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WORLD SPACE PROGRAMS

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Title: WORLD SPACE PROGRAMS


1
WORLD SPACE PROGRAMS
  • -Extending mans knowledge of Earth,
  • the solar system and the universe.

2
Introduction
The reasoning for establishing the U.S. Space
Program in 1958 hold true for the world today
  • What are the principal reasons
  • for undertaking a national space program?
  • What can we expect to gain from space science and
    exploration?
  • What science facts and technology is needed for
    use in sound policy making?

Launch of Mercury-Atlas 7 Mission.NASA First
U.S. manned space program
3
Four Factors
These factors give importance, urgency and
inevitability to the advancement of space
technology
  • Mans compelling urge
  • to explore and to discover
  • Military defense objective
  • National prestige
  • New opportunities for scientific observation and
    experiment

4
Cost Justification
  • But if we have learned one lesson, it is that
    research and exploration have a remarkable way of
    paying off quite aside from the fact that they
    demonstrate that man is alive and insatiably
    curious. And we all feel richer for knowing what
    explorers and scientists have learned about the
    universe in which we live
  • Excerpt from Introduction to Outer Space,
  • the White House1958

5
First Rocketry Theories
  • 1903 Russian Mathematician, Konstantin
    Tsiolkovsky published the first serious work on
    space travel The Exploration of Cosmic Space
    by Means of Reaction Devices.

Konstantin Tsiolkovsky
1920 Robert Goddard, an American Scientist,
published A Method of Reaching Extreme
Altitudes. This was the first serious work on
using rockets for space travel after
Tsiolkovskys effort.
Robert Goddard
6
Space Program Origins
  • While the observation of objects in space
    (known as astronomy) pre-dates reliable recorded
    history, it was the development of large
    liquid-fueled rocket engines during the early
    20th century that allowed space exploration to
    become a practical possibility.

A group of 500 German scientists, Verein fur
Raumshiffarht (VfR), started to experiment with
testing rockets in 1930. If rockets were
launched fast enough, they would go up into space
(per Newton). This changed the nature of warfare
and propelled the world into the space age.
1926 Robert Goddard and the first liquid-fueled
rocket, in Auburn, MA.
7
Operation Paperclip
German rocket scientists from Operation
Paperclip1946
  • Towards the end of World War II, the US
    intelligence military services extracted 104
    scientists from Nazi Germany. They worked at
    White Sands Proving Grounds (NM) on test launches
    and at Ft. Bliss, TX for research. The Nazi V-2
    rocket developed into the American Redstone
    rocket, used in the early space program.

8
World Space Programs Today
Many countries of the world have individual
government -sponsored space programs as well as
there are group efforts that combine
multi-national expertise
  • AustriaAustraliaBrazilCanadaChileChinaC
    zech RepEuropeFranceGermanyHungaryIndiaIndo
    nesia
  • Iran

RussiaSaudiSingaporeS. KoreaSpainSwedenTaiwa
nThailandTurkeyUAEUKUkraineUSA
IraqIsraelItalyJapanKazakhstanLuxembourgMala
ysiaMexico Multi-national North
KoreaNorwayPakistanPhilippinesPortugal
9
World Spaceflight Highlights
  • 1944 Nazi V-2 rocket First man-made object to
  • cross the Karman line. (Sub-orbital)
  • 1946 US V-2 rocket First successful US
  • spaceflight Army/General Electric.
    (Sub-orbital)
  • 1957 R-7 Russian Sputnik First successful
  • orbital satellite started space race with
    US was first comsat (communications satellite)
  • 1957 R-7 Russian Sputnik II First living
  • organism (dog) launched into space
  • 1958 U.N. forms COPUOS (Committee on the
    Peaceful Uses of Outer Space) currently there
    are 67 members
  • 1958 NASA founded - U.S.
  • 1958 US Explorer 1 (Juno1) First American
    spacecraft in orbit discovery of Van Allen
    belts
  • 1958 US Project SCORE (Atlas B) First U.S.
    Communications satellite
  • 1959 US Pioneer 4 (Juno2) First U.S. probe to
    escape from Earths gravity

