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CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION

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Title: CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION Author: jknutson Last modified by: setup Created Date: 9/26/2009 11:31:41 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION


1
CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION
  • A Multi-Tiered Approach

2
PART 1 OVERVIEW OF CRIME
  • What is the legal definition of crime?
  • A crime is any wrongdoing classified by the state
    or Congress as a felony or misdemeanor.
  • An omission of a duty commanded by public law.

3
CRIMINAL LAW
  • Criminal Law
  • Public law
  • Act is offensive to society
  • Regulation of rights
  • Enforcement of rights
  • State is plaintiff

4
CRIME CATEGORIES
  • What is the difference between a felony, a gross
    misdemeanor and a misdemeanor?

5
BAD CRIMES
  • Mala in se- crimes are bad in themselves
  • Mala prohibita- crimes are bad because
    prohibited

6
FELONY
  • A felony is punishable by at least 1 year and 1
    day in prison and a significant fine.
  • Examples- Armed robbery, Kidnapping, Rape,
    Murder, Terroristic Threats and Possession of
    Schedule II Narcotics

7
FELONY
  • Felony offenses are listed as violent crimes by
    the F.B.I. when they involve force or the threat
    of force.
  • Felony convictions also result in the loss of
    civil rights (voting, etc.)

8
MISDEMEANORS
  • The punishment for a misdemeanor is usually a
    fine and/or up to 1 year in county jail.
  • An offender is charged with a gross misdemeanor
    for repeated offenses.
  • Examples- DUI, Trespass, Vandalism and Disorderly
    Conduct

9
PRISON VS JAIL
  • Prison is a place of confinement.
  • Prison inmates have been tried and convicted of
    crimes and have received a specific sentence.
  • Prisons are operated by the state or the federal
    government.
  • There are approximately 100 federal prisons in
    the United States.
  • Prisons have amenities such as recreational
    facilities.

10
PRISON VS JAIL
  • A jail is a place of detention.
  • A person that is in custody and awaiting trial
    will be held in jail.
  • A person that has been convicted of a minor
    offense may serve their sentence in jail.
  • Jails are run by counties.
  • There are approximately 3,600 jails in the United
    States.
  • Jails have few amenities.

11
U.S. CRIME STATISTICS
  • The most common non-misdemeanor crime in the
    United States is property crime. Property crime
    consists of burglary, larceny and motor vehicle
    theft.
  • A burglary is committed every 15 seconds in the
    U.S.
  • The average loss is 1600.00 and the stolen items
    are rarely recovered.
  • An arrest is made in 13 of the cases.

12
U.S. CRIME STATISTICS
  • Most crimes occur in July and August
  • Murder and robbery are more common in December
    and January.
  • Crime rates are higher in the first day of the
    month.
  • Large urban areas have highest violent crime rate.

13
U.S. CRIME STATISTICS
  • Males that are 18-35 years old commit the most
    crimes.
  • Most murders are intraracial. In 2005, 86 of
    Caucasian murders were committed by Caucasians
    and 94 of African-American murders were
    committed by African-Americans.

14
U.S. CRIME STATISTICS
  • On any given day, 2.3 million people are
    incarerated in America.
  • Every year 656,000 inmates are released
  • 2/3 of them end up in prison again
  • When released prisoners may not associate with
    other felons, barred from certain professions,
    cannot receive most government assistance, etc.

15
FAMOUS UNSOLVED CRIMES
  • Jack the Ripper
  • Jon Benet Ramsey
  • Sam Sheppard
  • Zodiac Killer

16
CELEBRITY CRIMES
  • O.J.Simpson
  • Robert Blake
  • Tupac Shakur

17
SERIAL KILLERS
  • A serial killer murders 3 or more people in 3 or
    more separate events over a period of time
  • Son of Sam David berkowitz
  • The Campus Killer Ted Bundy
  • BTK Killer Dennis Radar
  • The Killer Clown John Wayne Gacy

18
CHILD KILLERS
  • Considered the lowest of all criminals
  • The Atlanta Murdered and Missing Children - Wayne
    Williams
  • Jeffrey McDonald
  • Lydia Trueblood

19
CANNIBALS
  • Jeffrey Dahmer
  • Edmund Emil Kemper III

20
OUTLAWS
  • Jesse James
  • Billy the Kid
  • Pretty Boy Floyd
  • Bonnie and Clyde

21
CRIME PREVENTION
  • Do not allow strangers into your home.
  • Do not flaunt what you own. An empty plasma
    television box in the garbage is an invitation to
    a thief.
  • Bolt your safe to the floor.

22
CRIME PREVENTION
  • Homes without alarms are three times more likely
    to be robbed.
  • Dogs are not always effective because thieves
    carry treats in their pockets.
  • Do not allow mail, etc. to accumulate while you
    are on vacation.

23
After the crime has occurred
  • A crime scene contains fragments of a large and
    complex puzzle.
  • Any crime scene investigator (CSI) must remember
    Locards Exchange Principle in order to connect
    those fragments.

