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Ethics

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Ethics Chapter Six Virtue Ethics Virtue Ethics Virtue Ethics Virtue Ethics centers in the heart and personality of the agent, in their character Virtue Ethics ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ethics


1
Ethics
  • Chapter Six
  • Virtue Ethics

2
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics centers in the heart and
    personality of the agent, in their character
  • Virtue Ethics emphasizes being, being a certain
    kind of person who will no doubt manifest their
    being in actions or non action
  • The question is What sort of person should I
    become
  • Virtue Ethics seeks to produce excellent people
    Jesus, Gandhi, Mother Teresa

3
Virtue Ethics
  • The Bishop and the Candlesticks by Hugo
  • What was Valijeans original sentence for and how
    long was he imprisoned?
  • Where did he stop along the way?
  • What did Valijean ask for? (bed, meal)
  • What did he receive? (bed, meal, respect )
  • What was the Bishops idea about, visitors, the
    house and items in the house (poor?)

4
Virtue Ethics
  • The Bishop and the Candlesticks by Hugo
  • Why do you think the Bishop didnt lecture
    Valijean, ask his country, history or crime?
  • Why was Valijean concerned about where he slept?
  • What did Valijean do to repay the Bishop for his
    kindness?
  • How did the Bishop respond to Valijeans actions
    with the residents, to Valijean?

5
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics by Aristotle
  • Virtues are traits that enable us to live well in
    communities
  • While the intellectual virtues may be taught
    directly, the moral ones must be lived in order
    to be learned
  • The moral life consists in moderation, living in
    accordance with the Golden Mean and middle
    ground between extremes

6
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics by Aristotle
  • Every action and purpose, may said to aim at some
    good and the ends are sometimes the results
    beyond the mere activities, ends are beyond the
    action
  • Take the act of making bridles
  • This results in horsemanship
  • Which results in military action
  • Other arts or sciences are combined for others

7
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics by Aristotle
  • But there are some actions which are done for
    their own sake and this end will be labeled as
    the Supreme Good
  • The good of an individual by himself is something
    worth working for to ensure the good of a nation
    or state and this is nobler and more divine

8
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics by Aristotle
  • The life on money making is a life of constraint
  • It is useful merely as a means to something else
  • In medicine it is health
  • In strategy, victory
  • In architecture, a house
  • It is evident that these are not final ends

9
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics by Aristotle
  • But the highest good is clearly something final
    and this is what we should be searching
  • Happiness is something we desire for its own sake
    and never as a means to something else
  • Happiness is something final and self sufficient
    and the end fo all action

10
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics by Aristotle
  • Moral virtues can best be acquired by practice
    and habit
  • They imply a right attitude toward pleasures and
    pains
  • Intellectual virtues originated and are fostered
    mainly by teaching, it demands experience and
    time
  • Moral virtue is the outcome of habits and is not
    implanted in us by nature

11
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics by Aristotle
  • The life on money making is a life of constraint
  • It is useful merely as a means to something else
  • Sensual pleasures, honor and virtue are ends in
    themselves

12
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics by Aristotle
  • Nature gives us the capacity to receive to
    receive virtues, and that capacity is perfected
    by habit
  • We first possess the proper faculties and
    afterwards display the activities
  • We become builders by building
  • If this were not so, there would be no need of
    anybody to teach ethics

13
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics by Aristotle
  • So, it is our actions in the dealings we have
    with others that we become just or unjust
  • But, how do we become good ?
  • A commonly acceptable principle is that we should
    act in accordance with right reason
  • But, at the same time we should always take into
    consideration the circumstances of the actors and
    done in moderation (too much is bad to little is
    bad)

14
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics by Aristotle
  • The doer at the time of performing the acts must
    satisfy certain conditions
  • He must know what he is doing
  • He must deliberately choose to do it and do it
    for its own sake
  • He must do it as part of his own firm and
    immutable character

15
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics by Aristotle
  • The just man becomes just by doing what is just
  • If a man did not act, he would not have much
    chance of becoming good

16
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics by Aristotle
  • Virtue is a state of deliberate moral purpose
    consisting of a mean relative to ourselves
  • How do we determine these means?
  • The mean is determined by reason or as a prudent
    man would determine

17
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics by Aristotle
  • But not every action or emotion admits a mean
  • Some actions are just wicked and it is never
    possible to be right in them
  • They are always sinful
  • However these acts are done the are done wrong

18
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics by Aristotle
  • Moral virtue is a mean, and in what sense it is
    so, that it is a mean as lying between two vices
  • Anybody can give or spend money, but to give it
    to the right person, to give the right amount of
    it, at the right time, for the right cause and in
    the right
  • This is not what anybody can do, nor is it easy

19
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue Ethics by Aristotle
  • Aristotle concludes we ought to aim at one time
    towards an excess and at another towards a
    deficiency
  • It this way we shall most easily hit the mean and
    reach excellence

20
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue and the Moral Life by Mayo
  • The saints and heroes show us that a living
    example, not rigid rules, is important in ethics
  • We learn more about ethics by looking at the
    lives of such people than by learning a set of
    principles

21
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue and the Moral Life by Mayo
  • Being involves doing, whereas an ethics of doing,
    such as I have been examining, may easily
    overlook it
  • A morality of principles is concerned only with
    what people do or fail to do
  • People might well have no moral qualities at all
    except the possession of principles and the will
    to act accordingly

