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The Great War Or


Title: The Great War The War to End all Wars WWI Author: whrhs Last modified by: whrhs Created Date: 11/6/2006 11:12:00 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Great War Or

The Great WarOr The War to End all WarsOrWW1
Causes for WWI
  • Imperialism
  • Militarism
  • Nationalism
  • Alliances

  • European countries sought control of territories
    across Africa, Asia and the Pacific.
  • Why Industrialization led to a need for more
    raw materials and markets.
  • By 1914 only a few territories remained.
  • Take lands that had already been taken
  • Competition for what was remaining.

Building Militaries
  • Because of the uncertain climate, European
    countries began building huge militaries.
  • Britain developed the dreadnaught which gave
    Britain naval superiority.
  • Germany made plans to build 33 of its own ships

Comparative figures on army increase, 1870-1914
1914 Russia 700,000
1,300,000 France 380,000
846,000 Germany 403,000
812,000 Austria-Hungary 247,000
424,000 Britain 302,000
381,000 Italy 334,000
305,000 Japan 70,000
250,000 U.S.A.
37,000 98,000
Plans of Attack in the Making
  • Before the war German had already anticipated
    war. They established a plan (Schlieffen) for
    war in case it were to break out.
  • They would take France through Belgium quickly.
  • After taking France, move to the eastern front.
  • They assumed that Russia would take longer to

  • Most of the European countries felt a sense of
    pride and superiority.
  • Other ethnic groups living in Russia, Austria-
    Hungary and Germany desired unification.
  • Russia supported the Slavic people, some of which
    were living in Austria-Hungary and others in
  • Important Example
  • 1908 Austria-Hungary takes Bosnia
  • Serbia believes Bosnia is rightfully theirs and
    those living in Bosnia agree
  • Russia backs Serbia

  • Two provinces on the border of France and
    Germany. The Rhine river flows through.
  • France lost Alsace Lorraine to Franco-Prussian
    War of 1870-71 to Germany
  • France saw the territory as theirs and wanted it

  • A complex system of alliances were established
    among European nations.
  • The alliances entangled European countries with
    one another.

Summary of Alliances
  • The Dual Alliance--1879
  • Austria-Hungary and Germany
  • A defensive treaty Stated that if either country
    was attacked by another, they would support each
  • The Triple Alliance1882
  • An extension of the Dual Alliance where Italy
    would assist if Germany was attacked and remain
    neutral if Austria-Hungary was attacked
  • All would attack if both Russia and France attack

Alliances Cont.
  • The Reinsurance Treaty---1887
  • Russia and Germany were to remain friendly with
    one another and support each other if an attack
    took place
  • Conflicted with the Dual Alliance
  • Treaty lapsed when Bismarck was gone in 1890
  • Franco-Russian Alliance 1892
  • Russia and France agreed to support one another
    in case of an attack by another country.
  • This created two teams of countries and led to
    suspicion and friction

Alliances Cont.
  • Anglo-Japanese
  • Alliance
  • 1902
  • Japan feared Russian encroachment in Northern
  • Britain feared German naval growth, French
    encroachment in Africa and Russian encroachment
    in the far east.
  • Entente Cordiale
  • 1904
  • Agreement between France and Britain.
  • France would recognize Britain in Egypt and
    Britain would leave France alone in Morocco.

Alliances Cont.
  • Anglo Russian
  • Agreement
  • 1907
  • Agreement between Britain in Russia to settle
    territorial disputes
  • This led to the creation of the Triple Entente
    which essentially isolated Germany and escalated
  • Britain, France and Russia