24
Locards Exchange Principle
  • It is impossible for a criminal to act,
    especially considering the intensity of a crime,
    without leaving traces of this presence.
  • With contact between two items, there will be an
    exchange

25
CORPUS DELICTI Body of the Crime is a legal
term that refers to the principle that proof of a
crime must occur before a person can be convicted
of the crime.
  • You must prove
  • that a crime occurred
  • that the person charged with the crime was
    responsible for the crime
  • You must determine
  • Primary Crime Scene
  • Secondary Crime Scene(s)
  • Source(s) of Evidence
  • Body
  • Primary and/or Secondary Crime Scene
  • Suspect(s)

26
The Crime Scene Team
  • A group of professional investigators, each
    trained in a variety of special disciplines.
  • Team Members
  • The First Officer on the Scene
  • Medics (if necessary)
  • Investigators (Lead Detective)
  • Medical Examiner (if necessary)
  • Photographer
  • Note taker
  • Sketch Artist
  • Evidence Technicians

27
Complex Reasoning In Forensic Science
  • Members of the CSI Team must employ the following
    skills
  • Deductive reasoning
  • Communication
  • Logic
  • Observation
  • Patience
  • Methodical Approach

28
How are your deductive reasoning skills?
  • When Mrs. Jackson came back from lunch, there
    were several messages on her desk. By changing
    each digit of the phone numbers to one of the
    three corresponding letters on the telephone
    buttons, can you determine her relationship to
    each caller?
  • (Answers are on the next slide)

29
Deductive Reasoning Answers
  • 336-8478 dentist
  • (222)686-2868 accountant
  • 774-6837 printer
  • 487-2263 husband
  • 247-5463 airline
  • 832-2437 teacher

30
The First Officer on the Scene
  • Observe persons and vehicles near the scene as
    well as smells and sounds
  • Note the time, address and weather conditions
  • Conduct a brief walk through of the scene and
    determine if medical assistance is necessary
  • Call for CSI
  • Secure and Isolate the scene- must establish
    perimeter security especially to control the
    media

31
The First Officer on the Scene
  • A Assess the crime scene
  • D Detain witnesses
  • A Arrest perpetrators
  • P Protect the scene
  • T Take notes

32
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33
The Rest of the Team
  • The first officer on the scene determines if any
    additional team members are needed.
  • Emergency Medical Technicians or Paramedics are
    only called when a victim is still alive.

34
The investigator will
  • 1. Interview witnesses
  • 2. Take statements
  • 3. Verify the truth of the statements
  • 4. Determine the motive, means and opportunity
    for each suspect
  • 5. Seek additional information
  • 6. Charge and arrest suspects
  • 7. Testify in court.

35
The photographer
  • The first photographs that are taken should show
    an overview of the scene from many different
    perspectives.
  • After the evidence technicians have placed
    markers next to the evidence, then the
    photographer will create a scale and photograph
    the evidence

36
The Photographer
  • Photographer should take care to not contaminate
    evidence when using the ruler.
  • Must keep a photo log

37
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38
The Police Artist
  • First, the police artist is responsible for the
    crime scene sketch.
  • A rough sketch is drawn at the scene and the
    final sketch is created at the police station

39
The Sketch
  • A photograph is a 2 dimensional view of the
    scene, but a sketch provides accurate
    measurements and distances between objects.
  • The final sketch is drawn to scale using
    templates, etc.

40
Other responsibilities of the sketch artist
include
  • Creating composite drawings of any suspects
  • These composites may be drawn by hand or computer
    generated

41
The Note Taker
  • The note taker should record everything that
    happens during the crime scene investigation.
  • The notes should include the date, times and
    names for anyone entering or exiting the crime
    scene.

42
Evidence Technicians
  • Sets up numbers at the pieces of evidence
  • Has the necessary equipment
  • Properly collects all evidence

43
The Medical Examiner
  • When a victim is deceased, the Medical Examiner
    or a representative from the MEs office will be
    responsible for retrieving the body from the
    scene.
  • At the scene, photographs and a body temperature
    will be taken.
  • The hands may be bagged and then the body is
    placed into a clean body bag.

44
At the Medical Examiners Office
  • Fingerprints are taken
  • Evidence is collected from both the body and the
    body bag.
  • Must maintain the chain of custody

45
Types of Evidence
  • Two general types
  • Testimoniala statement made under oath also
    known as direct evidence or Prima Facie evidence
  • Physicalany object or material that is relevant
    in a crime also known as indirect evidence.
    Examples are hair, fiber, fingerprints,
    documents, blood, soil, drugs, tool marks,
    impressions, glass.

46
Evidence Characteristics
  • Class--common to a group of objects or persons
  • Individual--can be identified with a particular
    person or source.

47
Class vs. Individualized
48
Class vs. Individualized
49
Class vs. Individualized
50
COLLECTING AND PACKAGING EVIDENCE
  • One individual should be designated as the
    evidence collector to ensure that the evidence is
    collected, packaged, marked, sealed, and
    preserved in a consistent manner
  • Each item must be placed in a separate container,
    sealed, and labeled
  • Most fragile is collected and packaged first
  • Different types of evidence require specific or
    special collection and packaging techniques
  • The body is the property of the coroner or
    medical examiner. The collection of evidence on
    the body is done by that department

51
PACKAGING
  • Most items should be packaged in a primary
    container and then placed inside a secondary one.
    These are then placed inside other containers
    such as paper bags, plastic bags, canisters,
    packets and envelopes depending on the type and
    size of the evidence.

52
CHAIN OF CUSTODY
  • There must be a written record of all people
  • who have had possession of an item of
  • evidence.
  • The evidence container must be marked for
    identification
  • The collectors initials should be placed on the
    seal
  • If evidence is turned over to another person, the
    transfer must be recorded.

53
THE PROCESS
  • Crime committed
  • Investigation
  • Analysis of evidence
  • Suspect arrested
  • Trial

54
THE VERDICTAND PUNISHMENT
55
NEUROSCIENCE IN THE COURT SYSTEM
  • 2005- Supreme Court struck down death penalty for
    anyone under the age of 18 years old
  • This decision was based on data that the brain is
    still growing/developing up to the age of 18
  • Brain scans and other neurological evidence is
    now allowed in the courtroom to explain behavior
    of the criminal
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