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Title: AFRICA%20Chapter%2017

AFRICAChapter 17
Section 1 Egypt
  • About the same size asTexas and New
  • Most of Egypt is desert.
  • The importance of The Nile River
  • The Nile River is Egypts lifeline, which
    supplies 85 of the countrys water.
  • Most agriculture is done along the Nile.
  • Without the Nile, Egypt would be unable to
    support its population.
  • The Nile River begins in east Africa and flows
    north to the Mediterranean Sea.
  • You will find mud-brick villages, ancient ruins,
    and some modern buildings.
  • Silt small particles of rich soil.

Egypt continued
  • The triangle-shaped Sinai Peninsula lies
    southeast of the Nile delta. This area is a
    major crossroads between Africa and Southwest
  • East of the Nile River spread the Eastern Desert,
    also known as the Arabian Desert.
  • Suez Canal is a human-made waterway built by
    Europeans in 1860s.
  • The Suez Cana connects the Mediterranean Sea with
    the Red Sea.
  • This avoids ships traveling all the way around
  • Suez Canal

Egypt continued
  • Wherever you go in Egypt, you find a dry desert
    climate with hot summers and mild winters.
  • Cairo, the capital of Egypt.
  • In springtime, Egypt brings hot winds instead of
    cooling rains.
  • Winds can reach up to 87 miles per hour, which
    can harm crops and damage houses.

Egypts Economy
  • Egypt has a developing economy, which has grown
  • 2 of Egypts land is used for farming.
  • Major crops include sugarcane, grains,
    vegetables, fruits, and cotton.
  • Raw cotton, cotton yarn, and clothing are among
    the countrys main exports.
  • Egypts major economic activity is agriculture.
  • Delta, is a land formed from soil developed by a
    river at its mouth.
  • Egypts main energy resource is oil. Found in
    and around the Red Sea.
  • Petroleum products make up almost half the value
    of Egypts exports.
  • The flow of water in the Nile River has been
    controlled by the Aswan High Dam.
  • This dam gives people control over the Niles

The Egyptians
  • Today about 94 of Egypts people are Muslims.
  • Egypt is a republic, a government headed by a
    president. A legislature makes the laws, but the
    president has broad powers in running the
  • Fellahin, Egyptian peasant farmers.
  • Any food left over is sold in towns at a bazaar,
    or marketplace.
  • Life is more modern in Egypts cities.
  • Cairo is a huge and rapidly growing city with 8
    million people in its central area, with another
    7 million living in its suburbs.
  • Cairo is the largest city in Africa.
  • Cairo has been a leading center of the Muslim
  • Mosques are places of worship for followers of
  • Cairos population is increasing rapidly. Why?
  • Egypt is a country with a high birthrate.
  • Many fellahin (Egyptian peasant farmers) have
    moved to Cairo to find work.
  • Why is this bad for Egypt?
  • The city can not provide enough houses, schools
    and hospitals for all of its people.
  • Poverty, snarled traffic, and pollution have

Section 2 Libya and the Maghreb
  • Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Moroccomake up the
    rest of North Africa.
  • Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco form a region
    known as the Maghreb, which means the land
    farthest west.
  • These 3 countries were given the name because
    they are the western most part of the
    Arabic-speaking Muslim world.

  • Is slightly larger than Alaska.
  • Libya is a desert area with only a few oases
    (fertile or green area in a desert).
  • The Sahara Desert covers more than 90 of Libya.
  • Temperatures in the coastal areas can reach 110
  • Libya has no permanent rivers, but aquifers, an
    underground rock layers that store large amounts
    of water, lie beneath the vast desert.
  • In the 1990s, the government built pipelines to
    carry underground water from the desert to
    coastal areas.
  • The discovery of oil in Libya in 1959 brought the
    country great wealth.
  • Libya went from being a very poor country to a
    wealthy one. Oil revenues have provided good jobs
    for many Libyans as well as the ability to import
    food, build schools, and hospitals, and maintain
    a strong military force.
  • About 86 of Libyans live along the Mediterranean
  • Libyas government is a dictatorship, a
    government under the control of one all-powered