1879The Dual Alliance                                        Germany and Austria-Hungary made an alliance to protect themselves from Russia 1881Austro-Serbian Alliance                                     Austria-Hungary made an alliance with Serbia to stop Russia gaining control of Serbia 1882The Triple Alliance                                         Germany and Austria- Hungary made an alliance with Italy to stop Italy from taking sides with Russia
1914Triple Entente (no separate peace)                                     Britain, Russia and France agreed not to sign for peace separately.                                                                                        1894Franco-Russian Alliance                                      Russia formed an alliance with France to protect herself against Germany and Austria-Hungary
1907Triple Entente                                         This was made between Russia, France and Britain to counter the increasing threat from Germany. 1907Anglo-Russian Entente                                        This was an agreement between Britain and Russia 1904Entente Cordiale                                        This was an agreement, but not a formal alliance, between France and Britain.
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  • Austria Hungary annexed Bosnia
  • Many Bosnians wanted to be part of Serbia due to
    ethnic ties
  • When Archduke Francis Ferdinand went to visit his
    soldiers in Bosnia on June 28th 1914, many
    Bosnians met his arrival with bitterness.
  • A terrorist threw a bomb at the Archdukes car, it
    bounced off and injured two guards
  • When going to visit the two injured guards, the
    archduke and his wife were shot by a Bosnian

Austria-Hungary Blames Serbia
  • The assassination of the Archduke was followed by
    a threat toward Serbia to cease the support of
    terrorism in Bosnia.
  • Unhappy with the reactions of Serbia,
    Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July
    28th, 1914

The Immediate Response
  • July 28, 1914- Upset by the assassination on the
    archduke, A-H declares war on Serbia
  • July 29- Russia, feeling obligated to protect
    Serbia, begins mobilizing troops.
  • August 1st- Germany declares war on Russia
  • Germany occupies Luxumburg and sets the
    Schlieffen plan into action.
  • Germany asks Belgium permission to rolll through
    their country on the way to attack France
  • Belgium Refuses
  • Germany does not want Britain to enter the war
    and Kaiser Wilhelm II (German emperor) suggests
    that they not proceed. Moltke (the German Chief
    of General Staff) say that they must since the
    ball was rolling already

Germany Invades
  • August 3rd Germany declares war on France
  • August 4th Germany invades France through Belgium
    putting the Schlieffen plan into action
  • Because of a treaty signed by Britain decades
    earlier promising Belgiums neutrality, Britain
    declares war on Germany on August 4th

Theory Vs. Practice
  • Both sides believed they would be victorious and
    that the war would be short and limited.
  • Britain believed that it would be a primarily
    naval war which they felt they would dominate.
  • Germany believed that Britain would remain
    neutral and thought of the treaty that kept
    Belgium neutral as a scrap of paper.

  • A-H believed Germany would help flank the north
    while they invaded Serbia
  • Germany figured that A-H would invade Russia
    while they took care of France.
  • A-H was forced to split their army and were not
    able to take Serbia swifttly. In fact, Serbia
    forced A-H back.
  • A-H therefore had limited troops to face Russia

The Western Front
  • Germany swept through Belgium and made their way
    to the outskirts of Paris where they were stopped
    by British and French forces
  • At the Marne River, both sides dug in and
    fortified their positions.
  • A stalemate ensued Trench warfare becomes the
    tactic of choice
  • Animated Battlefront

Americas Move Toward War
Ethnic Ties to Europe
  • 30 of all Americans were 1st or 2nd generation
  • Ties to their homelands
  • German-Americans Irish-Americans Pro G
  • Most Americans felt closer to GB due to the
    commonalities that exist and the roots of America

German Aggression
  • Germany viewed as chief aggressor and therefore,
  • Invasion of Belgium described as a force of
    nature like a tidal wave, an avalanche or a river
    flooding its banks, and destroying libraries
    cathedrals, and, sometimes, entire town in
    Belgium and France.
  • Richard Davis, 1914
  • British propaganda supported this assertion

  • From 1897 to 1914 Americans had seen oversees
    investment rise from 700 million to 3.5 billion
  • When the war broke out, the investments were
  • Wilsons policy of neutrality supported continued
    trade with both nations, though our investments
    in with the allies were much weightier than those
    of the central powers.

