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Chapter Fourteen Leadership – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leadership

Chapter Fourteen
In-class exercise
  • When you hear the word leader, who comes to mind?
  • When asked why, what verb dominates your
    explanation? For example, this leader
  • Accomplished ___
  • Was able to ____
  • Did ___
  • Etc.

Chapter Fourteen Outline
  • Trait and Behavioral Theories of Leadership
  • Trait Theory
  • Behavioral Styles Theory
  • Situational Theories
  • Fiedlers Contingency Model
  • Path-Goal Theory
  • Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership

Chapter Fourteen Outline (continued)
  • From Transactional to Charismatic Leadership
  • How Does Charismatic Leadership Transform
  • Research and Managerial Implications
  • Additional Perspectives on Leadership
  • The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model of
  • Substitutes for Leadership
  • Servant-Leadership
  • Superleadership

Trait Theory

Leadership Traits represent the personal
characteristics that differentiate leaders from
  • Historic findings reveal that leaders and
    followers vary by- intelligence- dominance-
    self-confidence- level of energy and activity-
    task-relevant knowledge
  • Contemporary findings show that- leadership
    prototype people tend to perceive that someone
    is a leader when he or she exhibits traits
    associated with intelligence, masculinity, and
    dominance- leadership prototypes culturally
    based- credible leaders are honest,
    forward-looking, inspiring, and competent

Trait Theory (continued)
  • Gender and leadership

- men and women were seen as displaying more
task and social leadership, respectively -
women used a more democratic or participative
style than men, and men used a more autocratic
and directive style than women - men and women
were equally assertive - women executives, when
rated by their peers, managers and direct
reports, scored higher than their male
counterparts on a variety of effectiveness
Behavioral Styles Theory
  • Ohio State Studies identified two critical
    dimensions of leader behavior.1. Consideration
    creating mutual respect and trust with
    followers2. Initiating Structure organizing and
    defining what group members should be doing
  • University of Michigan Studies identified two
    leadership styles that were similar to the Ohio
    State studies- one style was employee centered
    and the other was job centered
  • Blake and Moutons Managerial Grid represents
    four leadership styles found by crossing concern
    for production and concern for people
  • Research shows that there is not one best
    style of leadership. The effectiveness of a
    particular leadership style depends on the
    situation at hand.

Representation of Fiedlers Contingency Model
High ControlSituations
Moderate Control Situations
Low ControlSituations
Leader-memberrelations Task Structure Position
Good Good Good High High
Low Strong Weak Strong
Good Poor Poor Low High
High Weak Strong Weak
Poor Poor Low Low
Strong Weak
Optimal LeadershipStyle
Task Motivated Leadership
Relationship Motivated Leadership
Task Motivated Leadership
Houses Path-Goal Theory
Employee Characteristics- Locus of control-
Task ability- Need for achievement-
Experience- Need for clarity
  • Leader Behavior- Path-goal clarifying
  • Achievement oriented
  • Work facilitation
  • Supportive- Interaction facilitation
  • (refer to p 355 for rest of revision)
  • Leaderhip Effectiveness
  • - Employee motivation - Employee satisfaction
  • Employee performance
  • Acceptance of leader
  • Work unit performance

Environmental Factors- Task structure- Work
group dynamics
Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership
Figure 14-3
Leader Behavior
Selling S2 Explain decisions and provide
opportunity for clarification
Participating S3 Share ideas and facilitate in
decision making
Relationship Behavior(supportive behavior)
Delegating S4 Turn over responsibility
for decisions and implementation
Telling S1 Provide specific instructions and
closely supervise performance
Task Behavior
ReadinessHigh Moderate Low
R4 R3 R2 R1
Skills and Best Practices Tips for Improving
Leader Effectiveness
Behavior Recommended Behaviors

Source CEOs Need to Listen, Examine, Assist,
The Arizona Republic, April 22, 2001, p D2.
Transactional versus Transformational Leadership
  • Transactional Leadership focuses on the
    interpersonal interactions between managers and
  • Transactional Leaders- use contingent rewards to
    motivate employees- exert corrective action only
    when employees fail to obtain performance goals

Transactional versus Transformational Leadership
  • Charismatic Leadership emphasizes symbolic
    leader behavior that transforms employees to
    pursue organizational goals over self-interests
  • Charismatic Leaders- use visionary and
    inspirational messages- rely on non-verbal
    communication- appeal to ideological values-
    attempt to intellectually stimulate employees-
    display confidence in self and followers- set
    high performance expectations
  • For class discussion and Exercise Should a
    leader be both transactional and charismatic? In
    what situations would it be important that
    transactional leadership dominate? Charismatic?