10
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 1959 US Explorer 6 (Thor Able) First pix of
    Earth
  • from space
  • 1959 SS-6/R-7 Russian Luna 2 First spacecraft
    to
  • reach the Moon discovery of
    solar winds
  • 1960 Thor Able-2/ TIROS 1... First successful
    orbital weather satellite NASA
  • 1960 MIDAS-2 U.S. Air Force detection of IR
    sources
  • 1961 Redstone (MRLV) U.S. sent first
    chimpanzee in space
  • 1961 Thor Able-Star/LEO Exploration of radio
    wave propagation by U.S. NAVY
  • 1961 Vostok 1 First manned spaceflight by
    Soviet Union
  • (Cosmonaut Yuri
    Gagarin) April 12, 1961
  • 1961 Mercury-Redstone 3 First American in
    space
  • (Astronaut Alan
    Shepard) -May 5, 1961
  • Through 1962 Corona First series of U.S. Spy
    Satellites
  • (single panoramic camera) by
    U.S. Air Force

Yuri Gagarin..
Venus
11
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 1962 Mercury Atlas-6 First American manned
    orbital space flight (Astronaut John Glenn)
  • 1962 Mariner 2 First successful U.S. Venus
    mission (fly by)
  • 1964 Ariel 1 First British space physics
    experiments in orbit through NASA
  • 1962 Alouette 1 First Canadian Satellite
    through NASA
  • 1962 Telstar First Satellite to transmit high
  • speed data telephone signals ATT, USA
  • 1963 Cosmos 14 First Soviet weather satellite
  • 1963 Vostok First woman in space (Cosmonaut
    Valentina Tereshkova) RVSN
  • 1964 Voskhod 1,3 First multi-person space
    flight RSVN
  • 1965 Voskhod 2 First EVA (spacewalk) RVSN
    March 18, 1965



Valentina Tereshkova
Verera 4
12
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 1965 Gemini 4 First American spacewalk NASA
    June 3, 1965
  • 1965 INTELSAT 1 First commercial
    communications satellite Hughes Aircraft/USA
  • 1966 Gemini 8 First docking in space (with
    GATV NASA
  • 1967 Soviet Venera 4 Direct atmospheric study
    on Venus first successful probe of environment
    on another planet -RSVN
  • 1967 Orbita First national network of
    satellite tv systems -Soviet
  • 1968 Apollo 8 First manned mission to the
    moon NASA
  • 1969 Soyuz 4 5 First manned docking
    between two spacecrafts RSVN
  • 1969 Apollo 11 First manned lunar landing
    -NASA
  • Astronauts Commander Neil Alden Armstrong,
    Command Module Pilot Michael Collins Lunar
    Module Pilot Edwin Eugene Buzz Aldrin, Jr.
  • 1970 Dong Fang Hong 1 First Satellite
    launched by China PRC (Peoples Republic of
    China)
  • 1970 Uhuru First satellite dedicated to X-Ray
    astronomy NASA

Apollo 11 landing on Moon
13
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 1970 Apollo 13 Furthest distance traveled by
  • space crew -401,056 km.
  • 1971 Salyut 1 Space Station First space
    station -RSVN
  • 1971 IMEWS 2 First early warning defense
    satellite
  • US Air Force
  • 1971 UN Program on Space Applications
    established
  • 1971 Mariner 9 First Martian orbiter NASA
  • 1971 Soyuz 11 First manned space station -RVSN
  • 1971 Prospero First British launched satellite
  • (for micrometeorite detection)
  • 1972 Venera 8 Atmospheric probe (50 min.) on
  • Venerian Surface
  • 1972 Pioneer 10 First spacecraft to travel
    through the asteroid belt and make direct
    observations of Jupiter -NASA
  • 1973 Prognoz 3 Solar flare detection RASA
    (Russian)
  • 1973 Nauka Gamma Ray Telescope in space
    Russian
  • 1973 DSP F-4 Missile Early Warning Detection
    Test US Air Force

Pioneer 10 Flyby Deep Space (artists sketch)
14
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 1973 Explorer 29 Entered Selenocentric orbit
    (radio telescope NASA
  • 1974 Aerobee 200-A Aeronomy/UV astronomy NASA
  • 1974 Mariner 10 First flyby of Mercury NASA
  • 1976 Ekran First direct to home tv satellite
    RSVN
  • 1976 Palapa A1 First communications satellites
    launched by (separately) Indonesia, Arab League
    and Turkey
  • 1979 Soyez 33 First Austrian in space -
    Franz Artur Viehböck
  • 1980 Soyez 6 First Asian in space Pham Tuan
    (Vietnam)
  • 1980 Soyez 38 First Cuban in space Arnaldo
    Tamayo Mendez
  • 1981 Columbia STS-1 Maiden Flight of Space
    Shuttle US Space Alliance
  • 1981 Voyager 2 Flyby of Saturn NASA
  • 1982 Anik C-3 Used to distribute Canadas
    first pay tv networks Telesat Canada
  • 1982 Venera 13 Lands on Venus Soviet
  • 1983 First US woman in space Astronaut Sally
    Ride
  • 1984 STS-41-B First untethered spacewalk
    NASA

