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Title: Requested topics- Tudors


1
Requested topics - Tudors
  • Before we look at these I want to check that you
    know the answers to the courses key questions
    !!!!!

2
Religion
  • What was the state of the Church on the eve of
    the Reformation?
  • What were the motives for religious change?
  • To what extent was England protestant by 1540?

3
Wolsey Government
  • How did Wolsey rise to power?
  • How successful were Wolseys domestic policies?
  • Was Wolsey an Alter Rex? (What was the nature
    of his relationship with Henry and who was in
    charge?) How far was Henry at the centre of his
    government at home?
  • Why did Wolsey fall from power?

4
Foreign Policy
  • What were Henrys aims?
  • How successful was Henry 1509-1514?
  • How successful was 1514-1529?
  • How far did religion shape foreign affairs
    1530-1540?

5
Annulment
  • Why did Henry want an annulment?
  • Why couldnt Henry get it?
  • 1530-32 A period of drift?
  • How did the Acts of Parliament secure the break
    with Rome and the Royal Supremacy?
  • Why did Henry make the break from Rome and
    establish the Royal Supremacy?
  • How serious was opposition?
  • Why was there so little opposition?

6
Dissolution of the Monasteries
  • Why did Henry dissolve them?
  • Was the dissolution pre-planned?
  • How were they dissolved?
  • What were the effects?

7
P of G
  • What caused the Pilgrimage of Grace?
  • What happened?
  • How important were the local nobility and gentry
    in leading and spreading the revolt?
  • Why did it fail?
  • How much of a threat was it?

8
  • Wolseys rise to power
  • Early domestic policies/ Eltham ordnances
  • The different factions and their members
  • Young lion
  • All the different treaties in the 1520s
  • Key points of great matter
  • Cromwell, the acts of the Reformation Parliament
    and what they did
  • Thomas More _saint or sinner
  • Dissolution of the monasteries
  • Thomas Cromwell's role in the dissolution of the
    monasteries.
  • Protest against reformation
  • Pilgrimage of grace.
  • Revolution in Government
  • Summary of all thematic reviews
  • Summary of individuals e.g. Wolsey, AB, More,
    Cromwell, Cranmer and any others i have missed

9
Early domestic policies
10
Wolseys rise to power
  • Royal Almoner
  • Organises successful expedition to Tournai in
    1513
  • Bishop of Tournai in 1514 and Archbishop of
    York
  • Cardinal and Lord Chancellor
  • 1518 legate a latere

11
Luck or skill?
  • Wolsey pre-H8 - 1st from Oxford at 15 Henry
    VIIs Chaplain - 1507
  • Old councillors H7s men Henry got rid of key
    men like Epsom and Dudley.
  • 1509 - Royal Almoner
  • In 1512-13 skill in organising an
    expeditionary force to invade France,
  • 1514 - Bishop of Tournai and Archbishop of York
  • 1515 Cardinal Lord Chancellor
  • 1518 - Legate a latere
  • Presiding over Star Chamber and Court of Chancery
  • Expulsion of minions in 1519 and Eltham
    Ordinances 1526

12
Justice
  • Historians have disagreed over whether Wolsey
    bought greater justice to the legal system or
    not.

13
  • Lord Chancellor in 1515
  • Head of the countrys secular legal system and
    directly responsible for the legal work of both
    of the Royal Court
  • Court of Chancery and the Court of Star Chamber.
    These were courts which could be used by the
    Kings subjects (ordinary people) to get justice.
  • Considerable amount of time and attention. Heard
    many cases and anyone was able to bring their
    case before him in the Star Chamber. The Star
    Chamber dealt with 120 cases per year under
    Wolsey compared with only 12 under Henry VII.
  • Wolsey championed the poor against the rich.
  • Common law v Civil Law more progressive legal
    system.
  • Quick to use the system to further his own
    interests and using the law as a personal
    vendetta e.g. Sir Amyas Paulet.

14
  • Caused resentment targeted aristocratic
    privileges.
  • 1515 he sent the Earl of Northumberland to Fleet
    Prison for contempt of the councils
    jurisdiction.
  • BUT no institutional changes that would have
    outlasted him.
  • Left an enormous backlog of cases to be heard in
    the Star Chamber by 1529 and the administration
    was chaotic.

15
Enclosure
  • Argued dedication to the plight of the poor.
  • Three statutes pre- Wolsey largely ignored.
  • 1517 a national enquiry into enclosed land.
  • Many brought to court were ordered to rebuild
    houses that had been destroyed and allow the land
    to be free for arable farming.
  • In reality enclosure continued to take place and
    reform was piecemeal.
  • Wolsey more parliamentary session of 1523
    Wolsey was forced to accept all existing
    enclosures.
  • Could not exert total authority over the
    nobility.

16
Finances
  • Effective reform of the financial system to make
    it more fair and efficient?
  • Replaced fifteenths and tenths with Tudor
    subsidy (favoured by Wolsey because it was more
    progressive)
  • 1513 and 1516 it raised 170,000 while the old
    system only raised 90,000.
  • In 1523 Wolsey demanded over 800,000 from
    Parliament raised 300,000. Forced to accept
    concessions on enclosure.
  • Fiscal policies were causing resentment

17
  • Amicable Grants 1525
  • Battle of Pavia. invade France
  • non-parliamentary tax
  • Violence three yrs of forced loans and
    parliamentary taxes
  • Rebellion across Suffolk and East Anglia. 10,000
    men marched on Lavenham (an important
    cloth-making centre in Suffolk). The hostility
    was not initiated by nobles (many actually helped
    to restore order) but it showed unpopularity.
  • Abandoned in 1525
  • No further attempt at taxation was attempted by
    Wolsey.
  • beginning of the end for Wolsey??