Transformational Model of Leadership
Individual and Organizational Characteristics
Effects onfollowers andwork groups
  • Traits
  • Personal commitment to leader and vision
  • Leader establishes a vision
  • Increased intrinsic motivation, achievement
    orientation, and goal pursuit
  • Organizational Culture

Charismatic Model of Leadership (cont)

Individual and Organizational Characteristics
Effects onfollowers andwork groups
  • Self-sacrificial behavior
  • Organizational commitment
  • Task meaningfulness and satisfaction
  • Increased individual group, and organizational
  • Traits
  • Leader establishes high performance expectations
    and displays confidence in him/herself and the
    collective ability to realize the vision
  • Leader models the desired values, traits,
    beliefs, and behaviors needed to realize the
  • Increased identification with the leader and the
    collective interests of organizational members
  • Increased cohesion among workgroup members
  • Increased self-esteem, self-efficacy, and
    intrinsic interests in goal accomplishment
  • Increased role modeling of charismatic leadership
  • Organizational Culture

The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX Model)
  • This model is based on the idea that one of two
    distinct types of leader-member exchange
    relationships evolve, and these exchanges are
    related to important work outcomes.- in-group
    exchange a partnership characterized by mutual
    trust, respect and liking- out-group exchange a
    partnership characterized by a lack of mutual
    trust, respect and liking
  • Research supports this model

Servant and Superleadership
  • Servant Leadership represents a philosophy in
    which leaders focus on increased service to
    others rather than to oneself.
  • A superleader is someone who leads others to lead
    themselves by developing employees
    self-management skills.
  • Superleaders attempt to increase employees
    feelings of personal control and intrinsic

Characteristics of the Servant-Leader
  • 1. Listening Servant-leaders focus on listening
    to identify and clarify the needs and desires
    of a group.
  • 2. Empathy Servant-leaders try to empathize
    with others feelings and emotion. An
    individuals good intentions are assumed even
    when he or she performs poorly.
  • 3. Healing Servant-leaders strive to make
    themselves and others whole in the face of
    failure or suffering.
  • 4. Awareness Servant-leaders are very self-aware
    or their strengths and limitations.

Characteristics of the Servant-Leader (continued
  • 5. Persuasion Servant-leaders rely more on
    persuasion than positional authority when
    making decisions and trying to influence
  • 6. Conceptualization Servant-leaders take the
    time and effort to develop broader based
    conceptual thinking. Servant-leaders seek
    an appropriate balance between a short-
    term, day-to-day focus and a long-term,
    conceptual orientation.
  • 7. Foresight Servant-leaders have the ability to
    foresee future outcomes associated with a
    current course of action or situation.

Characteristics of the Servant-Leader (continued)
  • 8. Stewardship Servant-leaders assume that they
    are stewards of the people and resources
    they manage.
  • 9. Commitment to Servant-leaders are committed to
    peoplethe growth of beyond their immediate work
    role. Theypeople commit to fostering an
    environment that encourages personal,
    professional, and spiritual growth.
  • 10. Building Servant-leaders strive to create a
    sense of Community community both within and
    outside the work organization.

Leadership Organizational Perspective
  • From The Ropes to Skip and the Ropes to Know,
    Ritti and Levy, 7th edition, Wiley
  • We have a fascination with leaders.
  • Do times make the leader or is a leader born?
  • What do we know?
  • Leadership in organizations is enacted
  • Management efficacy or the capacity to produce
    results attributed to leaders

Leadership Organizational Perspective
  • Organizations provide a cultural context which
    provides a notion of what an effective leader is
  • The organization must perform
  • Leader must play the role
  • Communication is crucial
  • One needs to convince people
  • Must be seen as true
  • And relate to existing organizational culture
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