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Home Fire Sprinklers


Home Fire Sprinklers Medford Fire & Life Safety Division * Your chances of surviving a residential structure significantly increase when the structure is protected ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Home Fire Sprinklers

Home Fire Sprinklers
Medford Fire Life Safety Division
The Fire Problem
  • Statistics
  • National
  • Each day 7 people die in United States home fires
  • Each year on average over 2,500 people die in the
    United States and more than 13,000 people are
    injured in home fires
  • Fires kill more people in the United States each
    year than all natural disasters combined
  • Children and the elderly are most at risk
  • Oregon
  • From 2004 to 2013 there were
  • nearly 350 fire deaths
  • more than 2,500 injuries

Source NFPA
The Fire Problem
  • Statistics Firefighter Casualties
  • National
  • Approx. 100 firefighter fatalities per year
  • Many of these are related to residential
    structure fires
  • An estimated 81,070 firefighter injuries occur
    annually in the U.S.
  • The majority of firefighter injuries (87) occur
    in structure fires

Source UFSA
Medford Residential Fire Statistics
  • Statistics
  • Local
  • In the 25-year period between 1989 and 2013,
    Medford experienced 22 fire related deaths that
    occurred inside of structures located on
    residential properties.
  • Most fire deaths are caused from smoke inhalation
    and occur between midnight and 800am
  • Each fire tragedy effects family, friends,
    firefighters, and the community

Source NFPA
Medford Residential Fire Deaths20-Year Study
  • 13 in single family homes
  • 3 in duplexes
  • 2 in multi-family homes
  • 4 in structures associated with residences (2 in
    a garage and 2 in a shed)

Conclusion 17 of our citizen tragic fire deaths
could have been avoided if the homes were
protected with fire sprinkler systems
Medford Fire Injuries
In the last 13 years, 76 people were injured from
fires, many of these close calls
Medford Residential Fire Statistics(5-year
  • Structure Fires Per Year
  • 82 per year
  • Homes vs. Multi-family
  • 80 one and two family
  • 20 multi-family
  • Direct Property Losses Per Year
  • 1.1 million per year

Vulnerable Populations
  • Children
  • Children under the age of 5 are 1 ½ times more
    likely to die in a home fire as the general
  • Young children often hide during fires or need
  • Children may sleep through a sounding smoke alarm
  • Children have reduced reaction times

Source NFPA
Vulnerable Populations
  • Older Adults
  • The elderly are nearly 3 times more likely to die
    in a home fire as the general public
  • Older adults may suffer from reduced sensory
    abilities such as smell, touch, vision, and
  • Inability to smell smoke
  • Inability to feel if something is hot
  • Inability to see fires or notice fire causes
  • Inability to hear smoke alarms or fire sounds
  • Older adults may suffer from disabilities
  • Older adults have reduced reaction times

Source NFPA
Why Do We Still Lose People in Home Fires?
  • Safe Window of Escape Time
  • Studies have shown that the average safe window
    of escape time has been reduced from 17 minutes
    in the 1970s to as little as three minutes
  • This change is attributed to the widespread use
    of hydrocarbons (petroleum products) in modern
    furniture, such as plastics and polyurethane
    foams. These newer fuels cause more rapid fire
    growth. Smoke and products of combustion from
    these fires become deadly in a matter of just a
    few minutes.
  • People are dying because they simply do not wake
    up or cannot get out in time.

Source NIST
Why Do We Still Lose People in Home Fires?
  • Some Would Say Smoke Alarms are Enough
  • They may not provide an early enough warning for
    everybody to escape todays fast moving home fires
  • Smoke alarms were present and operated in 40 of
    home fire deaths
  • There are maintenance issues
  • 37 of fire deaths were in homes with missing
    smoke alarms
  • 23 of fire deaths were in homes where smoke
    alarms were inoperable

Source NFPAs Smoke Alarms in U.S. Home Fires,
March 2014
Smoke Alarms and Children
Source http//www.youtube.com/watch?v35cYfR1PgZw
Furnishings Fuel Loads
  • Heat Release Rates (HRR) (Btu/sec)
  • Small wastebasket 4-142
  • TV set 114-275
  • Cotton mattress 38-921
  • Polyurethane mattress 768-2495 (271-2025)
  • Cotton easy chair 275-351
  • Polyurethane easy chair 1281-1888 (466-538)
  • Polyurethane sofa 2960
  • Armchair (modern) 332-711
  • Recliner (synthetic padding/covering) 474-949
  • Christmas tree, dry 474-617
  • Pool of gasoline (2 quarts on concrete) 949
  • Living room or bedroom fully involved 2846-9487