On and Under the Sea
  • Britain began using naval blockades to prevent
  • Large corporations (which still had a great deal
    of influence on Government at the time) faced the
    possibility of loosing enormous amounts of money
    due to the decrease in trade
  • The naval blockades posed a serious threat to
    corporate profits
  • German Submarine Warfare
  • Naval rules discouraged attacks without warning
    on merchant ships
  • Germans began attacking allied ships carrying
    supplies and blockading German ports.
  • These attacks posed a serious threat to neutral
    ships carrying supplies
  • These attacks also made America distrustful of
    Germany due to their unconventional methods

  • Germans sent fleet to the North Sea to attack
    the British blockade.
  • Ended in stalemate and German retreat

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
  • The Germans developed the U1 and U2 submarines
    which they used to destroy ANY ships that were in
    the waters surrounding Britain.
  • The policy of unrestricted submarine warfare led
    to the sinking of British passenger ships as well
    as ships transporting American goods to Europe

The Lusitania, the Sussex and More
  • A British passenger ship carrying Americans is
    torpedoed and sunk in the by a Germany sub.
  • America warns Germany and Germany responds with
  • French ship, the Sussex, is sunk less than one
    year later.
  • Sussex pledge another German promise to not sink
    passenger ships
  • 10 months later Germany ended this and resumed
    unrestricted submarine warfare.

The Zimmerman Telegram
  • The Germans feared the United States entry into
    the war.
  • They attempted to ally the Mexico with Germany.
  • Germany conspired with Mexico to enter the war if
    the United States were to declare war on Germany.
  • Germany promised to support Mexico in its
    attempts to reacquire its former territories of
    Texas and
  • The Zimmerman Telegram was intercepted by
    Americans and led many Americans to take sides
    with the Allies.

Other Theories
  • Some historians believe that Britain and France
    had ulterior motives and attracted as many
    neutral ships into the area as possible. Why?
  • Some historians also believe that the Lusitania
    was not the cause of Americas entry into the war
    but rather an excuse.
  • American corporations were making tremendous
    profits from the war and the sinking of ships
    filled with war supplies was resulting in profit

Vying for Support
  • America on the Home Front

Financing the War
  • Liberty bonds A special war bond sold to help
    raise money for the war efforts.
  • Provided about 25 of the funding for the war.
    Over 20 billion was raised by the treasury
  • To help sell these bonds
  • Boy Scouts, and Girl Scouts set up booths on
    street corners
  • four minute men (usually famous people) gave
    short (four minute) speeches to help promote the
    sale of war bonds

War Industries Board andWar Trade Board
  • Two new agencies that regulated production and
  • The former told producers what, how much, and
    even how much to charge
  • The latter regulated international trade.
  • Punished those trading with enemy

Government Persuades Businesses to Change Gears
of Production
  • In 1915 Ford opposed the war stating that he
    would burn his factories to the ground before
    manufacturing war goods
  • In 1917 Ford accepted orders for 16000 tanks,
    20000 tractors and anti-submarine ships.
  • Federal aid was provided to entice this change

Governments Regulation of Food and Fuel
  • Lever Food and Fuel Control Act
  • Enabled president to regulate distribution of
    food and fuel according to the needs of the
  • Food will win the war!Worked to increase farm
    output and reduce waste.
  • Herbert Hoover led the Food Administration and
    was given the power to manage how much food
    people bought, impose price controls, and begin
    rationing food.