  • About the size of Georgia.
  • Tunisia is North Africas smallest country.
  • Along the fertile coast, farmers grow wheat,
    olives, citrus fruits, and vegetables.
  • Speak Arabic and practice Islam.
  • Tunis, is the capital and largest urban area of

  • One and half timesthe size of Alaska.
  • Algeria is the largest country in North Africa.
  • Along the Mediterranean coast,you will find
    hills, plains, and their bestfarmland.
  • Inland, the land slopes up to the Atlas
  • Between the Atlas Mountains and the Ahaggar
    (uh.HAH.guhr) lies an area of the Sahara known
    as ergs, or huge, shifting sand dunes.
  • Must import about 1/3 of their food. Which
    ispaid by selling oil and natural gas pumped
    from the Sahara.
  • Today, Algeria is a republic, with a strong
    president and a legislature.
  • Algiers, the countrys capital and largest city.
    Nearly 2.2 million people.
  • The older sections of the Algiers is called
    casbahs. Here you will walk down narrow streets,
    stopping to bargain with merchants in bazaars.

  • Slightly larger thanCalifornia.
  • Borders 2 bodies of water Mediterranean Sea
    on the north andthe Atlantic Oceanon the west.
  • Strait of Gibraltar separates Africa and Europe
    by only 8 miles.

Morocco continued.
  • Farmers on Moroccos fertile coastal plains grow
    sugar beets, grains, fruits, and vegetables for
    sale to Europe.
  • Many raise livestock, especially sheep.
  • Morocco is a leading producer of phosphates
    (mineral salt used in fertilizer).
  • Today, Morocco is a constitutional monarchy,
    where a king or queen is head of state, but
    elected officials run the government. In
    Morocco, the monarch still holds many powers.
  • Has about 30.7 million people.
  • Casablanca, the largest city is home to about 3.7
    million people.
  • Culture is based on Arab, Berber, and African
  • Rabat is Moroccos capital, with 2.3 million

Chapter 20 Central Africa
Section 1 Central Africa
  • Central Africa includes 7 countries.
  • Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Congo
  • Gabon
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Sao Tome/Principe

Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • ¼ the size of the United States.
  • Has only about 23 miles of coastline Most of
    its land borders other African countries nine
    in all.
  • High, rugged mountains rise in the eastern part
    of the country.
  • 4 large lakes
  • Lake Albert
  • Lake Edward
  • Lake Kivu
  • Lake Tanganyika is the longest fresh water lake
    in the world and also the 2nd deepest.

Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • One of the worlds largest rain forests covers
    the center of the Democratic Republic of the
  • The treetops form a canopy, an umbrella-like
    forest covering.
  • Canopy is so thick that sunlight rarely reaches
    the forest floor.
  • More than 750 different kinds of trees.
  • The Congo River
  • Is about 2,800 miles long weaving its way
    through the country on its journey to the
    Atlantic Ocean.
  • Congo River is Africas 2nd longest river and it
    flows through the heart of the Democratic
    Republic of the Congo.
  • The river current is so strong that it carries
    freshwater about 100 miles into the ocean.
  • Provides hydroelectric power, electricity
    generated by flowing water.
  • Produces more than 10 of all the worlds
    hydroelectric power.
  • Congo River is also the countrys highway for
    trade and travel.

Democratic Republic of the Congo continued.
  • The country exports gold, petroleum, diamonds,
    and copper.
  • DR of the Congo is a main source of diamonds.
    Most of these diamonds are used in strong
    industrial tools that cut metal.
  • DR of the Congo has not become a wealthy nation
    due to several reasons.
  • Difficulty of transportation.
  • Many of the minerals are found deep in the
    countrys interior.
  • Lack of roads and the thick rain forests make it
    hard to reach these areas.
  • Political unrest. For many years, power-hungry
    leaders kept the nations wealth for themselves.