18
Nobility and parliament
19
  • Did Wolsey deliberately monopolise power?
  • Parliament met twice.
  • Saw pmt as source of opposition to himself
  • But pmts role only to give money and ratify
    laws.
  • Privy chamber was where power lay.
  • Privy chamber threat to Wolsey? 1519 Expulsion
    of Minions? Motivation?
  • 1526 Eltham Ordinances PC reduced from 12
    to 6. Motivation? efficient cost-cutting exercise
    or attempt to monopolise power?

20
The Church
  • Any meaningful reform?
  • 1515 Hunne Affair anti-clerical feeling
  • Unfairness of the Benefit of the Clergy.
  • Wolsey key position to reform churcj
  • BUT guilty of pluralism, nepotism and
    absenteeism. A
  • York 1518 - Ecclesiastical Council discuss
    ways of improving the church and the conduct and
    work of the clergy no change
  • Visitations (inspections) of Monasteries in
    England proposals for reform.

21
Alter-Rex?
22
Alter-Rex Partnership
Wolsey was a master and Henry was a puppet. Evidence Role in domestic policy Use of the Court of Star Chamber Tudor Subsidy Eltham Ordinances King always made the final decision on key issues. When it came to more important matters of foreign policy or bigger domestic decisions the King was at the centre of decision making
23
Alter-Rex Partnership
Wolseys wealth served to further his political power Used the trappings of political success to set himself up as the most important man in the country next to the king. 1528 Henry fell out with Wolsey over the seemingly trivial matter of Wolseys appointment of an abbess to a nunnery. Wolsey forced to make a grovelling apology
24
Alter-Rex Partnership
Wolsey maintained his power through ruthlessness. Wolsey did consult other nobles. Reputation stemmed from jealousy and the fact that he clearly decided on policy in private with Henry before presenting it before Council.
25
Young Lion
26
France 1512
  • In 1509 Holy League France, Spain and HRE
    attack Venice. England isolated.
  • H7s advisors frustrated Henry 1510 Peace
    Treaty with France in 1510
  • 1511 France threatening the Papal States Holy
    League with England, Venice and Spain to drive
    France out of Italy.
  • Joint Anglo-Spanish invasion let down by
    Ferdinand.

27
The Battle of Spurs 1513
  • Henry more determined to invade and gain glory.
  • Personally led an army of 30,000 men
  • Capture of Therouanne and Tournai with little
    French resistance.
  • Therouranne given to Maximillian
  • Tournai English Garrison very expensive.
  • Propaganda

28
The Battle of Flodden 1513
  • Earl of Surrey defeated James IV.
  • English outnumbered
  • James dead

29
The Anglo-French Treaty of 1514
  • No money Leo X HRE and Ferdinand treaty
    French peace
  • England possession of Tournai
  • France agreed to pay pension areers
  • Younger sister Mary elderly Louis XII.

30
(No Transcript)
31
1515-1517 Isolation
  • Francis 1 1515
  • Duke of Albany to overthrow the Regency in
    Scotland.
  • Francis defeated the Swiss w
  • Francis Pope Concordat

32
The Treaty of London 1518
  • Hijacked Leo Xs papal plans for a western
    crusade against the Turks
  • England was at the heart of bringing peace to
    Europe.
  • Prestige for Henry end isolation
  • More French Pensions, get the Duke of Albany out
    of Scotland, and Mary engaged to the Dauphin
  • Motivation? Wolseys selfish ambitions to become
    Papal Legate or Pope?

33
The Field of the Cloth of Gold, 1520
  • January 1519 Charles HRE.
  • Francis and Charles looking for an ally?

34
1521 Treaty of Bruges
  • England bargaining power due to Francis and
    Charles competing
  • Form alliance with HRE
  • August 1521 Bruges support HRE

35
1523 Siege on Boulogne and attack on Paris
  • 1523 need to honour Bruges
  • Duke of Bourbon rebellion three-pronged
    assault.
  • Rebellion did not occur and English troops
    suffered.

36
1525 Diplomatic revolution. U Turn
  • Battle of Pavia (N. Italt)
  • Francis chrused hostage
  • Henry tried to staje a claim but Charles would
    not share.
  • Amicable Grant
  • U turn Treaty of More in 1525. Henry give up
    claims to France annual pension.

37
1526 The Treaty of Cognac
  • Francis released on good behaviour
  • Treaty of Cognac England, France and Italian
    states against the Imperial forces in Italy.

38
1527-1529 The Imperial Sack of Rome and the
Peace of Cambrai
  • HRE sack of Rome and the Pope Clement VII was
    taken prisoner!
  • By 1528 Charles complete control in Italy.
  • Battle of Landriano French defeat.
  • Peace of Cambrai in 1529 treaty between France,
    Spain and the Papacy.

39
FP 1530-1540?
40
  • Heretical England desire for alliance with HRE
    Anglo French alliance falling apart England
    vulnerable and isolated.
  • CofA AB deaths Henry hopes renewed interest
    in HRE alliance (1536).
  • 1538 Peace of Nice Isolated England
  • Holy Crusade Military defences links with
    German Princes.

41
  • White Rose Cardinal Pole call for Catholic
    invasion of England brutal purge of Poles
    family.
  • 1539 Act of Six Articles u-turn to catholic
    doctrine.
  • BUT Lutheran embassy officials were visiting
    England .
  • Anne of Cleves Italian wars resume Cromwells
    fall

42
Henry VIII and divorce issue
  1. Why did Henry want an annulment?
  2. What were the obstacles to Henry securing an
    annulment?
  3. What was the role of Wolsey?

