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The Power of the Church

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The Power of the Church Chapter 13, Section 4 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Power of the Church


1
The Power of the Church
  • Chapter 13, Section 4

2
Far-Reaching Authority of the Church
  • The Structure of the Church
  • Power within the Church is organized by status
    the pope is the supreme authority
  • Clergy--religious officialsincludes bishops,
    priests, and others
  • Bishops supervise priests and settle Church
    disputes

3
Church Structure
CLERGY
4
Rise of Religious Importance
  • Feudalism and the Manor System created division
    among people.
  • Political turmoil and warfare
  • Church teachings bonded people together.
  • Church provided a sense of security that gave
    people a sense of belonging.
  • Middle Ages was also known as the Age of Faith.
  • Religion took center stage.

5
Far-Reaching Authority of the Church
  • Religion as a Unifying Force
  • Religion is important in the Middle Ages shared
    beliefs bond people
  • Clergy administers the sacramentsrites to
    achieve salvation
  • Village church is a place of worship and
    celebration

6
Sacraments important religious ceremonies
(rites) in the Church.
The Sacraments were meant to follow a persons
life from beginning to end.
Baptism initiation rite into the Christian
community. Confirmation people of their own
will acknowledge their
belief. Holy Communion - a meal of bread and
wine that (Eucharist) Christians share in
remembrance of
Jesus last meal. Marriage ceremony blessing
the union of a couple Ordination ceremony to
initiate new priests into the
priesthood Penance / Confession repenting of
sins (Reconciliation) asking of
forgiveness Last Rites prayer service priest
provides the dying or over
the dead.
7
Sacraments in Western Christianity
Roman Catholic Protestant
Baptism Confirmation Holy Communion Reconciliation (confession) Anointing of the Sick Matrimony Holy Orders Baptism The Lords Supper (Holy Communion)
8
Far-Reaching Authority of the Church
  • The Law of the Church
  • The Church has a system of justice to guide
    peoples conduct
  • All medieval Christians expected to obey canon
    lawChurch law
  • Canon law governs marriages and religious
    practices
  • Popes have power over political leaders through
    threat of
  • Excommunicationbanishment from Church, denial of
    salvation
  • Interdictionkings subjects denied sacraments
    and services
  • Kings and emperors were expected to obey popes
    commands.

9
CH 13 Sec. 4, Church Justice
canon law the laws of the Church.
Church courts tried people for breaking canon
law / heresy.
Two types of punishment Of an individual
Excommunication Of a community / region
Interdict Popes often used the threat of
these two types of punishment to force kings
into obedience.
PP Design of T. Loessin Akins H.S.
10
The Church and the Holy Roman Empire
  • Otto I Allies with the Church
  • Otto I (Otto the Great) is crowned king of
    Germany in 936
  • Limits strength of nobles with help of clergy
  • Gains support of bishops and abbots (heads of
    monasteries)
  • Invades Italy on popes behalf pope crowns him
    emperor in 962

11
The Church and the Holy Roman Empire
  • Signs of Future Conflicts
  • Ottos German-Italian lands become Holy Roman
    Empire
  • Holy Roman Empire is the strongest European power
    until about 1100

12
The Emperor Clashes with the Pope
  • Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII
  • Pope Gregory VII bans lay investiturekings
    appointing Church officials
  • Henry IV orders pope to resign Gregory VII
    excommunicates Henry

13
Showdown at Canossa
  • Henry goes to Canossa, Italy, to beg Gregory
    forgiveness (see primary source)
  • Gregory forgives Henry, buy lay investiture
    problem is not solved

14
CH 13 Sec. 4, H.R.E. Clashes with the Pope
One of the things Popes began to resent most was
kings who exercised power over clergy and their
church offices. The main focus of this
resentment was the practice known as Lay
investiture a ceremony in which kings appointed
church officials
within their own kingdom.
Remember Kings are considered Lay they are
not ordained Clergy
CAUSES ACTIONS OUTCOMES
Pope Gregory VII resents the power that emperors
have over the church clergy.
2. Pope Gregory bans lay investiture
H.R.E. Henry IV calls a meeting of bishops in the
H.R.E. and orders Pope Gregory to step down from
the papacy.
The Showdown at Canossa
PP Design of T. Loessin Akins H.S.
15
The Emperor Clashes with the Pope
  • Concordat of Worms
  • Concordat of Worms is 1122 compromise win Worms,
    Germany
  • Compromise pope appoints bishops, emperor can
    veto appointment

16
CH 13 Sec. 4, H.R.E. Clashes with the Pope
CAUSES ACTIONS OUTCOMES
Pope Gregory excommunicates H.R.E. Henry
IV German bishops princes side with the pope
(fearing an interdict) Henry must seek the
Popes forgiveness.
3. Henry IV travels to Canossa.
Henry is forgiven by the pope, returns home, and
then punishes his German nobles for siding with
the pope.
The Concordat of Worms is signed in 1122.
The issue of lay investiture would remain
undecided for another century.
4. Representatives of Church and the emperor meet
in Worms.
Compromise is reached Only the pope could now
promote priests to be bishops in any kingdom but
the emperor would be given veto power over any
selection he didnt like.
PP Design of T. Loessin Akins H.S.
17
This is an illustration of the concept of lay
investiture. In this picture a king from the
Middle Ages is handing a bishop his shepherds
crook a symbol of the office of bishop. The
Catholic Church insisted that bishops were chosen
by the Pope, not by kings.
18
Disorder in the Empire
  • The Reign of Frederick I
  • In 1152, Frederick I becomes king dominates
    German princes
  • Disorder breaks out whenever he leaves Germany
  • Frederick invades Italy, meets defeat at Legnano
    in 1176
  • Empire collapses after Fredericks death in 1190

19
Disorder in the Empire
  • German States Remain Separate
  • German kings after Frederick try to revive empire
  • German princes, who elect kings, prefer to keep
    them weak

20
Primary Source
  • There, having laid aside all the belongings of
    royalty, wretchedly, with bare feet and clad in
    wool, he Henry IV continued for three days to
    stand before the gate of the castle. Nor did he
    desist from imploring with many tears the aid and
    consolation of the apostolic mercy until he had
    moved all of those who were present there.
  • POPE GREGORY, in Basic Documents in Medieval
    History

21
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