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ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE First Aid

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Title: ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE First Aid


1
ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE
AMERICAN RED CROSS FIRST AID
2
I. INJURIES A. Motor vehicle accidents are
the major cause of injuries to people in
the United States. First aid is the immediate
and temporary care given to the victim of an
accident.
3
However, your chances of being injured are
directly influenced by what you do. In any
case, you must remember the rules for Taking
Action.
4
1. Check - The scene for hazards and the
victim for responsiveness 2. Call - EMS
911 3. Care - The injuries discovered will
dictate the first aid to be given.
5
II. BLEEDING A. Three types 1.
Arterial carrying blood away from the
heart - bright red and spurts
2. Venous blood on its return to the
heart - dark red and steady flow
3. Capillary - finger tips/toes, - smallest,
infection biggest concern
6
B. Five Main Types of wounds 1. Deep
puncture wound danger of tetanus (booster
shots every 5 - 10 years) Do not try to
remove impaled objects
Puncture
7
2. Abrasions - scrapes
3. Cuts Incisions - smooth edges /
Lacerations - jagged or torn
4. Avulsion - machinery, explosion, animal
bite, auto accidents
Laceration
5. Bruise - damage causing bleeding under the
skin
8
C. Internal bleeding monitor ABC's, care for
shock, call 911, reassure victim
1. Tender, swollen, bruised 2.
Rapid, weak pulse 3. Skin feels cool or
moist or looks pale or bluish
9
4. Vomiting or coughing up blood5. Excessive
thirst6. Becoming confused, faint, drowsy,
or unconscious
10
D. To control external bleeding open
wounds 1. Apply direct pressure (FIRST
STEP TO CONTROL BLEEDING)
2. Elevate above heart unless a fracture is
suspected
3. Apply a pressure bandage (add new
dressings on top of the old ones)
11
4. Apply additional bandages if necessary -
help control bleeding and infection
12
6. Lying down improves circulation
a. Reassure victim b. Raise feet 10
to 12 inches unless neck, or head injury is
suspected
6. If bleeding from the leg, press the heel
of your hand where the leg bends at the hip
13
7. Impaled object do not remove the object,
use roller bandage to secure the object in
place
14
E. Cleansing Tincture of Greensoap, soap and
water
1. To reduce risk of disease transmission -
avoid direct contact with blood, wash hands
immediately after giving care, use protective
barriers such as gloves
15
F. Decontamination Major objective in caring
for a wound
1. Hydrogen Peroxide, Bactine, Betadine -
Check EXPIRATION DATES on medications
16
G. You can reduce the risk of disease
transmission when caring for open bleeding
wounds by
1. washing hands after care
2. avoid direct contact with blood
3. Use protective barriers like latex gloves
17
III. NOSE INJURIES
A. Common Causes 1. Neck, head and
back injuries, high blood pressure, heavy
exercise, colds, and change in altitude.
18
B. First aid 1. If you suspect neck,
head or back injury do not try to control
bleeding, leave the victim as you found them
and support the head and neck
19
2. Sit down, lean forward, pinch nose for
about 10 minutes, and use an ice pack on the
bridge of the nose3. Do not tilt head back -
blood may flow into stomach causing NAUSEA
4. Seek medical help if bleeding persists or
recurs or person says it results from high blood
pressure
20
IV. SHOCK
A. Shock Symptoms (may be triggered by a
serious injury or illness)
1. Not enough oxygen rich blood getting to
all parts of the body (First hour after
accident is the most critical start
treatment for shock immediately)
21
2. Rapid pulse (60 - 80 beats minute is
normal)3. Rapid breathing (12 - 20 breaths
per minute is normal)
22
4. Cool, clammy, moist pale - bluish skin,
dilated pupils (enlarged)5. Restlessness or
irritability
6. Unequal pupils two causes a.
Head, neck, or spinal injury OR stroke
23
7. Lying down improves circulation.
a. Reassure the victim - call EMS 911 - give
the victim nothing to eat or
drink (reassurance is the best first aid) b.
Raise the feet about 12 inches unless neck,
head injury is suspected
24
V. HEAT BURNS
A. From the first aiders point of view burns
are classified by degrees. 1. First -
redness, mild swelling, pain / heals in 5 - 6
days (sunburn)
25
2. Second - redness, blisters (may be open or
closed), swelling heals in 3 - 4 weeks 3.