DR of the Congo continued
  • 56.6 million people with more than 200 different
    ethnic groups.
  • Kongo people French language, but many people
    speak local languages such as Lingala or
    Kingwana. More than 75 of Congolese are
    Christians, mostly Roman Catholic.
  • Kinshasa, the capital has about 6 million people.
  • Was once named Zaire in 1960. The government was
    overthrown, and the country was given a new name.
    Zaire became the Democratic Republic of the

Cameroon and the Central African Republic
  • Lie just northof the Equator.
  • Most people farmfor a living.
  • A few largeplantations raise cacao (chocolate),
    cotton,tobacco, and rubber for export.
  • Some herd livestock in areas that are safe from
    tsetse fly, a parasite that is often transmitted
    by a bite, which causes a deadly disease called
    sleeping sickness. See page 576 to find out more
    about sleeping sickness.
  • Both of these countries are beginning to
    industrialize. Cameroon is having a greater
    success because it has coastal ports and forest
    products, petroleum, and bauxite.
  • Central African Republic can claim only diamond
    mining as an important industry.
  • French is the official language in Central
    African Republic yet most of the people speak
    Sango, the national language of Central African
  • Cameroon uses both English and French as its
    official language.

Congo and Gabon
  • The Ubangi River andthe Congo River provide
    Congo with hydroelectric power and access to
    the Atlantic Ocean for trade and transport.
  • More than half of Congos and Gabons people
    farm small plots of land.
  • Both countries rely on exports of lumber.
  • Congo exports diamonds.
  • Gabon suffers from deforestation or widespread
    cutting of too many trees.
  • Gabon has valuable deposits of manganese and
  • Only 1.3 million people live in Gabon mainly
    along rivers or in the coastal capital,
  • Congos 3.7 million people generally live along
    the Atlantic Coast or near the capital,

Island Countries
  • Equatorial Guinea includes land on the mainland
    of Africa and 5 islands.
  • 500,000 people.
  • Malabo, the largest city, and capitalcity of
    Equatorial Guinea. Located on the countrys
    largest island.
  • Farming, fishing, and forestry are main economic
  • Oil was recently discovered and now leads all
    other exports.
  • Sao Tome and Principe gained independence from
    Portugal in 1975.
  • 200,000 people live here today.
  • Sao Tome and Principe are volcanic islands.
  • Soil is rich and productive due to volcanic ash.
  • Grow various crops, including coconuts, and
    bananas for export.
  • Biggest export crop is cacao, which is used to
    make cocoa and chocolate.

Chapter 20 Section 2 Kenya
Section 2Kenya
  • The Masai (mah.SY) are one of Kenyas many ethnic
  • The Masai follow ways of life similar to their
  • Kenya is about two times the size of Nevada.
  • The Indian Ocean lies to the southeast that is
    lined with white beaches.
  • Coral Reef is natural formation at or near the
    waters surface that is made of the skeletons of
    small sea animals.
  • In the center of Kenya you will find lions,
    elephants, rhinoceroses, and other wildlife
    roaming the upland plains.
  • Poaching, illegal hunting of protected animals.
    This has been a problem even on the millions of
    acres that are set aside by the government in
    order to protect plants and wildlife.

Kenya continued.
  • In the western part of Kenya you will find
    highlands and the Great Rift Valley which is
    really a fault a crack in the earths crust.
    The Great Rift Valley begins in the southeastern
    Africa and stretches about 3,000 miles north to
    the Red Sea.
  • The Great Rift Valleyhttp//

Kenya continued
  • Due to the Great Rift Valley, lakes have formed
    in many places and volcanoes also dot the area.
    One of them is Mt. Kenya, rises 17,058 feet high.
    It is found in the Great Rift Valley that
    fossils of early human ancestors have been found
    dating back over 4 million years.

Kenyas Economy
  • Kenyas economy is based on a free enterprise
    system, which means people can start and run
    businesses with limited government involvement.
  • Kenyas capital is Nairobi (ny.ROH.bee).
  • Many Kenyans remain poor.
  • Farmers raise corn, bananas, cassava, a plant
    whose roots are ground to make porridge, and
    sweet potatoes.
  • Some larger farms raise coffee and tea for
  • Tourism has been one of the fastest growing
    industries in Kenya.
  • Many tourists take tours called safaris in jeeps
    and buses to see the countrys wildlife in its
    natural surroundings.