43
Route 1Terms of original dispensation rendered
it invalid
  • Issue of affinity between H8 and CofA confusing
    was original marriage consummated?
  • CofA argued it was not. Therefore no issue of
    affinity. So dispensation was wrong.
  • Genuine problem was public honesty.

44
Route 2
  • Challenge grounds on which the original
    dispensation had been issued.
  • Julius had ruled a dispensation admissible
    because it cemented peace between England and
    Spain.
  • Was political reason sufficient for setting aside
    God's word.

45
Route 3 Did Pope have the authority to issue
dispensations?
  • Leviticus if a man shall take his brothers
    wife he hath uncovered his brothers nakedness
    they shall be childless
  • Original Hebrew says sonless
  • Henry argued Julius II had exceeded his powers by
    over-turning the word of God as set down in the
    bible.

46
Wolseys strategies
  • Persuading the Pope to delegate the decision
    to his representative in England!

47
  • In Dec 1527 Clement escaped from Charles V and
    Henry offered to send troops to help protect him.
  • Later that year Wolsey persuaded Clement to send
    a papal legate, Cardinal Campeggio to England to
    try the case.

48
  • In April 1528 Cardinal Campeggio sent
  • Absentee Bishop of Salisbury
  • ill and slow progress to England (oct 28),
  • Under orders to delay matters 'by the book'.
  • Alternative suggestion CofA nunnery

49
  • 31st March - July 1529 court at Blackfriars.
  • 18th June CofA sole appearance (show clip from
    the Tudors)
  • Hearing suspended (FP Pope signed the Treaty of
    Barcelona, swearing loyalty to the Emperor).
  • Clement recalled the matter to Rome.

50
  • Catherine - appealed directly to Rome for a
    decision,
  • Campeggios visit futile
  • August 1529 summons hearing in Rome.
  • Factions align against Wolsey dismissed

51
  • In 1529 Wolsey was charged with praemunire
    (acknowledge a foreign power over the crown)
  • So this year was a turning point in the Great
    Matter.
  • Henry continued to pursue the annulment via Rome
  • BUT
  • he was also open to the idea of him making the
    final decision on the divorce in England and
    break with Rome. By 1532 it is clear his mind is
    made up.

52
The importance of factions, 1520s
  • How important were factions in this period?
  • Which factions were opposed to Wolsey and
    why? (there are three)
  • What is surprising about why these factions
    combined against Wolsey?
  • Explain the significance of the Boleyn factions
    role in undermining Wolsey

53
  • The Boleyn faction
  • Key point what position did these men hold with
    Henrys government.
  • (Kings Privy Chamber)
  • Anne also actively created an anti - Wolsey
    faction with other peers e.g. Norfolk and
    Suffolk.

54
  • 2. The Aragonese faction
  • While this faction was concerned by the divorce
    issue many of the members also feared for the
    safety of the universal church Catherine had the
    support of leading churchmen e.g. John Fisher.
  • This faction was also united by the fear of the
    power that Wolsey yielded. These men were
    profiting from the weakening of Wolseys power
    which the Boleyn faction had brought about.

55
  • 3. The Noble faction.
  • This faction comprised of those nobles who had
    been offended by Wolsey through the Star Chamber.
  • The following Dukes ultimately allied together
    with Anne.

56
  • 4. Wolseys faction

57
1527 Henry decided to seek an annulment
His motives
His strategy
October 1529 Wolseys fall
1527-29 Wolsey in charge
The Legatine court 1529
THE DIVORCE
1530 and 1532 The years of drift?
April 1533 Marriage annulled by Cranmer
1532-3 Cromwell in charge
March 1533 Act of Appeals
58
1529-32 A period of drift?
59
  • Got rid of Wolsey
  • Religious conservatives
  • C of A faction
  • Private formality now public dispute conducted
    through the press and the courts. Neither side
    could afford to back down.
  • BUT
  • Reformation Parliament (1529-36)
  • Cromwell joined council Collectanea satis
    copiosa evidence against the Popes powers
  • Major initiative European scholars (feb-april
    1530)

60
  • Cambridge/ Oxford anti-divorce. But pro divorce
    doctors selected.
  • 7 universities supported Henry.
  • Theologians bribed undermined the initiative.
  • Why?

61
  • Public knowledge votes had been bought
  • Some scholars accepted bribes by C of A's party
    too.
  • So years of drift????

62
Reformation Parliament
  • 7 sessions Nov 1529-36.
  • Anti clerical legislation passed pressurise
    Pope.

63
  • 1531, Cromwell knew Pope never rule in Henry's
    favour.
  • Give someone else the power to do it.
  • Persuade Henry slowly.
  • Piecemeal
  • Momentum break with Rome.

64
  • Parliament Partner in crime.
  • Henry ensure
  • C of E recognised his authority over the Pope and
    obeyed him.
  • Popes influence was broken
  • Establish Royal supremacy

65
  • Feb 1531, Clergy charged with praemunire
  • Convocation fined 118,000
  • Henry recognised him as protector and
  • Supreme head "so far as the law of Christ
  • allows".
  • Pardon of the Clergy

66
  • Supplication against the Ordinaries, March 1532.
  • House of Commons draft
  • Anti benefit of the clergy
  • Submission of the Clergy, 15 May 1532
  • Henry examine/ veto all Convocations legislation
  • Henry review canon law.
  • Stop or enforce any of Englands laws.

67
  • Act in Conditional Restraint of Annates, May 1532
  • Parliament withhold Annates from Rome,
  • blackmail Pope.
  • Pope could not excommunicate anyone or
  • delay the consecration of bishops
  • What does the term conditional suggest
  • about this act?