Third - white/charred, all layers of skin
life-threatening, tissue and nerve damage
26
B. First aid - four basic steps
1. Cool the burned area with cool water - all
types of burns
2. Cover the burned area with dry sterile
dressings / loosely bandage to prevent
infection
27
3. Prevent infection a. do not put
ointments on burns requiring medical
attention b. do not break blisters or try
to clean third degree burns
4. Care for shock
28
VI. CHEMICAL BURNS
A. First Aid 1. For all types of burns use
lots of cool running water to flush the
chemicals from the skin and call 9-1-1 if you
are in doubt about the severity of the
burn
29
2. Keep flushing until EMS arrive3. Treat for
shock4. Monitor the ABCs Airway - Breathing -
Circulation
30
VII. ELECTRICAL BURNS
1. The first thing to do is turn off
electricity.2. Call EMS / and conduct a check
of the victim
A. What to do
31
3. Check burn sites for entry and exit
points4. Apply dry loose sterile dressings
and treat for shock
32
VIII. FRACTURES, STRAINS DISLOCATIONS, AND
SPRAINS
A. Treat all injuries you are not sure of the
same as fractures if you cannot determine which
type you have.
33
1. Sprains stretched or torn ligaments and
other tissues at a joint2. Strains stretched
and tearing of muscle or tendon fibers
34
3. Fractures breaks or cracks in bones - may
be open - exposed bone / closed - bone has not
penetrated skin a. May also have
internal injuries from bone fragments damaging
tissue
35
4. Dislocations bone ends are separated or
displaced / may have ligament damage - knee,
elbow, shoulder
36
B. Signals swelling, pain, deformity,
discoloration, inability to use body part
C. First aid
1. Splint only if you have to move the victim
and can do it without hurting the victim.
37
2. Splint (should be snug but not loose) only
when necessary to move victim and it doesn't
hurt victim
a. Anatomic - Using the victims body part as
a splint - leg to leg / finger to finger / arm
to chest
38
b. Soft Splint - Use of a towel, pillow or
blanket to support the injured body part
39
c. Rigid Splint - Use of a board,
cardboard, folded magazine
d. Splints help keep bone ends and adjacent
bones from moving
40
3. Ice packs first 24 - 48 hours a.
Reduces swelling and hemorrhaging
b. Do not apply ice directly to the skin/damp
towel - ice - dry towel c. Do not
remove shoe removal increases swelling
41
4. Maintain compression on the body part -
ACE wraps
5. Elevate the injured extremity if no
fracture is suspected
6. Care for shock / Check circulation after
splinting
42
7. Head, neck or back injury stabilize head
as you found them and do not move them unless
an emergency
8. Sling - support the injured area, secure
to the chest, check for feeling, warmth and
color
43
IX. SEIZURES
  • Symptoms Victim will generally look and feel
    ill. 1. May have a change in mental
  • status and appear disoriented. 2. Body
    may stiffen and convulse. 3. May experience
    difficult or no breathing. (a) When in
    doubt call 9-1-1.

44
1. Move things out of the way that may injure
the person, do not try to place anything
between the persons teeth.
B. Providing care
2. Protect the victims head by placing a thin
cushion under it. (Folded clothing)
45
3. Do not try to hold or restrain the victim
having a seizure. 4. Place the victim on
their side to allow fluids to drain from the
mouth. 5. Keep the airway open and monitor
ABCs (Airway-Breathing-Circulation)
46
1. Insulin shock symptoms Dizziness,
disorientation, fainting, and trouble
breathing. 1. Cause The result of
taking too much medication, not eating
properly, or too much heavy
exercise resulting in too much or too
little sugar in the persons blood.
X. DIABETIC EMERGENCIES
47
2. Care a. Give the person one of the
following (1) Glucose paste or
tablets. (2) Granulated sugar, sugar
cubes, candy, juice soda, syrup or honey.
48
B. Diabetic coma symptoms Looks dehydrated,
sleepy or confused. 1. Cause The result
of not taking medication and not eating
properly.
2. Carea. Call 9-1-1, have the
person rest, comfort and reassure them.
C. WHEN IN DOUBT AS WHAT TO DO GIVE THE
VICTIM SUGAR (preferred in
liquid form)
49
A. Blood flow to the brain is interrupted
long enough to cause damage 1. Most
common cause - blood clot to brain causing
damage.
XI. STROKE
50
2. A second cause is a ruptured artery in the
brain.3. Third cause is compression of
artery in the brain reducing blood flow
(usually the result of a tumor).
51
B. Symptoms Think F.A.S.T. 1.
FACE Weakness, numbness or paralysis on one
side of the face. 2. ARM Weakness
or numbness in one arm, or leg.
52
3. SPEECH Difficulty speaking, slurred speech,
lose of bladder control.4. TIME Note time
signals were first observed and call 9-1-1.5.
Other symptoms include Unequal pupils,
dizziness, confusion, blurred vision.