Source NFPA 921 Kirks Fire Investigation
1970s vs. Current Fuel Loads
Source UL
Total Time to Firefighting Intervention(Minutes)
  • Fire Timeline
  • Ignition 0
  • Alarm-Discovery 1
  • Evacuation 1
  • 911 call 1
  • Dispatch Time 1
  • Turnout Time 1.5
  • Drive Time 5
  • Setup Time 1
  • Fighting Fire 11.5

The Facts - Flashover
  • Residents Do Not Survive Flashover
  • Flashover is caused when a fire produces enough
    radiant heat in a room to ignite all of the
    combustible items within the room simultaneously
  • Flashover can occur in as little as 3-4 minutes
  • Conditions can become fatal in about ½ the time
    to flashover
  • Most victims in post-flashover fires are found
    remote from the room of origin

Source NIST
The Facts - Flashover
  • Firefighters Do Not Survive Flashover
  • Charring of modern PPE fabrics gt572o F2
  • 10 of firefighter deaths are a result of rapid
  • fire development

The Facts Lightweight Construction
  • Firefighter Safety Hazards
  • Lightweight Construction
  • Began to appear 25 years ago
  • Vulnerable to fire conditions
  • Times to reach structural failure 35-60 percent

Sources UL Tests, NFPA Fire Sprinkler Initiative
Severe fire damage results. Extensive water is
used for firefighting suppression efforts.
Average time of displacement...6 months to a year.
The fire dept. arrives, assesses the situation
applies 250 gpm per hose to fire areas. Windows
are broken and holes are cut in the roof to vent
fire gases and smoke.
Typical Fire Scenario w/o Fire Sprinklers
Source Oregon Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition
Marble Mountain Tests
What If Homes were Sprinklered?
Average time of displacement from home...1-2 days.
The fire dept. arrives, assesses the situation
and limits water damage by shutting down the
water supply to the sprinkler system. The fire
department then assists with initial clean-up
Typical Fire Scenario with Sprinklers
Source Oregon Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition
What If Homes were Sprinklered?
  • Model Building Codes National Standard of Care
  • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
  • Required fire sprinklers in all new homes in 2005
  • International Code Council (ICC)
  • Required fire sprinklers in all new homes in 2009
  • State Adoptions of Model Codes
  • CA required fire sprinklers in all new homes 2011
  • First ordinance in San Clemente 1970s
  • 153 ordinances when starting to talk about
    statewide requirement
  • 4 years later passed a statewide requirement
  • MD required fire sprinklers in all new homes in
  • Where Are We at in Oregon?
  • Statewide multi-family requirement (2010) for new
    construction (3 units)
  • No statewide requirement to protect one and two
    family homes

Towards a Safer Community
  • Occupant Safety
  • Sprinklers reduce civilian fire deaths by 83
  • Sprinklers reduce civilian fire injury medical
    costs by 53
  • Sprinklers reduce civilian fire injury total
    costs by 41
  • Firefighter Safety
  • Sprinklers are responsible for an estimated 65
    reduction in firefighter fireground injuries
  • Property Losses
  • Sprinklers reduce direct property damage per fire
    by 69

Source Fire Sprinkler Initiative Home Structure
Fire Loss in the U.S. and Fire Sprinkler Impact
Proven Case Studies
  • Residential Fire Sprinklers
  • Scottsdale, AZ (15 Year Study)1
  • Ordinance enacted in 1986
  • Over 50 of houses sprinklered
  • No fire deaths in sprinklered homes
  • 13 people died in non-fire sprinklered homes
  • Over 20 million in property loss prevented
  • Average fire loss was
  • 2,166 in fire sprinklered residences
  • 45,019 in non-fire sprinklered residences

Source Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition
Proven Case Studies
  • Residential Fire Sprinklers
  • Prince Georges County, MD (15 Year Study) 1
  • Ordinance Enacted in 1992
  • Reported Home Fires 13,494
  • Reported Home Fire Sprinkler Activations 245
  • Homes Protected with Fire Sprinklers
  • 446 people present in homes
  • Fire Deaths 0
  • Fire Injuries 6 (all minor in nature)
  • Total Fire Loss 1,352,820.00
  • Potential Fire loss 42,578,420.00
  • Unprotected Homes
  • Fire Deaths 101
  • Fire Injuries 328

Source Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition
Case Study Conclusions
  • Fire Sprinkler Experience
  • Studies in jurisdictions that had long-standing
    fire sprinkler ordinances have proven that
    residential fire sprinkler systems are effective
    in saving lives, reducing injuries, and reducing
    property damage
  • The National Institute of Technology (NIST)
    compared sprinklered and non-sprinklered homes
    over a period of time and came to the following
  • Houses equipped with smoke alarms and a fire
    sprinkler system experienced 100 fewer civilian
    fatalities, 57 fewer civilian injuries, and 32
    less direct property losses and indirect costs
    resulting from fire than houses equipped only
    with smoke alarms.

