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Phrases and Clauses

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Phrases and Clauses THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF SENTENCES Now, write 5 complex sentences! Start a sentence with the dependent clause. Then, rewrite the sentence to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Phrases and Clauses


1
Phrases and Clauses
  • THE BUILDING BLOCKS
  • OF SENTENCES

2
  • PHRASE
  • a group of words that does not have both a
    subject and a verb
  • Ex. leaving behind the dog
  • smashing into the fence

3
  • CLAUSE
  • a group of words with both a subject verb
  • Ex. Because she smiled at him
  • I despise individuals with low character.

4
Types of Phrases
  • Prepositional phrases starts with a
    preposition, ends with a noun
  • Ex. Into the kitchen
  • Write a sentence on your own using a
    prepositional phrase.

5
Types of Phrases
  • Appositive phrase a noun or pronoun next to
    another noun or pronoun to explain it
  • Ex. A talented musician, Marc, plays in the
    school band.
  • Write your own sentence using an appositive
    phrase, then complete exercise 13 (1-10) on page
    159.

6
Types of Phrases
  • Participle phrase looks like a verb, but acts
    like an adjective. (present participle ends in
    -ing, past participle ends in -ed)
  • Ex. Seeing itself in the mirror, the cat was
    frightened. (Present participle)
  • Ex. Disgusted with the image, the cat arched his
    back. (Past participle)
  • Write a sentence with a participle phrase, and
    then complete exercise 6 (1-10) on page 150.

7
Types of Phrases
  • Gerund Phrase looks like a verb, but acts like
    a noun (Ends in ing)
  • Ex. The frantic darting of the fish indicated a
    shark was nearby.
  • Write a sentence using a gerund phrase, then
    complete practice exercise on pg 153 Exercise 8
    (1-10)

8
  • Infinitive Phrase a verb following to and can
    be used as noun, adj, or adv
  • Ex. The person to win the prize will give the
    correct response. In this case (used as adj)
  • Write a sentence using an infinitive phrase, then
    complete exercise 11 (1-10) on page 156.

9
  • INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
  • a complete thought that can stand alone.
  • Ex. I despise individuals with low character.

10
  • DEPENDENT CLAUSE
  • group of words with both a subject and verb
    cannot stand alone or it is a fragment.
  • Ex. Because she smiled at him,

11
Independent clauses a foundation and the frame
of the house.
12
dependent clauses like the windows or doors
(they enhance what is already there, but cant
function alone)
13
Independent vs Dependent
  • Independent Is a complete thought. The
    sentence can stand alone.
  • Ex. I like eating hamburgers every night.
  • Dependent Is not a complete thought. The
    sentence can not stand alone
  • Ex. Eating hamburgers for dinner every night

14
Examples of Dependent Sentences
  • 1. After I danced,
  • 2. Because he was hungry,
  • 3. Until I get an A,
  • 4. When I get my new pony,
  • 5. Since I love SpongeBob,

15
Examples of Independent Sentences
  • I watch Spongebob everyday.
  • I go outside to ride my bike, and I watch
    Spongebob daily.
  • Since Spongebob does not come on in the morning,
    I go outside to ride my bike.
  • Although I like to watch Spongebob, the show does
    not come on in the morning so I go outside and
    ride my bike.

16
  • SIMPLE SENTENCE
  • one independent clause
  • I like SpongeBob.
  • Write 5 simple sentences
  • about spongeBob.

17
  • Punctuating COMPOUND sentences 2 or more
    independent clauses
  • I like SpongeBob, and I like Plankton.

18
  • OR punctuate this way
  • 2 or more independent clauses
  • I like SpongeBob I like Plankton.

19
How do we punctuate compound sentences?
  • 1.) Comma and a conjunction (FANBOYS)
  • 2. ) Semicolon ()
  • SpongeBob makes Krabby patties.
  • (join these)
  • They are quite delicious!
  • Write 5 compound sentences about SpongeBob

20
Two ways to punctuate compound sentences!
  • SpongeBob makes Krabby patties,
  • and they are delicious.
  • SpongeBob makes Krabby patties they are
    delicious.

21
  • COMPLEX
  • dependent independent
  • Because he makes me laugh,
  • I like SpongeBob.