68
Why was 1532 a turning point in royal policy?
69
  • Jan 1533 H8 and AB secret marriage H8
    technically a bigamist .
  • March Thomas Cranmer AB of C
  • In March a CRUCIAL act was passed! Read the
    following extract. What did the act do? Why is it
    crucial to Henrys Great Matter?

70
  • Act in Restraint of Appeals, March 1533
  • Final authority in all legal matters lay with
    monarch.
  • Recognised England's national sovereignty.

71
  • Jan 1533 H8 and AB secret marriage H8
    technically a bigamist .
  • Vital for divorce to be finalised,
  • Late May hearing of the case which Catherine
    refused to attend.
  • 3 days of discussion the papal dispensation was
    invalid.

72
  • Act for the Submission of the Clergy, 1534
  • Reconfirmed earlier submission
  • Forbade appeals being made to the Pope.
  • This was for all cases.
  • Appeals made to the royal commissioners.

73
  • Act in Absolute Restraint of Annates, 1534.
  • (notice conditional replaced by absolute)
  • Forbade payment to Pope.
  • King nominate bishop. Consecrated by
  • Archbishop

74
  • Dispensations Act, 1534
  • Stopped all remaining papal payments.
  • First Succession Act, 1534.
  • Succession rests in H8 and ABs heirs
  • Elizabeth heir. Mary bastard.
  • All subjects swear an oath to recognise this
    and the Kings supremacy.
  • Act of Supremacy, 1534.
  • Henry is Supreme Head of the English Church.
  • (see original document)

75
  • Act of First Fruits and Tenths
  • This took old papal taxes and gave them to
  • the Crown instead.
  • Oath of Succession 1534
  • Ye shall swear to bear faith, truth, and
    Obedience alonely to the king's majesty, and to
    his heirs of his body of his most dear and
    entirely beloved lawful wife Queen Anne, begotten
    and to be begotten..

76
  • Treason Act, 1534.
  • Disavowing the Oath of Succession death.
  • any person or persons, after the first day of
    February next coming, do maliciously wish, will
    or desire, by words or writing, or by craft
    imagine, invent, practise, or attempt any bodily
    harm to be done or committed to the king's most
    royal person, the queen's, or their heirs
    apparent, or to deprive them or any of them of
    their dignity, title, or name of their royal
    estates then every such person and persons so
    offending shall have and suffer such pains of
    death and other penalties, as is limited and
    accustomed in cases of high treason.

77
What factors pushed or pulled Henry into his
break with Rome?
78
PUSH forced him into annulling his marriage and
breaking with Rome PULL attracted him to the
annulment and breaking with Rome
  • Henrys conscience
  • Henrys desire for a male heir
  • Love for AB
  • Need to increase his revenue
  • Desire for power
  • C of A miscarriages and 3 stillborn babies
  • CVs rejection in June 1515 of Henrys proposal
    that Charles marry Mary
  • Ab refusal to be his mistress
  • Pope taken prisoner in 1527
  • Wolsey becomes legate a latere
  • Wolsey replaced by More as Chancellor in Oct 1529
  • William Warham replaced by Cranmer
  • Collactanea Satis Copiosa in 1530
  • AB pregnant in Dec 1532

79
Thomas More Saint or sinner?
  • Popular view of More as a man of Principle who
    was willing to die for his people. Elevate to the
    status of Catholic Martyrdom.
  • Protestant view of More as a harsh and cruel
    hunter of good, honest Protestant Men. This was
    asserted by Jon Foxes Protestant Book of
    Martyrs written in 1563

80
Saint
  • Refusal to swear the Oath of Succession 1534.
  • Resignation after the Submission of the Clergy
    1532.
  • His attempt to retire from public life and
    refusal to speak publicly on the issue of the
    Supremacy.
  • He insisted he was willing to remain the Kings
    loyal servant and he would not assist his enemies
  • Cranmer and Cromwell both tried to save him from
    execution and were willing to accept this
    promise.

81
  • Passionate defender of Catholic orthodoxy -
    writing pamphlets against heresy, banning
    unorthodox books, and even taking responsibility
    when chancellor for the interrogation of
    heretics.
  • In total there were six heretics burned at the
    stake during More's Chancellorship

82
Dissolution of the Monasteries
83
Desire for wealth
Religious and political need
Causes
Smaller monasteries 1536
Larger monasteries 1538-40
Course
Short term
Consequences
Long term
religious
humanitarian
political
social
84
Why were the monasteries dissolved?
85
Religious reasons
86
  • Extracts from the Henry VIII's report on Monastic
    Houses (1535) Lampley "Mariana Wryte had given
    birth three times, and Johanna Snaden, six
  • Lichfield 2 of the nuns were with child
  • Whitby "Abbot Hexham took his cut at the proceeds
    from piracy
  • Abbotsbury Abbot wrongfully selling timber
  • Pershore "monks drunk at mass"

Assess the state of the monasteries based on
these accounts.
87
Very negative comments but were these accurate
statements?
  • Was the reason for the dissolution because the
    religious community were not living up to their
    vows?

88
Yes
  • The evidence shows a decline in moral standards.
  • Accounts of illegitimate children and mistresses.

89
No..
  • The evidence shows that most religious houses
    lived up to their vows.
  • Accounts of good works being done in the community

90
  • Corruption was used as an excuse to close the
    monasteries not as the driving reason.
  • But the Valor Ecclesiasticus (see later notes)
    provided the ammunition to convince parliament
    the situation was bad and so justify the
    dissolution.