Womens Role on the Home Front
  • Women promoted the war effort by preaching the
    Gospel of the Clean Plate.
  • Stop, before throwing any food away, and ask,
    Can it be used?Stop catering to the different
    appetites. No second helpings. Stop all eating
    between mealsOne meatless day a week. One
    wheatless meals a day No butter in cooking use

Daylight Savings Time
  • Shifting an hour of sunlight increased the
    daylight hours therefore
  • Promoting longer workdays and therefore
    production increases
  • Reduced the need for artificial light therefore
    saving resources

Loyalty Promoting or Coercing?
  • Banned
  • Anything pro-German
  • German Music, writing, language, books, names,
  • German Sheppard, Frankfurter, Hamburger, German
    Measles, etc.
  • Anything Anti-Britain (American Rev. Film)
  • Government hired former muckrakers to begin
    rallying for support through journalism
  • Restrictions on immigration to prevent espionage.
  • General hostility toward Germans Hate the Huns
  • Robert Prager (despite attempt to enlist)

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Repression of Rights
  • Sedition and Espionage Act
  • Sedition Act made it illegal to voice anything
    that was disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or
    abusive about America
  • Espionage Act Made it illegal to interfere with
    the draft.

Tide of War Shifts
Bolshevik Revolution
  • Movement to eliminate Monarchy beginning in early
    20th century
  • Radical Bolsheviks (working class) uprisings
  • In March of 1917, Czar Nicholas II left power.
  • British and French hoped that Russia would stay
    in the war (Why?)
  • Germany wanted her out- (Why was this so
  • Took advantage of turmoil and called on Vladimir
    Lenin to take power in Russia.
  • Kerensky (new leader) was keeping Russia in the
  • Marxism opposed this war (why?)

Brest-Litovsk Treaty
  • Lenin takes power and signs a treaty with
  • Germany gets Finland, Ukraine, Baltic States and
  • Germany sends all troops to Western Front
  • On November 11, 1918 guns fall silent

  • 9 million soldiers dead
  • 10 Million civilians dead
  • 7 Million soldiers permanently disabled
  • 1918 influenza outbreak kills 20 million
  • 337 billion dollars spent (4.5 trillion today)
  • Most countries faced bankruptcy
  • US has 3.5 billion in overseas loans

Wilsons Vision
  • 14 Points
  • The League of Nations
  • The Treaty of Versailles

14 Points Speech
  • January 1918 10 Months before armistice
  • 14 Points came from the collection of work done
    by a 150 member advisory board
  • It was a plan for peace based on moral standards
    Very idealistic
  • Used as propaganda and dropped behind German
    lines to seem as though there would be a just
    outcome of the war

What were the points?
  • 9. Italys borders were t o be redrawn based on
  • 10. Autonomous development of Austria-Hungary
  • 11. Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and other Balkan
    states autonomous
  • 12. Turkish autonomy
  • 13. Polish independence
  • 14. Multilateral association of nations to
    maintain peace (eventually the League of Nations)
  • No Secret Treaties
  • Freedom of the Seas
  • Free Trade
  • Disarmament
  • End Colonialism
  • Russia is given its right to independent
  • Belgium restored and evacuated
  • Return of Alsace Loraine to France

Reactions Paris Peace Conference
  • Many of Wilson's 14 Points were based on
    progressives ideas
  • The speech was made before other countries were
    made aware of the plan
  • Wilson began promoting his plan overseas
  • All the countries were unhappy with parts of the
  • Why?
  • France wanted reparations
  • Britain did not like the Freedom of the seas
  • Italy obviously did not like the new borders
  • All the countries wanted to keep their colonial

Congresses Reactions
  • Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, head of the Senate
    Foreign Relations Committee, had been a long-time
    critic of Wilson
  • Lodge, after reading the draft of the League of
    Nations proposal from the Paris Peace Conference,
    objected and gained wide spread support for this
    opposition among the Senate
  • Article X was at the forefront of the opposition

Article X The League
  • Collective security agreements.
  • All territorial borders drawn at Versailles would
    be respected and protected by members of the
  • Borders would be protected using economic
    sanctions and military force
  • Why so bad????

Territorial Losses and Future Conflicts
  • Many Congressmen feared that this would endanger
    the Monroe Doctrine
  • There was an addendum that assured the integrity
    of the Monroe Doctrine, that helped appease the
    opposition later
  • Many were also opposed to creating ties to Europe
    where future intervention would be inevitable if
    conflict broke out.