53
1. Stop activity, rest, maintain open airway,
call EMS (911).
C. First Aid
2. If victim vomits place him / her on one
side so that fluids can drain.
3. Treat for shock / very limited as to what
you can do.
DO NOT GIVE ANYTHING TO EAT OR DRINK
54
XII. POISONING THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IS
TO RECOGNIZE THAT A POISONING MAY HAVE
OCCURRED.
55
A. Four ways to become poisoned
1. Inhaling carbon monoxide, chlorine
gas, glues, paints and drugs. 2.
Absorbing poison oak and poison ivy
3. Ingesting food, liquids and pills.
4. Injecting snakebites, infected
hypodermic needles, insect bites and
stings.
56
B. If you think that a poisoning may have
occurred, do not wait for symptoms to develop,
call a Poison Control Center and EMS
(9-1-1).(THIS IS THE FIRST THING YOU SHOULD
DO)
57
C. Inhaled flames may cause damage to the
Airway / lungs..
D. If you suspect poisonous gases be sure it
is safe for you to enter and provide help.
58
E. Do not try to dilute the poison before
calling Poison Control Center for assistance.
1. If a person vomits after contact with a
poison roll them onto their side.
59
F. First Aid supplies
1. SYRUP OF IPECAC, (induces vomiting).2.
ACTIVATED CHARCOAL (binds and neutralizes
toxins). 3. EPSOM SALTS (mild
laxative).
60
XIII. HUMAN AND ANIMAL BITES, INSECT BITES AND
STINGS
A. With human and animal bites the most import
thing to do is (CONTROL BLEEDING FIRST)
61
1. Infection - pain, tenderness, redness
swelling, pus beneath the skin, red streaks,
feel ill.2. First Aid wash with soap and
water, cover with a clean dressing, get
medical help.
62
3. Do not try to clean a wound that is
bleeding heavily.4. RABIES extremely serious
illness transmitted to people through the
saliva of diseased skunks, bats, raccoons,
cattle, cats, dogs, foxes.
Dog Bite
63
1. Allergic reactions - pain, swelling of
throat, redness, itching, hives, difficult
noisy breathing "may be life threatening.
B. Insect bites and stings
2. Bee sting is the most
problemsome.
64
3. Remove stingers by brushing off with a
credit card / if you use tweezers grasp the
stinger being careful not to squeeze the venom
sac.
65
4. First Aid Clean with soap and water, cold
pack for swelling, may use cortisone or
benadryl lotion calamine lotion is a
temporary relief.
66
1. Few people die from snake bite of the
8,000 people bitten by snakes annually in the
United States, fewer than 12 die.
C. Snakebite
67
2. Wash the wound and keep the victim quiet
to slow absorption / call EMS.3. KEEP
EFFECTED AREA BELOW HEART - splint a bitten arm
or leg.
68
4. If the victim cannot get professional
medical care within 30 minutes, consider
suctioning the wound using a snakebite kit.
5. Give no aspirin it widens the blood
vessels, venom circulates faster.
69
A. Heat exhaustion less dangerous than heat
stroke.
XIV. TEMPERATURE EXTREMES
1. Give victim water 1/2 glass every 15
minutes.
70
2. Dilated pupils (enlarged) / Place victim on
back raise feet 10 - 12 inches. 3. Heavy
sweating / cool by fanning - applying
cold packs (wet towels)
71
B. Heat stroke 1. Give victim water 1/2
glass every 15 minutes if conscious.
2. Pin point pupils / Cool victim FAST -
immerse in a cool bath 3. Very dry, hot skin,
high temperature flushed face.
72
C. Hypothermia 1. Warm body slowly /
get into dry clothing. 2. Give nothing
to eat or drink unless victim is fully
conscious.
73
D. Frostbite (Gangrene may result from loss
of blood supply to the area). 1. Grayish
yellow, white skin color, numbness in
extremity.
2. PUT FROZEN PART IN WARM BUT NOT HOT WATER
(100 - 105 degrees)3. Do not rub or massage
the affected area.
74
XV. EYE INJURIES
A. Eye injury 1. Common causes Foreign
objects, chemicals, dirt.
2. Symptoms Visible object, redness,
burning, pain.
75
a. If it cannot be removed easily by
washing it out lift upper eyelid, look down,
flush eye with water. b. If you
must take victim to a hospital - BANDAGE BOTH
EYES. c. Get medical help.
3. First aid
76
4. Stabilize any impaled object in place as
best as you can.
77
A. Move a victim only if you or they are in
danger. B. Two handed seat carry. C. If you
suspect neck or back injury use clothes
drag. D. Foot drag for large persons.
XVI. RESCUES
78
this concludes First Aid
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