91
Political reasons
  • Allegiance to Rome
  • It has been argued that many monasteries owed
    their allegiance to the Pope first and the crown
    second.
  • Therefore dissolving them is a logical step

92
  • Many protestant historians have argued that
    monasteries were outdated. The new religion did
    not require monks to pray for their soul or to
    sell indulgences.

However. (what problems can you see with this
statement?)
93
  • Not all houses owned allegiance to the Pope but
    to mother houses instead.
  • What about those houses set up and funded by the
    crown?
  • What about those houses that had taken the Oath
    of Supremacy?
  • It has been argued that protestant historians
    have placed too heavy an emphasis on this
    political reason in order to fit into how the
    English Reformation occurred.

94
Desire for wealth
  • Henry dissolved the monasteries for financial
    gain.
  • Worried about a foreign invasion Henry wanted to
    increase Englands defences.
  • Henry had already started taking church funds
    with the 1534 Act of First Fruits and Tenths.

95
Were the monasteries dissolved for financial gain
or reform?
  • Discuss this question.

96
What do historians think?
  • There are more detailed notes on the shared area
    under Randall notes on diss of mon.
  • I have included an overview.

97
a) The Early Sectarian Controversy
  • 300 years after Henrys death Catholics argued
    that the dissolution had nothing to do with
    religion but rather greed and wickedness
  • In a report written by the Emperor's ambassador,
    Eustace Chapuys, Cromwell is said to have risen
    to favour by promising Henry that he would make
    him the richest king in Christendom.
  • They use the Pilgrimage of Grace as evidence of
    popular support for the monasteries.

98
  • The Protestants argued that by the 1530s the
    monasteries were generally corrupt places.

99
b) The Later Sectarian Controversy
  • Not until the mid 19th century that a less
    emotional examination of the evidence occurred.
  • However there were enough facts on both sides of
    the argument to prolong the debate.

100
c) Modern Interpretations
  • Since WW2 a general consensus has emerged.
  • Wealth was the main motivation.
  • No popular demand for the destruction of the
    religious houses,
  • They were not in a terminal state of collapse
  • They posed no political or religious threat to
    the king or his policies.

101
Top down historians
  • Elton and Scarisbrick
  • Evidence to support greed as motive.
  • Henry behind each step of dissolution yet
    accepted none of the doctrinaire reasons advanced
    by Protestants to justify his actions.

102
Bottom up historians
  • Dickens
  • These historians argue there was very little
    popular opposition to the continued existence of
    the religious houses
  • A modest reform programme would have eliminated
    most shortcomings.
  • Public opinion was just on the supportive side of
    neutral

103
Desire for wealth
Religious and political need
Causes
Smaller monasteries 1536
Larger monasteries 1538-40
Course
Short term
Consequences
Long term
religious
humanitarian
political
social
104
1535 Valor Ecclesiasticus (church valuation)
105
  • Commissioners were sent out to survey and value
    all benefices, including religious houses and
    Oxford and Cambridge colleges.
  • The initial reason was to work out how much each
    house would have to pay to meet the 10 promised
    to Henry under the First Fruit and Tenths act.
  • The result of their efforts is known as the Valor
    Ecclesiasticus.
  • Total income revealed as 160,000 per annum. 3
    x Royal income.
  • Owned 1/3rd of landed property
  • Wealth was from rents, tithes and pilgrimages.

106
Visitations
  • Mainly two of Cromwell's trusted 'servants'
    Thomas Legh and Richard Layton.
  • Very able, hard working, ambitious and
    unscrupulous characters.

107
  • These men had a lists of questions to ask at each
    house and sets of instructions (injunctions) to
    issue the monks and nuns they 'visited.
  • In a short period of time they drew up a list of
    comperta (transgressions admitted by monks and
    nuns)

108
  • Bottom up historians such as Dickens have
    argued that the comperta must be treated with
    extreme caution.
  • It is clear that the visitors carried out their
    orders to 'dig up as much dirt as possible' with
    efficiency and enthusiasm.
  • They do not suggest that they fabricated
    evidence, there is no doubt that they were
    prepared to mislead quite outrageously.
  • This can be shown both from internal evidence in
    their reports and from external evidence that has
    been unearthed relating to a few of the
    confessions included in the comperta.

109
  • 181 cases of 'sodomy' gave rise to claims of
    widespread homosexual practices.
  • But the visitors' definition of sodomy was
    unusual
  • In 169 cases they are described as 'solitary
    vice. So not sodomy but probably masturbation.
  • There were 38 confessions by nuns that they had
    had children. In once case this was probably
    before the nun took her vow of chastity. This
    opens the possibility that many of the other
    confessions related to similarly ancient falls
    from grace.

110
  • Many houses complained about the bullying tactics
    of Legh and Layton
  • Their reputation was poor that in the Pilgrimage
    of Grace in 1536 they called on the evil
    councillors to receive special punishment.    

111
Was the dissolution pre-planned?
  • Cromwell had a master plan from 1530 always had
    a financial and religious motive.
  • Only after V.E that dissolution was this course
    of action decided (so reactive). Supported by the
    fact that Cromwell had not been prepared with
    what to do with the evidence discovered.
  • Only after V.E was dissolution decided and then
    it was only for smaller monasteries. Only in 1538
    after Henry saw how easy it was did the greater
    houses fall.
  • Again read Randall notes for more in depth
    discussion

112
1536 Dissolution of the lesser Monasteries (Act
of Suppression)
  • Dissolved if income less than 200 a year
  • Pension offered to heads of the houses.
  • Other members of the house could transfer to a
    larger house
  • or
  • be freed of their vows of poverty and obedience
    BUT NOT chastity.

