What is biotechnology? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

What is biotechnology?

Description:

What is biotechnology? WSSD Information days – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:250
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 33
Provided by: muf52
Learn more at: http://pmg-assets.s3-website-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: What is biotechnology?


1
What is biotechnology?
  • WSSD Information days

2
Well talk about
  • Biotechnology as we know it
  • Problems with food production
  • How we address these and other problems
  • Modern biotechnology
  • Concerns
  • Safety

3
Biotechnology as we know it
  • Biotechnology is using living things to make
    useful products
  • Living things are
  • microbes,
  • plants and
  • animals

4
Has anyone ever made bread?
  • or vetkoek,
  • or beer,
  • or wine?
  • These processes all need the help of a living
    organism

yeast
5
Has anyone ever made compost?
  • Compost is decomposed plant and animal material
  • We use composting to put food back into the soil
    for the next crop
  • Microbes breakdown dead plants and animals back
    into compost
  • What would the world look like without these
    microbes?

6
What about medicinal plants?
  • Some plants and animals have special compounds
    that act as medicines.
  • Africa has a strong culture of traditional
    medicine that uses many local plants

7
And, food production?
  • Our different plant varieties and farm animals
    come from
  • Selection
  • and
  • Breeding

8
(No Transcript)
9
What is gene transfer?
10
1 gene - 1 protein
11
Why are we trying new technology?
  • What problems do we have with producing food?
  • How do we try to address these problems?
  • Pesticides (chemicals)
  • Pesticides
  • Seasonal planting
  • Covers, shade
  • Fertilisers, compost
  • Pests
  • Diseases
  • Drought
  • Floods
  • Cold
  • Heat
  • Poor soils

12
We need new technology to produce all things
sustainably
  • Modern biotechnology allows us to take the best
    in nature and share it around to make useful,
    safe new products
  • The aim is to improve quality of life in a more
    environmentally friendly way

WSSD
13
Moving genes for medicines
Insulin is used by diabetics It used to be
extracted from pigs pancreases The human insulin
gene was cloned into a bacterium The bacterium
multiplies in vats and produces lots of human
insulin The insulin is purified and sold
14
Moving genes for agriculture
  • Bt cotton has a gene from a soil bacterium
  • The gene produces a very small amount of protein
    that makes caterpillars ill
  • This protein does not affect any other living
    organism
  • Using Bt cotton farmers get better yields with
    much less pesticide
  • Bt cotton is more environmentally friendly than
    conventional cotton

15
WSSD
16
GM crops approved for SA
  • Insect tolerant cotton
  • Insect tolerant maize
  • Herbicide tolerant cotton
  • Herbicide tolerant soya

WSSD
17
Moving genes for food processing
  • Rennin is extracted from sheep stomach linings
    (rennet) to help mature cheese
  • The gene for the enzyme was moved from sheep into
    yeast (mid 1980s)
  • Now cheese makers buy the purified enzyme and add
    it to their cheese. Vegetarian cheese derived
    from GM.

18
Benefits of GM enzyme production
  • Safer
  • Cheaper
  • Better quality
  • Less waste
  • Less energy
  • More environ-mentally friendly

WSSD
19
Microbial gene transfer products ...
Food processing amylase glucosidases chymosin
(cheese) isomerases oxidases lipases pectinase pap
ain, etc.
Medical uses insulin factor 8 human growth
hormone, gene therapy, etc. Industrial uses -
lipases - cellulases - proteases, etc.
20
Biotechnology and the environment
  • Biotech tools are used to
  • Identify species
  • Keep records of biodiveristy
  • Help conservation decision making

WSSD
21
How do you feel about gene transfer?
  • Gene transfer is a powerful technology that has
    many benefits, but also raises some concerns.

22
Concerns about gene transfer
  • Fall into 4 categories
  • Environmental
  • Food and feed safety
  • Economic
  • Social

23
Environmental concerns
  • Outcrossing
  • other farmers
  • local plants and animals
  • Spreading
  • invasiveness
  • weediness
  • Biodiversity
  • non-target organisms

24
Food and feed concerns
  • Toxins
  • Allergens
  • Nutritional changes
  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Unexpected effects
  • Segregation can harvested crops be kept apart,
    when needed?

25
Economic concerns
  • Globalization
  • Multinational control of food production
  • Trade wars
  • Intellectual Property Rights
  • Note these apply to most technologies, not just GM

WSSD
26
Social concerns
  • Dietary preferences
  • Taste preferences
  • Ethics
  • Keeping seed
  • Organic farming
  • Labelling

27
So how do we deal with our concerns about gene
transfer?
  • Gene transfer is not the first technology to
    raise concerns.
  • Consider
  • cars, aeroplanes, drugs, electricity, pesticides,
    etc.
  • All have risks and benefits
  • They are regulated to allow us access to the
    benefits.

28
Checking the safety of GMOs
  • All GMOs have to be approved
  • Approval process checks safety and socio-economic
    impact
  • Safety audits are by independent experts
  • Government reviews socio-economic impact, public
    input and safety data to make final decision

29
What is checked?
30
Status of GM foods in the world
  • Over 3 billion people have eaten approved GM food
    for the last 6 years
  • No safety incident to date
  • Modifications approved in
  • tomato, soya, cotton, maize, canola, chicory,
    potatoes, flax, rice, pawpaw, squash, etc.
  • There are no human or animal genes in any
    approved GM food crops

31
Conclusion
  • Biotechnology products will impact on all areas
    of our lives
  • food, fuel, materials, forestry, mining,
    medicine, computers
  • All concerns are checked before approvals are
    given
  • Safety is carefully regulated

32
Conclusions, cont.
  • Biotechnology is one of many tools that will help
  • produce food sustainably,
  • address poverty and
  • conserve our planet
  • To benefit from biotechnology, we need a well
    informed civil society.
About PowerShow.com