Photo of Venus land from Venera 13
Saturn photo, by Voyager 2
15
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 1984 Salyut-7 First Indian to travel in space
    Rakesh Sharma
  • 1985 STS-51-G First Arab, Muslim, Saudi and
    royal to travel in space -Sultan Bin Salman Bin
    Aldulaziz Al Saud NASA
  • 1985 STS-51-G First African-born man to
    travel in space -Patrick Baudry (Cameroon)
  • 1985 STS-61-B First Mexican-born man to
    travel in space Rodolfo Neri Vela
  • 1986 Voyager 2 Closest approach to Uranus
    discovers 10 new moons NASA
  • 1988 Mir Soyuz TM-6 First Afghan in space
    -Abdul Ahad Mohmand
  • 1989 Voyager 2 Closest view of Neptune NASA
  • 1990 Soyuz TM-11 First paying space traveler
    -Toyohiro Akiyama (Japan)
  • 1991 Project Juno Soyuz TM-12 First Briton
    to travel in space -Helen Sharman
  • 1992 AP-MCSTA (Asian-Pacific Multilateral
    Space Technology Cooperative Symposium) is formed
    in the region.
  • 1992 STS-45... First Belgian in space -Dirk
    Fremut, (US launch)

Near Earth Asteroid Eros as seen from the NEAR
spacecraft.
16
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 1993 TDRS 6 (STS-54) Tracking and Delay
    Relay Satellite launched to support ISS
    communications satellite network NASA U.S.
    Govt.
  • 1993 STS-55 Reusable German Spacelab on
    shuttle and International cooperation
    demonstrated (11 countries 88 experiments)
  • 1994 Discovery First mission of the
    Shuttle-Mir Program started a cooperative
    effort in space flight between
  • Russia and the US Cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev
  • 1995 Mir Exhibition 18
  • 1995 Fasat-Alfa First Chilean Satellite VKS
  • 1996 Sojourner First Mars Rover NASA
  • 1996 STS-76 First Shuttle-Mir EVA
    -NASA/Russia
  • 1996 NEAR First robotic space probe to orbit
    land on as asteroid (Eros) -NASA
  • 1997 HALCA (Haluka) First launch of Japanese
    M-V solid fuel rocket family for radio astronomy
    satellite research -ISAS
  • 1997 Earthview 01 First burial in space of
    human remains -Gene Roddenberry (Creator of
    Star Trek), Gerard ONeill (Space Physicist),
    Krafft Ehricke (rocket Scientist), Timothy Leary
    (writer, psychologist, drug campaigner) Space
    Services Inc.

Huygens surface color on Titan
17
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 1997 Cassini First spacecraft to enter
    Saturian orbit via heliocentric orbit
  • 1997 Huygens First spacecraft to land on Titan
    (Saturns largest moon)
  • 1998 Nilesat1 First Egyptian Satellite
    Nilesat
  • 1998 Tubsat N First orbital launch from a
  • submarine TUB (German)
  • 1998 Kwangmyousong1 First attempt for North
    Korea to orbit a spacecraft (not succesful)
  • 1998 STS-95 7 First Spanish astronaut Pedro
    Duque
  • 1999 Athena-1 First Taiwanese satellite
  • 1999 Soyuz-U Final operational crew on Mir
    -RKA
  • 2000 ISS First resident crew on International
    Space Shuttle NASA, RKA, JAXA, CSA, ESA
  • 2000 NEAR Shoemaker First landing on an
    asteroid
  • 2000 Columbia LC39-B First female shuttle
    commander