Kenyas History and Government
  • Swahili language emerged when the Arab culture
    blended with African culture.
  • Swahili comes from an Arabic word meaning of the
  • Contains several African languages as well as
  • Kenyas 2 official languages are Swahili and
    English. Lets take a look at Swahili language.
  • http//

Kenya Today
  • Roughly 31 million people are divided among 40
    different ethnic groups.
  • Kikuyu (kee.KOO.yoo) people are Kenyas main
    group (1/4 of the population).
  • Most Kenyans live in rural areas where they
    struggle to grow crops many have moved to cities
    in search of a better life.
  • People of Kenya believe in harambee, which means,
    pulling together.
  • 1/3 of Kenyas people live in cities.
  • Nairobi is the largest city with about 2.3
    million people.
  • Mombasa is Kenyas chief port and has the best
    harbor on the Indian Ocean in East Africa.

Chapter 20 Section 2 Tanzania
  • Tourists flock to Tanzanias Serengeti
    (SEHR.uhn.GEH.tee) Plain, for its wildlife
    preserve, huge grasslands, and patches of trees
    and shrubs.
  • One of the worlds largest wild animal
    populations lives in Tanzania.
  • Kilimanjaro Mountain
  • It is the highest point in Africa.
  • Mountain peak in northern Tanzania.
  • Many tourists visit it.
  • Lake Tanganyika (Tan.huhn.YEE.kuh) is known for
    its unusual fish swimming in the deep, dark
  • Lake Victoria, is Africas largest lake and one
    of the sources of the Nile River.

Tanzanias Economy
  • More than 80 of all Tanzanians work in farming
    or herding.
  • Important export crops are coffee and sisal, a
    plant fiber used to make rope and twine.
  • A spice, called cloves, is found here. It is
    used to flavor ham. Cloves are produced on the
    islands of Zanzibar and Pemba.
  • Habitat, is the type of environment in which a
    particular animal species lives.
  • The government set aside several national parks
    to protect the habitats of the countrys
  • Serengeti National Park covers about 5,600 square
  • Lions
  • Wild Dogs
  • Zebras
  • Wildebeests
  • Antelopes
  • The park attracts ecotourists, people who travel
    to another country to view its natural wonders.
  • Tanzanias leaders are trying to preserve
    farmland from becoming a desert. The government
    of Tanzania is enforcing a new policy. For every
    tree that is cut down, five new trees should be
  • Zanzibar is an island off the eastern coast of
  • Produces more cloves than any other palce n the

History and Government of Tanzania
  • 1964 the island country of Zanzibar united with
    the former German colony of Tanganyika to form
  • In 1990s, Tanzania moved toward a free
    enterprise system, an economic system in which
    people start and run businesses with limited
    government intervention.

Tanzanias Culture
  • Tanzanias 35.4 million people include more than
    120 different ethnic groups.
  • Each group has its own language.
  • Most of Tanzanias people speak Swahili.
  • 2 main religions are Christianity and Islam.
  • Dar es Salaam, is Tanzanias capital.

Ch 17 Section 3 Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi
Section 3 Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi
  • West of Kenya are Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi.
    All 3 are landlocked they have no land touching
    a sea or an ocean.
  • Instead, they use 3 large lakes for
    transportation and trade.

  • Once called, the pearlof Africa.
  • Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi are all landlocked.
  • Fertile, green land ofmountains, lakes, andwild
  • Size of Oregon.
  • In the southern portion of Uganda you will find
    Lake Victoria.
  • Uganda lies on the Equator.
  • Temperatures are mild because of the countrys
    high elevation.

Uganda continued.
  • Due to Ugandas rich soil and plentiful rain the
    land is good for farming.
  • 80 of Ugandas workers are employed in
  • Plantains, a kind of banana is grown on the farms
    as well as cassava (a plant whose roots are
    ground to make porridge), potatoes, corn, and
  • Some plantations grow coffee, cotton, and tea for
  • Coffee makes up nearly ¾ of the Ugandas exports.
  • Some of the factories make cement, soap, sugar,
    metal and shoes.

The Ugandans
  • 25.3 million people live mainly in rural villages
    in the southern part of the country.
  • Kampala, the capital of Uganda, lies on the
    shores of Lake Victoria, making it a port city
    for local trade.
  • At one time there were large numbers of Hindus
    and Sikhs from South Asia living in Uganda.
  • 2/3 are Christian.
  • 1/3 practice Islam or traditional African
  • Have more than 40 different ethnic groups.
  • Meal includes beans, beef, goat, mutton (meat of
    an adult sheep), cornmeal, and tropical fruits.