22
DEPENDENT CLAUSE starters
  • ADVERB STARTERS
  • after in order that until
  • although since when
  • as so that whenever
  • because than where
  • before though wherever
  • if unless while

23
DEPENDENT CLAUSE starters
  • ADJECTIVE STARTERS
  • 1) THAT
  • 2) WHO
  • 3) WHOM
  • 4) WHOSE
  • 5) WHICH

24
Whats the difference?
  • Adjective
  • Adjective phrase
  • Adjective clause

25
  • An adjective is a word that modifies or describes
    a noun
  • Ex. Spongebob is an experienced fry cook.
  • experienced describes the type of fry cook
    Spongebob is.
  • Write 5 sentences with adjectives. Underline the
    noun circle the adjective.

26
  • An adjective phrase is a group of words that acts
    like an adjective.
  • Ex. Spongebob is a fry cook with a lot of
    experience.
  • With a lot of experience is a phrase describing
    Spongebeb.
  • Write 5 sentences using adjective phrases that
    describes a noun. Underline the noun circle the
    adjective phrase

27
  • Adjective clause contains subject and verb, and
    begins with relative pronoun (who, whom, whose,
    that or which)
  • Ex. Spongebob, who loves the Krusty Krab, is
    never late for work.
  • Adjective clause, who loves the Krusty Crab,
    cannot stand alone as a sentence.
  • Write 5 sentences with adjective clauses.
    Underline the nouncircle the adjective clause

28
Dependent clause punctuation
  • Add a comma when a dependent clause starts a
    sentence!
  • Because he makes me laugh,
  • I like SpongeBob.

29
Dependent clause punctuation
  • Add a comma when a dependent clause starts a
    sentence
  • When I want entertainment, I watch SpongeBob.

30
Dependent clause punctuation
  • Add a comma when a dependent clause starts a
    sentence
  • If I get a choice of shows,
  • I watch SpongeBob.

31
Dependent clause punctuation
  • Do not use a comma when the dependent clause
    does not begin the sentence!
  • I like SpongeBob because he makes me laugh.

32
Heres my example!
  • When Gary runs away from home,
  • SpongeBob is devastated.
  • SpongeBob is devastated
  • when Gary runs away
  • from home.

33
Write two more complex sentences!
  • Use the dependent clause starter if
  • If you are hungry,
  • you should visit the Krusty Krab!
  • You should visit the Krusty Krab
  • if you are hungry.

34
Now, write 5 complex sentences!
  • Start a sentence with the dependent clause.
  • Then, rewrite the sentence to end with the
    dependent clause.
  • Use the dependent clause
  • starters when, because, if, since, and
    although
  • Remember, your clause must have a
    subject and a verb!

35
Could you turn our complex sentence into a
compound-complex sentence?
  • If you are hungry,
  • you should visit the Krusty Krab!

36
  • COMPOUND COMPLEX
  • 2 INDEPENDENT clauses
  • 1 DEPENDENT clause

37
EXAMPLES
  • Because they make me laugh,
  • I like SpongeBob,
  • and I like Plankton.

38
Turn these clauses into complex sentences
  • Patrick is annoying
  • Plankton wants the Krabby Patty recipe
  • The Hashslinging Slasher visits

39
COMMAS
  • AFTER INTRODUCTORY WORDS
  • AFTER INTRODUCTORY PHRASES
  • AFTER INTRODUCTORY CLAUSES
  • BETWEEN 2 INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
  • BEFORE THE CONJUNCTION

40
Introductory Words
  • Unfortunately, I love chocolate.
  • Therefore, I eat it often.
  • Also, I like ice cream.
  • But, I am allergic to it.
  • Thus, I should not eat it.
  • Once, I saw a Yettie.
  • Next, I saw Bigfoot.
  • Finally, I caught a leprechaun!

41
Introductory Phrases
  • To be or not to be, that is the question.
  • Inside the small garden, there is a gnome.
  • (prep phrases of 4 or more)

42
Introductory Dependent Clauses
  • When I grow up,
  • Before I become president,
  • Since I am so short,
  • Until I study for my test,

43
BETWEEN INDEPENDENT
  • St. Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland,
  • but he was originally British.
  • St. Patrick was captured by Irish raiders, and he
    worked as a slave for 6 years.
  • St. Patrick had a dream to escape, so he walked
    200 miles to the shore.

44
  • Whats the difference between
  • a phrase a clause?

45
On your own
  1. Write a phrase
  2. Write a clause
  3. Write a simple sentence
  4. Write a compound sentence
  5. Write a complex sentence
  6. Write a compound-complex sentence

46
Book Exercises
  • Simple Sentences pg. 186
  • Compound Sentences pg. 189
  • Complex Sentences pg. 192
  • Compound-Complex Sentences pg. 194
  • Review A and B, and Chapter Review pgs. 195-199
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