113
  • 300 houses affected
  • 67 given royal permission to remain open. Argued
    that another 10 houses also survived but the
    evidence has been lost. This survival cost a
    years income. Henry earned c13,500 for saving
    67 (or 15,500 77)
  • These houses survived as they had contacts in
    Henrys government who could put in a good word
    for them.

114
  • In order to ensure that the religious houses
    could not hide their treasures the
    commissioners moved quickly
  • Unsurprisingly these treasures were taken and
    the land rented or auctioned off.
  • The local population also took their share.
    Bricks, fences etc were taken.
  • 1536 Court of Augmentations set up and overseen
    by Richard Rich (why is this name familiar?)
  • (We will look at the populations reaction later)  

115
So what was happening with the larger monasteries?
116
  • Monasteries involved in the pilgrimage of Grace
    were punished (see later notes)
  • The abbot was accused of treason, executed and
    the house and possessions confiscated.
  • Those houses that escaped this treatment were
    dealt with in a piece meal fashion (different to
    1536)

117
  • The houses were transferred into the Kings hands
    as free gifts
  • Those houses that were aggressive were noted and
    passed over. The commissioners initially focused
    on those who had been cowed into submission.

118
1539 Dissolution of the greater monasteries
  • Why pass the 1539 act then?
  • This was to cover the Kings back and to
  • ensure that no religious house could start a
  • dispute about the legality of the Kings
  • actions

119
  • What happened to those houses that
  • opposed the King?

120
  • They were accused of spurious charges and
    executed.
  • The main charge used was hiding valuable items
    away from Henry.
  • Some houses were destroyed.
  • In less than 5 years 800 monasteries had been
    dissolved.

121
Desire for wealth
Religious and political need
Causes
Smaller monasteries 1536
Larger monasteries 1538-40
Course
Short term
Consequences
Long term
religious
humanitarian
political
social
122
Historians and the short term impact of the
dissolution (read Randall for more detailed
discussion)
123
Catholic writers
  • Dissolution views as vandalism which had
    religious, humanitarian and cultural effects.
  • Remember the Catholic historians believed the
    church was strong during this time. So the
    dissolution was a religious destruction.
  • It was 'cultural' vandalism unsurprisingly
    because of the destruction of medieval art,
    statues and buildings.
  • It was a humanitarian because of the what the
    monks, nuns etc suffered having been kicked out
    their religious house. Also what about those
    people who had relied on these houses for charity
    and work.

124
Protestant historians thought the opposite!!!
125
Modern historians
  • Today historians realise that the extent to which
    there was religious vandalism depends on the
    writers religious view point.
  • They argue that it is difficult to objective
    assess the religious impact of the dissolutions.
  • Modern historians view the dissolutions as having
    little affect on religion at these time when
    compared to the other policies being implemented
    in the Reformation.

126
  • Cultural Vandalism?
  • Similarly this is a subjective issue to!
  • The sight of ruined monasteries. The knowledge of
    medieval texts being destroyed, of iconoclasm and
    items being melted still prompts criticism.
    Rightly so!
  • But what if they derelict and ugly?????
  • Despite these acts religious houses did survive!

127
  • A humanitarian crisis?
  • The idea of monks and nuns being abandoned to the
    harsh Tudor world is another strong image of the
    dissolution. How could these unworldly people
    survive?
  • This topic has
  • elicited the most
  • research.

128
  • 6500 monks and friars found other jobs within the
    Church.
  • Pensions were given
  • The 2000 nuns affected did not do as well. Why?
  • They were not allowed to marry nor were they
    eligible for priestly posts.
  • Some went back home to their families others
    lived at subsistence level,
  • Lay servants of the monasteries would have been
    able to find employment with the new owners.

129
  • The end of charity is often blamed for the
    increase in poverty at this time.
  • Yet, the VE shows that c2 of the houses income
    was given as charity.
  • What about the affect of inflation, population
    increases (there is no contraception and the
    catholic tenant is to reproduce)?

130
Long term impact?
131
  • Social impact ?
  • The fact that some inferior people
  • (merchants etc) bought some of the land
  • meant that the number of country
  • gentlemen increased by several thousand
  • before the end of the century (these men
  • would want more power gt CM????)

132
  • Impact of Crown?
  • Kings normal income doubled as he leased out
    land.
  • King became less reliant on the parliament for
    grants (it is argued that if Henry had not
    squandered this money then subsequent monarchs
    would not have been reliant on the parliament and
    so this would not have led to conflict between
    the two i.e. English Civil War.

133
So how serious was the Pilgrimage of Grace?
134
(No Transcript)
135
Umbrella term for 3 uprising but only Oct Dec
1536 should be called the PoG
136
  • Direct reaction to the proposed dissolution of
    the smaller monasteries
  • Socio-economic motivations too.
  • North the most conservative area in religious
    outlook.

137
Lincolnshire Rising Oct 1536
138
  • Caused by commissions for the dissolution of
    the smaller monasteries, tax collections,
    economic situation etc
  • October At Louth commissioner for dissolution
    was seized uprising
  • Local church funds paid for initial force
    swelled to c40,000
  • Shoemaker Nicholas Melton became "Captain
    Cobbler" the leader of a rebellion
  • Spiritual leader was Kendall, the vicar of Louth.

139
  • Marched to Lincoln and wrote a set of articles to
    Henry in London
  • Demands
  • end of the Ten Articles
  • an end to the dissolution,
  • an end to taxes in peacetime,
  • a purge of heretics in government,
  • and the repeal of the Statue of Uses

140
  • Ended October 10th 1536
  • Henry sent word for the occupiers to disperse or
    face the forces of Charles Brandon (Duke of
    Suffolk)
  • Leaders knew if they kept on then it would be
    treason faced a stronger military force
  • Took Kings offer to consider their demands if
    they went home they did.