History and Government of Uganda
  • The British ruled Uganda for much of the 1900s.
  • 1962 Uganda wont its freedom, when fighting
    broke out among ethnic groups.
  • Under these kings, these ethnic groups enjoyed
    autonomy, self government, in their local
    territories. But the kings lost power in 1967.
  • In the mid 1990s the national government has
    allowed ethnic groups to once again have kings,
    but only as local ceremonial leaders.
  • Uganda now has a stable government It is a
    republic with an elected president and

Rwanda and Burundi
Rwanda and Burundi
  • Located deep inland East Africa.
  • Size as Maryland.
  • Have mountains, hills, and high plateaus.
  • Sit on the ridge that separates the Nile and
    Congo watersheds.
  • Watershed is a region that is drained by a river.
  • To the west of the ridge, water runs in the Congo
    River and flows to the Atlantic Ocean.
  • To the east of the ridge, water eventually
    becomes part of the Nile River and flows north to
    the Mediterranean Sea.

Rwanda continued..
  • Has a moderate climate even though they lie near
    the Equator.
  • Heavy rains allow dense forests to grow.
  • Gorillas live within dense rain forests of Rwanda
    and Burundi.
  • Gorillas are now an endangered species, a plant
    or an animal threatened with extinction.

Rwanda and Burundi
  • Farmers in Burundi and Rwanda work small plots
    that dot the hillsides.
  • Coffee is the main export crop.
  • People who live along Lake Kivu and Lake
    Tanganyika also fish.
  • Because Rwanda and Burundi are landlocked, they
    have trouble getting their goods to foreign
  • Few paved roads
  • No railroads exist.
  • Most goods must be transported by road to Lake
    Tanganyika, where boats take them to Tanzania or
    the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  • Another route is by dirt road to Tanzania and
    then by rail to Dar es Salaam (Tanzanias

Ethnic Conflict
  • Are among the most densely populated countries in
    Africa due to having large populations and small
  • Rwanda has an average of 817 people per square
    mile. Only 5 of the people live in cities.
  • 2 ethnic groups the Hutu and the Tutsi form
    most of the population of Rwanda and Burundi.
  • The Hutu make up 80 or more of the population in
    both countries.
  • The Tutsi traditionally controlled the
    governments and economies in Rwanda and Burundi.
  • The power struggle between these 2 groups erupted
    into a full scale civil war and genocide (the
    deliberate murder of a group of people because of
    their race or culture) in the 1990s.
  • A Hutu-led government in Rwanda killed hundreds
    of thousands of Tutsi people.
  • 2 million more became refugees, people who flee
    to another country to escape persecution or

Section 4 The Horn of Africa (Sudan, Ethiopia,
Eritrea, Djibouti, and Somalia.
The Horn of Africa
  • The northern part of East Africa is a region
    called the Horn of Africa.
  • This region got its name because it is shaped
    like a horn that juts out into the Indian Ocean.
  • The Horn of Africa countries are
  • Sudan
  • Ethiopia
  • Eritrea (HER.uh.TREE.uh)
  • Djibouti (jih.BOO.tee)
  • Somalia

  • Is the largest countryin Africa.
  • 1/3 the size of the continental U.S.
  • Northern part is covered by sand dunesof the
    Sahara andNubian Desert.
  • Nomads raise camels and goats.

Sudan continued
  • The most fertile part of the country is the
    central region.
  • Has area of grassy plains.
  • 2 main tributaries of the Nile River the Blue
    Nile River and the White Nile River join together
    at Khartoum (kahr.TOOM), Sudans capital.
  • The southern part of Sudan receives plenty of
    rain and has some fertile soil.
  • It holds one of the worlds largest swamps, which
    drains into the White Nile.

Sudan continued.
  • Most of Sudans people live along the Nile River
    or one of its tributaries.
  • Use water from the Nile to irrigate their fields.
  • Farms grow sugarcane, grains, nuts, dates, and
    cotton countrys main export.
  • Sheep and gold are other important exports.
  • Recently discovered oil fields in the south.
  • In ancient times, Sudan was the center of a
    powerful civilization called Kush. The Kush
    people had close cultural and trade ties with the
    Egyptians to the north.
  • Kushites traded metal tools for cotton, and other
    goods from India, Arabia, and China.
  • Kushites built a great capital at Meroe
  • Kush lost power areound 350 A.D.

