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Becoming Canada

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Title: Chapter 6 Author: ay2008427 Last modified by: Allison Elsdon Created Date: 2/5/2009 3:57:56 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Becoming Canada


1
Chapter 6
  • Becoming Canada

How did the war of 1812 and its political
consequences affect the developing Canadian
identity?
2
Conflict Renewed The War of 1812
Deadlock A situation where no progress can be
made.
3
The War of 1812
  • By 1812, tensions between Britain and the United
    States had heated up.
  • Why couldnt they get along?

4
The War of 1812
  • By 1812, tensions between Britain and the United
    States had heated up.
  • Why couldnt they get along?
  • Britain was at war with France. It stopped
    Americans from trading with the French they had
    blocked the ports.
  • The British were kidnapping American sailors to
    serve in the British navy.
  • The British were supporting the First Nations in
    the struggle for land the Americans wanted to
    expand.
  • Some Americans wanted to take over Britains
    colonies.

5
The War of 1812
  • The war began in 1812.
  • Could the British count of loyalty in British
    North America?

6
The War of 1812
  • The war began in 1812.
  • Could the British count of loyalty in British
    North America?
  • Many colonists were Americans who had arrived
    after the Loyalists for cheap land, not because
    they were loyal to Britain. They outnumbered the
    Loyalists four to one.
  • The Atlantic colonies depended on trade with the
    Americans along the Atlantic coast.
  • It had been almost 50 years since the French lost
    New France. Would the Canadiens rise up against
    Britain now?

7
The War Unfolds
  • British soldiers, local militia, and First
    Nations allies fought hard against the invaders.
  • KEY BATTLE April 1813, a fleet of American ships
    in Lake Ontario shot cannon fire at the town of
    York . American soldiers looted shops and houses.
    They burned down the government building.

8
The War Unfolds
  • KEY BATTLE August 1814, Britain invaded
    Washington, DC and burned down the US government
    buildings.

9
Laura Secord
10
Laura Secord
  • In 1813, Laura overheard
  • that the Americans were
  • planning an attack.
  • Leaving in the middle of the
  • night, she hiked 32kms
  • through swamp and forest to
  • warn the British.
  • Her efforts led to the capture of 500 American
    troops.

http//www.histori.ca/minutes/minute.do?id10118

11
The Impact of the War
  • The War of 1812 ended in a deadlock.
  • The Treaty of Ghent ended the war in December
    1814, requiring both sides to return any
    territory they had gained.
  • They agreed to make the 49th parallel of latitude
    the political boundary.
  • Who won?

12
The Impact of the War
  • The War of 1812 ended in a deadlock.
  • The Treaty of Ghent ended the war in December
    1814, requiring both sides to return any
    territory they had gained.
  • They agreed to make the 49th parallel of latitude
    the political boundary.
  • Who won?
  • NOBODY!

13
The Impact of the War
  • The Americans viewed the war as a triumph over
    Britain.
  • The people of Upper and Lower Canada saw the
    opposite they had stopped an American attack.
  • The First Nations could claim no victory
  • about 15,000 First Nations allies died in the war
    (more than British and American casualties
    combined)
  • The Americans refused to create a First Nations
    state, as Britain had proposed.

14
Conflict Renewed The War of 1812
4. Why couldnt the British and the United States
get along? (4 pts) 5. a) How did the War of 1812
end? (1pt) b) What were the results? (2 pts)
c)Who won? (2 pts)
15
The Great Migration

immigrants a person who moves to a new
country quarantine station A building or area
where people suspected of carrying a contagious
illness are kept so that they will not infect the
population.
16
The Great Migration
  • After the war, Britain was eager to open up the
    backwoods to farming.
  • They planned to fill its colonies with people
    from

17
The Great Migration
  • After the war, Britain was eager to open up the
    backwoods to farming.
  • They planned to fill its colonies with people
    from
  • Wales
  • Scotland Ireland

18
The Great Migration
  • Why leave Britain?
  • The population was growing quickly and jobs were
    scarce.
  • Farmers were being forced off land.
  • Poverty and hunger were common.
  • Why move to the colonies?
  • With peace, ocean travel was now safer.
  • The colonies offered free land, new
    opportunities, and a chance for a better life.

19
The Great Migration
Between 1815 and 1850 more than 800,000
immigrants came to the ports of Halifax, Saint
John and Québec City.
20
The Great Migration
Between 1815 and 1850 more than 800,000
immigrants came to the ports of Halifax, Saint
John and Québec City.
21
Coming to the Colonies
  • Immigrants travelled by ship.
  • The journey would take several weeks.
  • These ships were often referred to as coffin
    ships. Why the nickname?

22
Coming to the Colonies
  • coffin ships
  • Most immigrants were poor and could not afford
    the comfortable cabins the ships had to offer.
  • They crowded in the dark and filthy holds below
    deck.
  • Diseases ran rampant.
  • Many people died on these
  • voyages.