The Big 4 in Paris
  • Only 4 major countries were involved in the Paris
    Peace Conference (although many smaller nations
    wanted to attend because of the nationalistic
  • France Clemenceau
  • Italy-Vittorio-Orlando
  • Britain-David Lloyd George
  • United States- Woodrow Wilson
  • (Japan was also involved but not as important)

Self-Rule IdeasFailure and Success
  • The idea of self-rule was strongly opposed by
    France, Italy and Japan who wanted to maintain
    control of their colonial claims
  • The Idea of Mandate was introduced that would
    give Allied control over the territories of the
    central power until the natives could be
    prepared to rule themselves
  • Eastern Europe was broken up into a multitude of
    new nations including
  • Poland
  • Czechoslovakia
  • The Baltic States
  • Yugoslavia
  • Regardless of their independence, the minority
    ethnic groups of the new states saw the new
    borders as unjust.

The Treaty of Versailles June 28, 191932
Nations Sign the treaty at the Palace of
Versailles outside Paris
  • Germany had to give up numerous territories, the
    most notable,
  • France got Alsace-Loraine
  • War-Guilt Clause (Germany must accept guilt for
    the war)
  • Demilitarization and occupation of the Rhineland
  • German Army lt100,000 and no tanks, heavy
    artillery, aircraft, and limit to navy vessels
    under 100,000 tons with no submarines
  • Germany has to pay for all damages to the allied
  • Establishment of the League of Nations

League of Nations
  • Wilson was a bit unpleased about the harsh
    outcome of the treaty
  • He was happy and had absolute faith in the new
    League of Nations as a peace keeper for the
    generations to come
  • European nations all had some faith in the new
    League of Nations yet all also had felt uncertain
    and had some misgivings (ie-reactions were

Americas Reaction to the League of Nations
  • Positives
  • It may keep peace
  • Supported by teachers and clergy
  • Negatives
  • Entangle America in Distant Disputes
  • Legitimacy of actions that may be taken by the
  • Ethnic Americans
  • German-Americans did not see that punishment of
    Germany as being reasonable
  • Irish-Americans did not like that Ireland was not
    freed from Britain's control
  • Italians did not like that Italian territory was

The League
The U.S. Senate Votes it Down
  • Three different votes led to Wilsons realization
    that the United States would not be a member of
    the League of Nations
  • Why
  • Wilson Preached Morally
  • He refused to include the republicans in on his
  • He was determined to push it through

Results of the League
  • Early League did not include Germany or Russia.
    Therefore 3 of the worlds super-powers were not
  • Eventually more than 60 member nations.
  • Lacked credibility because the US did not join

Early Success
  • Solved issue pertaining to some islands disputed
    between Sweden and Finland
  • Dealt with a conflict in Turkey
  • Prevented a war between Bulgaria and Greece who
    disputed their border
  • Dealt with other issues including
  • Child Slave Labor
  • Drug Addiction
  • Smuggling
  • Financial Aid to those in need

Foundation for UN
  • The League established the organizations which
    are now part of the United Nations including
  • World Health Organization
  • United Nations High Commission for Refugees
  • International Court of Justice
  • International Labor Organization

  • No military force because member nations were not
    required to provide troops so
  • Poland seized Lithuanian town
  • Italy seized Fiume (Port given to Yugoslavia
    after war)
  • Russia and Poland went to war
  • France and Belgium invaded Germany
  • Japan invaded Manchuria

  • Harsh terms of the Treaty of Versailles
  • Germans were unable to pay war debts
  • Massive unemployment
  • Wanted their lands back
  • Hitler promised economic betterment and the
    return of the German lands
  • Resentment and despair

The United States After WWI
  • The League
  • Wanted to act unilaterally
  • Did not want to be entangled
  • Wanted to secure interests in west
  • Wanted all war debts to be paid
  • Europe thought the US would forgive some of the
    debt but they did not. This led to resentment