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Standard 10.2.1 The Enlightenment and Democratic Revolution

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Title: Standard 10.2.1 The Enlightenment and Democratic Revolution


1
Standard 10.2.1 The Enlightenment and Democratic
Revolution
  • Compare the major ideas of philosophers and their
    effects on the democratic revolutions in England,
    the United States, and France.

2
Vocabulary Terms for Standard 10.2.1
  • 1. Enlightenment- an 18th century European
    movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the
    principles of reason and the scientific method to
    all aspects of life.
  • 2. Natural Rights- Rights people are born with
  • 3. Revolution- To radical and complete change to
    in political organization
  • 4. Separation of Powers- government in which the
    executive, legislative, and judicial branches
    placed limits and control on each other
  • 5. Social Contract- an agreement among a whole
    society that it would be governed by a general
    will/what is best for the entire community.
  • 6. Branches of Government- government divided
    into two or more branches placing limits and
    control on each other.

3
Summary of the Enlightenment
  • The Enlightenment, an intellectual
  • movement that spread from Europe to
  • America in the 1700s, helped inspire
  • democratic revolutions in Europe, the
  • United States, and Latin America. Key
  • enlightenment writers included Locke,
  • Montesquieu, and Rousseau.

4
John Locke England (Slide 1)
  • John Locke (August 29, English
  • philosopher. Locke is considered
  • the first of the British Empiricists,
  • but is equally important 1632
  • October 28, 1704) was an to social
  • contract theory. His ideas had
  • enormous influence on the
  • development of epistemology and
  • political philosophy, and he is
  • widely regarded as one of the most
  • influential Enlightenment thinkers
  • and contributors to liberal theory.
  • His writings influenced Voltaire and
  • Rousseau, many Scottish
  • Enlightenment thinkers, as well as
  • the American revolutionaries. This
  • influence is reflected in the
  • American Declaration of
  • Independence.

5
John Locke England (Slide 2)
Thomas Jefferson
John Lockes Ideas and Influences
  • 1. People have natural rights to life, liberty,
    and the ownership of property.
  • 2. People form governments to protect these
    rights. Therefore, a government gets its
    authority form the people and should reflect
    their will.
  • Influence Lockes ideas influenced Thomas
    Jefferson, the main author of the Declaration of
    Independence, the basis of the American
    Revolution. It Stated that people have natural
    unalienable rights and that a government
    derives its power from the people

the Declaration of Independence
6
Charles-Louis Montesquieu France (Slide 1)
  • Montesquieu born on (January 18,
  • 1689 in Bordeaux February 10,
  • 1755),more commonly known as
  • Montesquieu, was a French social
  • commentator and political thinker who
  • lived during the Enlightenment. He is
  • famous for his articulation of the
  • theory of separation of powers, taken
  • for granted in modern discussions of
  • government and implemented in many
  • constitutions throughout the world.
  • He was largely responsible for the
  • popularization of the terms feudalism
  • and Byzantine Empire

Charles-Louis Montesquieu
7
Charles-Louis Montesquieu France (Slide 2)
James Madison
Charles-Louis Montesquieus Ideas and Influences
  • 1. Government should be kept under control
    through separation of powers-a divisions into
    independent parts so that no part has too much
    power.
  • 2. A way to guarantee balance is to have three
    branches of government
  • a legislative branch to make laws
  • an executive branch to carry out and enforce
    laws
  • a judicial branch to interpret the laws
  • Influence Montesquieus ideas influence
  • James Madison, Sometimes called the father of
  • the U.S. Constitution because of his
  • contributions at the 1787 Constitutional
  • Convention. The Constitution Separate powers
  • into three branches

U.S. Constitution
c
8
Jean-Jacques Rousseau France (Slide 1)
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (June 28, 1712 July 2,
    1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the
    Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced
    the French Revolution, the development of
    socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism.
    Perhaps Rousseau's most important work is The
    Social Contract, which outlines the basis for a
    legitimate political order. Published in 1762, it
    became one of the most influential works of
    political philosophy in the Western tradition.

9
Jean-Jacques Rousseau France (Slide 2)
Jean-Jacques Rousseaus Ideas and Influences
  • 1. A social contract exists between citizens and
    their government. In this contract, citizens
    accept certain rights and responsibilities, and
    grant the government the power to uphold those
    rights and responsibilities
  • Influence The ideas of Locke and Rousseau
    influenced Latin American revolutionary leader
    Simon Bolivar. Bolivar fought to liberate his
    country, present-day Venezuela, from Spanish
    rule. He also led movements for independence and
    democracy in what are now the nations of Bolivia,
    Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Peru.

10
Standard 10.2.1The Enlightenment and Democratic
Revolution Practice Questions 1 and 2
  • __1. The European intellectual movement that
    emphasized the
  • responsibility of government to protect
    people's natural
  • rights was called
  • A. Glorious Revolution
  • B. Reformation
  • C. Enlightenment
  • D. Great Awakening
  • __2. The phrase natural rights is original to
    and central to the
  • writings of which philosopher?
  • A. John Locke
  • B. Charles-Louis Montesquieu
  • C. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • D. James Madison

11
Standard 10.2.1The Enlightenment and Democratic
Revolution Practice Questions 3 and 4
  • ___3. The Declaration of Independence expresses
    the philosophy
  • that the power of government comes from
  • A. God
  • B. the people
  • C. natural rights
  • D. the Constitution
  • ___4. Which statement best summarizes the role of
    government in
  • the social contract?
  • A. Its basis is the rights and
    responsibilities of the people.
  • B. Its has legislative, executive, and
    judicial responsibilities.
  • C. It guarantees life, liberty, and the
    ownership of property.
  • D. Its main purpose is to interpret
    laws.

12
Standard 10.2.1The Enlightenment and Democratic
Revolution Practice Questions 5 and 6
  • ___5. What principle is directly reflected in the
    division of a
  • government into three branches?
  • A. natural laws
  • B. separation of powers
  • C. the social contract
  • D. democracy and independence
  • ___6. The ideas of Locke and Rousseau influenced
    Simon
  • Bolivar in his commitment to
  • A. maintain the peaceful rule of the
    Spanish king.
  • B. urge the Venezuelan government to
    separate into three
  • branches
  • C. negotiate a social contract between
    Spain and Latin
  • America.
  • D. fight for democratic revolution in
    Latin America.

13
Key and Grading Scale for Standard 10.2.1 The
Enlightenment
  • Key
  • 1 C
  • 2 A
  • 3 B
  • 4 A
  • 5 B
  • 6 D

Number Correct Grade Points
6 A 10
5 B 08
4 C 07
3 D 06
2 F 05
1 F 05
14
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