141
  • Consequences
  • Over next 12 months Kendall and most of the other
    local ringleaders executed
  • Inspiration for more widespread Pilgrimage of
    Grace.
  • What conclusions can we draw from this?

142
POG
143
3 phases (Nick fellows)
  1. Oct Mobilisation
  2. Nov Truce arranged
  3. Dec General pardon

144
Phase 1 Mobilisation
  • S. Yorkshire
  • 8th October (Lincolnshire still going
    inspiration/similarities?)
  • Leadership lawyer Robert Aske leading
    Yorkshire family intelligent, skilled in
    debating, organisational skills
  • 30,000 men marched on York
  • Henrys men still in Lincolnshire dealing with
    aftermath of uprising there.

145
Phase 1 Mobilisation
  • Name
  • Banner 5 wounds of Christ
  • Sang religious songs
  • ALL swore an oath (What conclusions can be drawn
    from this oath?)
  • Funded by donations some from church

146
  • 21st October - Pontefract Castle surrendered by
    Lord Darcy.
  • Organised and experienced from fighting the Scots
  • BUT leaders wanted to negotiate and only used
    show of force to bring Henry to the table.
  • 27th October met with D of Norfolk
    discussions.

147
Phase 2 3 Truce
  • Henry rejected rebels demands said too vague.
  • Promised a pardon to all but ringleaders.
  • Aske 24 articles given to Norfolk who assured
    rebels that the King would look into them.

148
Aske - Manifesto
  • Remove evil councillors
  • Restoration of old faith
  • Protection of monasteries.
  • Also called for a free parliament in the north to
    discuss political and religious issues.

149
  • Aske reached agreement with D of Norfolk on 6th
    Dec 1536 (end of P o G)
  • stopped 1534 subsidy.
  • Parliament free election in York.
  • Doncaster peaceful dispersal given a free and
    general pardon (showed Henrys weakness),
  • Rebels dispersed
  • Aske London and given gifts and praise by
    Henry.
  • Believed Henrys word he played for time as
    knew outnumbered.

150
Role on nobility?
  • Importance Argued areas where the nobles
    rebelled so did the commoners. Where the nobles
    remained loyalty to Henry so did that area.
  • Elton Involved in a plot by conservative
    faction. Moved from London to north where they
    thought it would come to fruition more
    successfully.
  • Guy nobles and gentry joined as hated Cromwell.
    But while element of conspiracy most nobles
    surprised by revolt in Lincolnshire so
    pre-planned by nobles but fuse lit by ordinary
    only mass participation and commitment to cause
    explains speed with which it spread.

151
Cumberland rising 1537
  • Henrys promises had not been kept
    disillusionment of the common people
  • Jan 1537 Sir Bigod commons uprising aim to
    capture Hull and Scarborough failed.
  • Rebels defeated at Carlisle martial law
    gentry leaders executed.
  • Scale of uprising was small BUT Henrys chance
    for revenge Darcy, Hussey, Aske and other Pog
    leaders. But this is not a continuation of PoG
    Indeed DIFFERENT leaders.

152
How much of a threat?
  • Aim not to challenge the crown but to
    pressurise the government into changing its
    policy and personnel
  • Michael Bush threat size of their armies
    Norfolk initially agreed to demands.
  • Well organised and showed signs of advance.

153
How protestant was England by 1540?
154
Window Stand here if you agree with the
statement. Make sure you can justify your
position.
The Henrician Reformation was motivated by
political, personal and financial reasons rather
than religious.
Door Stand here if you disagree with the
statement. Make sure you can justify your
position.
155
  • If you look back at your notes you will see
  • that the English church changed a lot
  • between 1532 4.
  • Yet how far had England actually become
  • Protestant?

156
Was there a move to Protestantism 1534-9?
  • Yes
  • English church different to other Catholic
    churches.
  • The Pope was removed from the head of the Church.
  • No
  • Papal influence had been destroyed but there was
    no new reform. Henry would not be influenced
    towards Lutheranism.
  • Lack of popular support so grassroots worship
    remained Catholic
  • Evangelicals were restricted to the south and
    were small in number.

157
  • However the key men in power were
  • evangelicals. However, there was still a
  • conservative faction in court.
  • Evangelicals v
  • Cranmer
  • Cromwell
  • AB via patronage (will look at her fall from
    power in 1536 later)
  • Conservatives
  • Stephen Gardiner (Bishop and politician)
  • Thomas Howard (Uncle to AB and Catherine Howard)

158
  • Just like a country needs a constitution a
  • church needs to make clear is doctrinal
  • position.
  • So what would the new Church of Englands
  • religious position be?

159
  • Ten Articles, 1536 
  • This next activity is tricky but have a go!
  • You have 2 handouts. One shows you the difference
    between the Catholic and Protestant religion.
  • ..\..\Worksheet\Reformation Supremacy\1532-1540\
    Catholicism v Protestantism http.doc
  • The other has the Ten Articles.
  • Your task is to use the first handout to work out
    which parts of the Ten Articles is catholic and
    which protestant.
  • Not all the articles will be coloured

160
  • Since March 1536 Cranmer had instigated an
    important preaching campaign.
  • Reformers wanted to take a firm stance against
    purgatory and images, but conservatives still
    fought a rearguard action in Convocation
  • Hence the Ten Articles were a compromise intended
    to reach unity.