22
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue and the Moral Life by Mayo
  • What ought I to do?
  • The answer must be derived from a conjunction of
    premises consisting firstly of a rule
  • And secondly a statement to effect that this is a
    situation of that type falling under that rule

23
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue and the Moral Life by Mayo
  • What ought I to do?
  • What if I encounter a case without precedent in
    my moral career
  • Then I must create a new rule about what I should
    do now and in the future
  • Suppose the new rule is inconsistent with my
    existing moral code
  • Now I need a whole new set of rules and new
    principles to live by

24
Virtue Ethics
  • Virtue and the Moral Life by Mayo
  • What ought I to do?
  • So, the question is answered, not by quoting a
    rule or set of rules, but by describing a quality
    of character or type of person
  • The heroes and saints did not merely give us
    principles to live by, they gave us examples to
    follow

25
Virtue Ethics
  • The Great Stone Face by Hawthorne
  • The legend was that a child would be born in the
    area who was destined to become the greatest and
    noblest personage of his time and image in
    adulthood should bear the exact resemblance to
    the Great Stone Face
  • Ernest longed to see such a man

26
Virtue Ethics
  • The Great Stone Face by Hawthorne
  • There was the wealthy merchant Mr. Gathergold
    who everyone believed was the spitting image of
    Old Stone Face
  • But as time went by people no longer believed him
    bear any resemblance to the Great Stone Face and
    would not be the man who would fulfill the legend

27
Virtue Ethics
  • The Great Stone Face by Hawthorne
  • Next there was Old Blood and Thunder a war
    veteran
  • Ernest thought that the person to complete the
    legend would be a man of peace, uttering wisdom,
    doing good and making people happy
  • Although everyone remarked that Old Blood and
    thunder looked like the Old Stone Face, Ernest
    could not see it, other lost faith too

28
Virtue Ethics
  • The Great Stone Face by Hawthorne
  • During the time Ernest waited for the legend to
    be fulfilled he became a preacher
  • His words and thought were completed in the good
    deeds that he accomplished

29
Virtue Ethics
  • The Great Stone Face by Hawthorne
  • Then came a eminent statesman
  • He was very well spoken and everyone again
    thought this was the man that would satisfy the
    prophecy
  • Townspeople thought he bore a resemblance to the
    Great Stone Face
  • Once again Ernest couldnt see it and was
    disappointed

30
Virtue Ethics
  • The Great Stone Face by Hawthorne
  • Meanwhile, Ernests reputation had grown outside
    the valley
  • College professors came to converse with Ernest
  • Ernest had ideas unlike those of other men not
    gained from books, but from a higher tone

31
Virtue Ethics
  • The Great Stone Face by Hawthorne
  • Finally, a poet came to prominence and he was
    hailed as the one who would be the one to answer
    the prophecy
  • Once again, Ernest was not convinced this was the
    man who would complete the legend
  • It was the poet who discovered that Ernest was
    the person to fulfill the prophecy
  • But Ernest would not accept that honor and walked
    away still waiting for another

32
Virtue Ethics
  • A Critique of Virtue Based Ethical Systems
  • For every virtue there must be some possible
    action to which the virtue corresponds and form
    which it derives its virtuousness
  • The virtue of truthfulness corresponds to the
    principle of truth

33
Virtue Ethics
  • A Critique of Virtue Based Ethical Systems
  • Virtues are dispositions or traits that are not
    wholly innate
  • They must all be acquired at least in part by
    teaching and practice
  • They all involve a tendency to do certain kinds
    of actions in certain kinds of situations not
    just to think or feel in certain ways

34
Virtue Ethics
  • A Critique of Virtue Based Ethical Systems
  • Morality should be conceived as primarily
    concerned with, not rules or principles, by with
    the cultivation of such dispositions or traits of
    character
  • So, what dispositions or traits are moral
    virtues?

35
Virtue Ethics
  • A Critique of Virtue Based Ethical Systems
  • Trait egoism replies that the virtues are the
    dispositions that are most conducive to ones own
    good or welfare
  • Trait utilitarianism says virtues are those
    traist that most promote the general good
  • Trait deontological hold that certain traits are
    morally good simply as such

36
Virtue Ethics
  • A Critique of Virtue Based Ethical Systems
  • The Greeks believed there were four cardinal
    virtues
  • Wisdom
  • Courage
  • Temperance
  • Justice

37
Virtue Ethics
  • A Critique of Virtue Based Ethical Systems
  • The Christians had seven cardinal virtues
  • The Theological Virtues
  • Faith, Hope, Love
  • The Human Virtues
  • Prudence, Fortitude, Temperance and Justice

38
Virtue Ethics
  • A Critique of Virtue Based Ethical Systems
  • Ethics of virtue seem to provide for such an
    aspiration more naturally than an ethics of duty
    of principle
  • Moral saints and heroes who go beyond the merely
    good man
  • They serve as an inspiration to others to be
    better and do more than they would otherwise be
    or do

39
Virtue Ethics
  • A Critique of Virtue Based Ethical Systems
  • For use to accomplish this we must somehow attain
    and develop an ability to be aware of others as
    persons, as important to themselves as wer are
    to ourselves and to have a lively and sympathetic
    representation in imagination of their interests
    and of the effects of our actions on their lives
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