Source NIST Benefit-Cost Analysis of Residential
Fire Sprinkler Systems, 2007
The Solution

  • Your Chances of Surviving a Fire Increase
    Significantly with
  • A fire sprinkler system and
  • Smoke alarms
  • Resident Benefits in Addition to Life Safety
  • Much less property damage
  • Valued possessions will most likely be spared
  • Will not have to relocate for an extended period
    of time while residence is rebuilt

Source NFPA Firesafehome.org
Community BenefitsAvailable Personnel Economics
  • Serious Residential Fire without Fire Sprinklers
  • Residential Fire with Fire Sprinklers
  • Average Staffing for Extended Duration
  • 15.5 personnel
  • 60.1 staff-hours
  • Mutual aid required for
  • other normal responses
  • Overtime crews
  • Overtime investigation
  • Average Staffing for Short Term
  • 3 personnel
  • 6 staff-hours
  • No overtime crews
  • Units immediately available for another response
  • Possible short duration overtime Investigation

Community Benefits Environmental Considerations
  • Environmental Impact of Sprinklered vs.
    Non-Sprinklered Homes
  • Greenhouse gas emissions were cut by 97.8
  • Water usage was reduced between 50 and 92
  • Fewer persistent pollutants, such as heavy
    metals, were found in sprinkler wastewater versus
    fire hose water
  • The high PH level and pollutant load of
    non-sprinkler wastewater are an environmental

Source Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition and FM
Public Perception
  • 2014 National Harris Poll
  • 74 of U.S. homeowners said they would be more
    likely to buy a home with fire sprinklers than
    one without
  • Seven in 10 said a sprinklered house has more
  • Nearly 8 in 10 (78) said fire sprinklers provide
    the ultimate protection for residents

Source Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition
Costs of Home Sprinkler Systems
  • Nationally - 1.35 per sq. ft. of living area
  • Lowest 0.74 in San Clemente CA
  • Locally - 1.68 per sq. ft. of living area
  • Solutions to Reducing Cost
  • Partnership with Medford Water Commission
  • ¾ water meters at standard 5/8 meter SDCs
  • Encourage Design to Eliminate Backflow
  • Multipurpose or flow through systems
  • Insurance Companies
  • Typical 5-15 reduction in homeowners insurance

Source NFPA
Costs of Home Sprinkler Systems
  • Expected Increase in 30-year Mortgage
  • 5-10 month after interest deduction and
    insurance savings
  • Comparable Costs
  • Many people pay similar costs for such amenities
  • Upgrading carpet
  • Upgrading cabinets
  • Upgrading countertops
  • Upgrading driveways

Conclusion1 Basically, for the price of a
Happy Meal or a Starbucks coffee (a month), your
family can be protected by a residential
sprinkler system, Fred Benn, President of
Advanced Automatic Sprinkler Company in Hayward,
Source 1. Home Fire Sprinkler Coalition
Sprinkler Ordinances Is There an Impact on
  • Impact on Housing Supply and Costs
  • A 2009 study found no evidence that the
    enactment of of sprinkler ordinances caused any
    detrimental effects on housing supply and costs.
  • Statistics on the website of the National
    Association of Home Builders (NAHB) show
    single-family home building permits increased on
    average by 28 percent in the United States
    between April 2012 and April 2013, but California
    experienced a 55 percent increase in permits in
    the same period.

  • Medfords Strategic Plan
  • 1. Ensure a safe community by protecting people,
    property, and the environment
  • Community Risk Reduction
  • Home fire sprinklers benefit homeowners by
    protecting lives, preventing injuries, and
    reducing property damage
  • Home fire sprinklers benefit the community by
    preventing tragedy, making conditions safer for
    firefighters, and protecting the environment
  • Where Do We Go from Here?
  • Continued education
  • Strengthening partnerships
  • Consider pursuing local ordinance

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