
71. He was noted for his speaking ability and his
commitment to preserving the union of states. In
a famous senate debate, he said, Liberty and
Union, now and forever, one inseparable!
Daniel Webster
72. From Mississippi, he was president of the
Confederate States of America during the Civil
Jefferson Davis
73. He was commander of the Union Army during the
Civil War. He was elected President in 1868 and
Ulysses S. Grant
74. From Virginia, he was commander of the
Confederate Army during the Civil War.
Robert E. Lee
75. He was President of the United States
during the Civil War. He helped build the
Republican Party, issued the Emancipation
Proclamation and delivered the Gettysburg
Abraham Lincoln
76. He was founder of the Federalist Party and
the nations first Secretary of Treasury
Alexander Hamilton
77. He was a member of the Virginia House of
Burgesses and a delegate to the First Continental
Congress. He was a fiery orator who said, Give
me liberty, or give me death!
Patrick Henry
78. Because of his leadership role
in writing and ratifying the U. S.
Constitution, he is considered the
Father of the Constitution. He was President
of the U. S. during the War of 1812. Who was
James Madison
79. He established a colony in Pennsylvania
as a refuge for the Quakers. He supported
freedom of worship and fair treatment of Native
William Penn
80. He was a leading American essayist, poet, and
practical philosopher. He wrote Walden
and the influential essay, Civil Disobedience.
He refused to pay taxes during the Mexican War
because of his opposition to slavery.

Henry David Thoreau
81. He was a Federalist and served as Chief
Justice of the Supreme Court for 34 years. He
established the authority of the court in
defining the limits of the U.S. Constitution and
the authority of the executive branch.
John Marshall
Frederick Douglass
82. He was a leading African-American
abolitionist in the nineteenth century who
captivated his audiences with his strong
presence. He published an abolitionist newspaper
called The North Star.
83. Who is considered the founder of the U.S.
Navy? In a famous Revolutionary War naval
battle he said, I have not yet begun to fight !
John Paul Jones

84. He was the fifth president of the United
States. He declared that the European powers
should not colonize or interfere in the affairs
of the nations in the Western Hemisphere in his
famous doctrine in 1823.
James Monroe
85. Along with Lucretia Mott, she organized the
first convention of the womens rights
movement, the Seneca Falls Convention.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
86. Where did the first two skirmishes of the
American Revolution occur?
Lexington and Concord
87. Which battle was considered the turning point
of the American Revolution?
Battle Of Saratoga
88. What was the final major battle of the
American Revolution?
Battle of Yorktown
89. What law did Congress pass in 1807 in
response to British impressment of American
sailors? It prohibited all exports from the
United States.
Embargo Act
90. Historically, what term applies to roads,
bridges, and canals paid for by the federal
Internal Improvements
91. What name was given to the intellectual
movement of the 1700s that stressed the power of
Ben Franklin
The Enlightenment
92. What is the term meaning country
outside the city?
93. What is the term having to do with cities?
94. Who is responsible for the invention of the
cotton gin and the idea for interchangeable parts?
Eli Whitney
Mexican War 1846-1848
95. A war caused by the U.S. annexation of Texas
and resulted in the acquisition of territory from
Texas to California.
Mexico City before the war

Mexico City American take over
96. Which group of colonies had an economy based
on fishing, shipping, and trade? They had a cold
climate and a short growing season. They used
town meetings to govern.
New England Colonies Massachusetts, Connecticut,
Rhode Island, New Hampshire
97. Which group of colonies were known as the
breadbasket colonies? They raised a lot of grain
crops and livestock and produced iron.
The Middle Colonies
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
98. Which group of colonies had the longest
growing season and the most fertile soil? They
grew cotton and tobacco.
Southern Colonies
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Georgia
99. Which Compromise at the Constitutional
Convention resolved the dispute between large and
small states over representation in Congress by
creating a bicameral legislature?
Great Compromise
100. Which compromise at the Constitutional
Convention resolved a dispute between northern
and southern states over the counting of slaves
for representation purposes?
Three-Fifths Compromise
The End
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