161
  • The Ten Articles were vague and did not establish
    a protestant religion.
  • However they were ambiguous enough to allow
    Protestants to read their doctrine in the
    articles.
  • The fact that only 3 of the sacraments were
    included was radical for the time.
  • Newcombe these essentially orthodox articles
    left the door open to Protestant interpretation.

162
  • Cromwells injunctions in August 1536 enforced
    the Ten Articles.
  • Moderate stand against images in churches and
    limited holy days.

163
  • Pendrill the injunctions did more than the Ten
  • Articles in changing how people worshipped.
  • Changed how people worshipped
  • Emphasised using the bible written in English
  • However
  • Many parishes continued their traditional
    practices
  • Many people could not afford or read the bible.

164
1536 Dissolution of lesser Monasteries
  • See previous notes

165
1537 Institution of a Christian Man
  • Bishops Book
  • This tried to deal with some of the ambiguity
    e.g. what should happen to the remaining 4
    sacraments?
  • Reinstatement of the other 4 sacraments reflected
    the demands of conservative bishops after a
    series of acrimonious disputes, but objections of
    Cranmer meant they were deemed of lesser
    importance than the 3 others and justified as
    such.

166
  • Cranmer and Cromwells additions did not please
    Henry who made additions which undermined them-
    i.e. faith and works stressed.
  • Restoration of some elements of conservative
    orthodoxy.
  • Argued by Haig that this reflected Henrys fear
    of internal disorder- following the Pilgrimage of
    Grace, and his own rather hesitant stance on
    religious reform.
  • Elton argued 'Though the Bishops' Book singled
    out the three sacraments acknowledged in 1536 as
    those solely instituted by Christ and therefore
    superior, it accepted all seven and thereby
    marked, if not a retreat, at least a failure to
    advance further towards the Lutheran position' -
    Elton, p274
  • Henry refused to sanction this book. Too far from
    his Catholic ideology? Was it too radical?

167
1538 Dissolution of greater Monasteries.
  • See previous notes

168
1537-8 Matthew Bible
  • First official English translation
  • Cromwell put his weight and money behind it..

169
The 1538 Injunctions
  • October 1537 Jane Seymour died so diplomatic
    activity to find Henry a wife.
  • May 1538 Envoys arrived from Schmalkaldic
    League (League of German Protestant Princes)
    came to discuss new set of articles.
  • However Henry refused to contemplate the
    doctrinal concessions they demanded - despite the
    fact that England was still isolated and an
    Imperial- French alliance looked a possibility
    (see foreign policy notes later).

170
The 1538 Injunctions
  • Cromwell made further attacks on conservative
    religion e.g. a friar was burned for the heresy
    of papalism in May, new sermons were preached.
  • In September Cromwell published his more radical
    Injunctions e.g.
  • attacks against pilgrimages, relics and shrines.
    Famous shrine of Thomas Becket destroyed
  • an English Bible was to be placed in every Church
    - the so called Great Bible. All churches to buy
    Matthews Bible - price dropped - few rural
    parishes did buy it

171
But at the same time.
  • Nov 1538. Henry issued a proclamation in which he
    launched an attack on Anabaptists and
    sacramentarians (denied the real presence in the
    sacrament) and outlawed clerical marriage.
  • Nov 1538 Henry presided over the trial of John
    Lambert, who was burned as a sacramentarian.

172
  • The aim of the Six Articles was to settle
    disputes
  • over religious dogma.
  • The articles affirmed belief in
  • transubstantiation,
  • communion in one kind only,
  • monastic vows,
  • celibacy of the clergy,
  • private masses,
  • auricular confession
  • Those who rejected transubstantiation were to be
  • burned at the stake

173
1539 Six Articles
  • bloody whip with six strings
  • Look at the worksheet on the Six Articles.
  • At the bottom of the page write the articles out
    in modern English.
  • How is this Article different from the 10
    Articles?

174
Why was reform halted?
175
The halting of reform, 1539
  • Why was reform halted?
  • Was it because of
  • Not as supportive of evangelical reform as
    Cromwell.
  • Threat of Catholic invasion was receding by 1539
  • Henry was trying to appease the Catholic powers,
  • he was nervous about the direction reforms were
    taking,
  • Advance of conservative personnel at Court. March
    1539 - After 3 years in France, Gardiner returned
    to England July 1540 - Henry marries Catherine
    Howard and the Norfolk faction brought to the
    fore

176
Overview Mark in the important events. Then
judge the extent to which each event was
Catholic/Protestant and give them a score.
  1. When are the high points of Protestant Reform?
  2. Is there a consistent trend in religious policy?
  3. What turning points can you discern?
  4. Is there any point at which the Reformation can
    be seen to be irreversible?

177
Source A
  • The state of this our kingdom is as follows the
    ceremonies are still tolerated, but explanations
    of them are added. These things are retained for
    the sake of preventing any disturbances, and are
    ordered to be kept up until the King himself
    shall either remove or alter them. Nothing has
    yet been settled respecting the marriage of the
    clergy. The mass is not asserted to be a
    sacrifice, but only a representation of Christ's
    passion. All images that are objects of worship
    are removed. There is a report that we are to
    have a war with the French, Italians, Spaniards
    and the Scots. When this was reported to the
    King, he said that he should not sleep at all the
    worse for it and on the day after he declared to
    his Privy Councillors that he now found himself
    moved in his conscience to promote the word of
    God more than he had ever done before.
  • Letter from a group of English Protestants
    writing to their friends in Protestant Zurich in
    1539
  • Study Source A what does this source suggest as
    the reasons for the passing of the Six Articles
    in June 1539? (10)
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