23
The Terrible Year
  • In 1847 immigration from Ireland leapt from
  • 20, 000 to 100, 000 immigrants a year.
  • The potato crop had failed leaving the Irish with
    nothing to eat.
  • Thousands left
  • Ireland to set
  • out for North
  • America.

24
The Terrible Year
  • A typhus epidemic broke out onboard the ships
    killing thousands of immigrants on their voyage
    to Canada.
  • Thousands more died while ships were quarantined
    on the St. Lawrence River at Grosse-Île.
  • In 1847 alone, 5424 people were buried on
    Grosse-Île.

Quarantine Station building.
Irish Memorial National Historic Site of Canada
25
The Terrible Year
  • In the 1850s, many Québec families adopted
    Irish orphans, their parents dead from ship's
    fever on the Atlantic crossing Out of sympathy
    for the victims and their homeland, orphanages
    were careful to preserve the Irish identity of
    the children, keeping a record of their natural
    parents, their parish and county of origin, and
    the vessel that brought them over. The records
    also included the names and addresses of the
    foster families, most of them French-Canadian.
    www.histori.ca
  • http//www.histori.ca/minutes/minute.do?id10165

26
Pioneer Life
  • Once they left their ships, the newcomers made
    their way inland by boat or wagon.
  • When the families reached their plot of land,
    each family faced the same challenge clearing
    the dense forest.

27
Pioneer Life
The women are discontented and unhappy. Few
enter with their whole heart into a settlers
life. They miss the little domestic comforts they
had been used to enjoy they regret the friends
and relations they left in the old country and
they cannot endure the loneliness of the
backwoods. Catherine Parr Trail 1812
28
A Very British Colony
  • The arrival of so many people from Britain
    changed
  • the identity of the British colonies
  • Vast areas opened for farming.
  • New industries (logging and mining) emerge.
  • Towns developed to serve the needs of the local
    community.
  • New jobs (labourers, servants, doctors, teachers,
    loggers, miners).
  • Followed British customs and traditions.
  • Played British games.
  • Spoke English.

29
The Underground Railroad
  • In 1833, Britain banned slavery in all of its
    colonies.
  • Canada was seen as the land of promise among
    the slaves in the southern United States.
  • http//www.histori.ca/minutes/minute.do?id10166

30
The Underground Railroad
  • The Underground Railroad was a network of escape
    routes that were described using railroad terms.
    Including
  • Passengers
  • conductors
  • stations

31
The Underground Railroad
  • The Underground Railroad was a network of escape
    routes that were described using railroad terms.
    Including
  • Passengers - runaway slaves fleeing from the
    South.
  • conductors - Their guides
  • stations safe locations ('safe houses',
    barns, and haylofts in the day)
  • Thousands of antislavery campaigners, both black
    and white, risked their lives to operate the
    railway.

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vpwudeKaCxjYfeature
related
32
The Underground Railroad
  • The Underground Railroad was a network of escape
    routes that were described using railroad terms.
    Including
  • Passengers - runaway slaves fleeing from the
    South.
  • conductors - Their guides
  • stations safe locations ('safe houses',
    barns, and haylofts in the day)
  • Thousands of antislavery campaigners, both black
    and white, risked their lives to operate the
    railway.

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vpwudeKaCxjYfeature
related
33
Getting the Message Out
  • Those involved in the Underground Railroad
    couldnt openly talk about how the railroad
    worked.
  • Slaves could not read or write it was illegal to
    teach a slave to do so.
  • They would pass on messages using codes in songs,
    stories, and images.

34
Getting the Message Out
  • Secret messages in the form of quilt patterns
    helped slaves escaping captivity in the Southern
    states.
  • The quilt patterns, used in a certain order,
    relayed messages to slaves preparing to escape.
  • Each square pattern represented a different
    meaning.

35
QUESTIONS
  • 6. Why were the ships that carried immigrants to
    Canada nicknamed coffin ships? (2 pts)
  • 7. Why was 1847 considered a terrible year for
    Canadian immigration? (3 pts)

36
The Underground Railroad
  • Answer ONE of the following questions. (5 pts)
  • 1. Imagine you are a slave. You have no rights
    and no freedom. Six days a week you toil in the
    fields for your master making him wealthy. One
    of your friends is talking about escaping north
    to freedom. Do you go with them? Explain your
    answer. Be sure to include reasons for escaping,
    hardships you must face/overcome, and possible
    sources of help. If you choose not to escape
    explain you reasons.
  • 2. You have been asked to hide a fugitive slave
    overnight. If you get caught, you will be sent
    to prison. What would you do? Explain your
    answer. Be sure to include your reasons for
    aiding the fugitive slave. If you decide not to
    hide the fugitive slave explain you reasons.
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