Sudan continued
  • Late 1800s to the 1950s the British and the
    Egyptians together ruled the country.
  • Sudan became and independent nation in 1956.
    Since then, military leaders have generally taken
  • 1980s the government began a reign of terror
    against the southern Christian peoples causing a
    disruption in their economy and caused widespread
  • Millions have starved to death and major
    outbreaks of diseases have swept through the

  • One of Africas oldestcountries.
  • Landlocked
  • Almost twice thesize of Texas.
  • Central part of Ethiopiais a highland
    plateausliced through by the Great Rift Valley.
  • The valley forms deep river gorges and sparkling
  • Mile temperatures and good soil make the
    highlands Ethiopias best farming region.
  • Farmers raise grains, sugarcane, potatoes, and
  • Coffee is a major export crop.
  • Rain is not consistent in many parts of Ethiopia.
  • In the 1980s a drought caused famine more than
    1 million Ethiopians died froms tarvation and

Ethiopias History and People
  • In the 300 A.D. many Ethiopians accepted
  • Kings and emperors ruled Ethiopia for centuries.
  • 1974, the last emperor was overthrown and the
    country suffered under a military dictator.
  • It is trying to build a democratic government.
  • 70.7 million people, Ethiopia has more people
    than any other country in East Africa.
  • The capital, Addis Ababa, is the largest city in
    the region.
  • 85 of Ethiopians live in rural areas.
  • Muslims form about 45 of Ethiopias population.
  • 40 are Ethiopian Orthodox others practice
    traditional African religions.
  • 80 languages are spoken in Ethiopia
  • Amharic (similar to Hebrew and Arabic) is
    Ethiopias official language.

  • Eritrea is certainlythe newest of Africas
  • Eritrea won its independence after30 years of
    war fromEthiopia in 1993.
  • Sits on the shores of the Red Sea.
  • It has a narrow plain that stretches about 600
    miles along the coast.
  • When Eritrea became a country,Ethiopia became
  • Most of Eritreas 4.4 million people farm.
  • The climate is dry, therefore farming is
    uncertain work.
  • Women form about 1/3 of the army.
  • After the war ended, the government passed laws
    that gave women more rights than they evr had

Djibouti (jih.BOO.tee)
  • The country lies at thenorthern tip of theGreat
    Rift Valley,where three of theearths plates
  • Plates, are huge slabs of rock that make up the
    earths crust.
  • Djibouti has volcanic activity because it lies
    on the northern tip of the Great Rift Valley
    where three of the earths plates join. Two
    of these plates are pulling away from each
    other. As they separate, fiery hot rock rises
    to the earths surface, causing volcanic
  • Djibouti is one of the hottest, driest places on

Djibouti continued.
  • The landscape covered by rocky desert.
  • Here and there you will find the desert
    interrupted by salt lakes and rare patches of
  • Djiboutis 700,000 people are mostly Muslims.
  • They use to live nomadic life of herding, but
    because of its dry climate, farming and herding
    are difficult.
  • Many people have moved to the capital city,
    Djibouti. (Yes it is also called Djibouti!).
  • People have found jobs in Djiboutis citys
    docks, because the city is a busy international

  • Somalia borders theGulf of Aden and theIndian
  • Shaped like the number 7.
  • Almost as large as Texas.
  • Much of Somalia is hot and dry, making farming
  • Most of Somalias people are nomadic herders.
  • In the south, rivers provide water for
    irrigation Farmers grow fruits, sugarcane, and
  • Nearly all of Somalias people are Muslims, but
    they are deeply divided.
  • They belong to different clans, groups of people
    who are related to one another.
  • In the late 1980s, disputes between these clans
    led to civil war.
  • The drought struck a few years later, hundreds of
    thousands of people starved to death. The United
    States and other countries tried to restore some
    order and distribute food.
  • There is no real government that is in charge
    therefore armed groups still control various
    parts of Somalia.