NEAR
Eros
Pedro Duque
ISS
18
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 2000 Dnepr First Malaysian satellite
  • 2000 100th flight of space shuttle program
    NASA Oct. 24th
  • 2001 Soyuz TM-32 First privately funded
    person to travel in outer space Dennis Tito
    (American) Cost between 1220 million
  • 2002 Soyuz TM-34 First South African to
    travel in space Mark Shuttleworth
  • 2003 Hayabusa (Japanese for Peregrine Falcon)
    Launch of first mission to return a sample from
    asteroid Itokowa -JAXA
  • 2003 Cubesats Launch of first picosatellites
    (5 university and 1 commercial) for research
    purposes German
  • 2003 Spitzer Space Telescope Last of NASAs
    Great Observatories (IR) launched into space
  • 2004 Flight 15P First privately-funded human
    spaceflight Astronaut Michael Melvill Scaled
    Composite,CA
  • 2004 Messenger Launch of first mission to
    orbit Mercury NASA

Artists sketch of Spitzer spacecraft
Spitzer image of new cloud formation in Serpens
South
Astronaut Micheal Melvill
19
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 2004 Spirit Opportunity Rovers land on
    Mars NASA
  • 2005 Huygens Separated from Cassini landed
    on Saturns moon, Titan -NASA/ESA
  • 2005 Sina-1 Launch of first Iranian
    artificial satellite (Russian launch)
  • 2006 New Horizons Launch of mission to Pluto
    (target arrival 2015) -NASA
  • 2006 ISS Expedition 13 First Brazilian in
    space
  • Marcos Pontes (Russian launch)
  • 2006 KazSat-1 First Kazakh satellite
    -Government of Kazakhastan (Russian launch)
  • 2006 Stardust First mission to return sample
  • cosmic dust to Earth -NASA
  • 2006 First Iranian in space -Anousheh Ansari
    ????? ?????? (Russian launch)
  • 2006 Genesis 1 First experimental commercial
    space habitat (Russian launch)

Surface of Jupiter New Horizons probe
Anousheh Ansari
Artists conception of Stardust spacecraft
Artists sketch of Mars Opportunity Rover
20
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 2006 ISS Expedition 14 First female space
    tourist -Sunita Williams NASA
  • 2006 TacSat-2/GeneSat-1 First launch from
    MARS (Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport)
    commercial site near NASA Wallops Flight Facility
    (VA)
  • 2007 SRE-1 First Indian spacecraft
  • recovery.
  • 2007 Kavesh First successful Iranian
  • scientific launch. -IARI
  • 2007 Liberdad 1 First Colombian
  • satellite. (Russian launch)
  • 2007 Yaogan 2 100th successful
  • Chinese orbital launch -CNSA
  • 2007 ISS Expedition 16 First Malaysian in
    space -Dr. Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor (Guest of
    Russian Government)
  • 2008 Chandrayaan-1 India launches mission to
    study Moon

Sunita Williams
MARS launch site in VA.
Dr. Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor
21
Spaceflight Highlights
  • 2007 Change 1 First Chinese lunar probe
    -CNSA
  • 2007 AEGIS First Japanese ABM test
  • (used American technology)
  • 2007 EPOXI Deep Impact Flyby of Earth NASA
  • 2008 Soyez-TMN-12 First second generation
  • cosmonaut in space -Sergey
    Volkov (Russian)
  • 2008 Soyez-TMN-12 First South Korean in
  • space -Yi So-yeon ???
    (Russian launch)

Astronaut Yi So-yeon
Sergey Volkov
Artists sketch of Deep Impact
22
World Launch Sites
Although there are many countries involved in
space exploration, only the following ones have
launch sites Brazil (1), China (3), European
Space Agency (ESA-1), India (1), Israel (1),
Italy (1), Japan (2), Russia (4) and the US (3).
23
World Launch Sites Space Programs
Space Shuttle launch as seen from the ISS
24
BRAZIL
  • OVERALL GOALS
  • Establish the scientific and technical competence
    in the space area which would make it possible
    for Brazil to act with real autonomy in some well
    identified situations, including the selection of
    technological solutions to Brazilian problems and
    the international negotiations, agreements and
    treaties.
  • Promote the development of space systems, and
    related ground infrastructure, that may provide
    data and services desired by Brazil.
  • Prepare the Brazilian industry to participate and
    become
  • competitive in the market for space goods
    and services.

Launch at Centro de Lançamento da Barreira do
Inferno - CLBI
25
BRAZIL
INPE Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais
(INPE)
  • 1961 GOCNAE (Grupo de Organizacao da Comissao
    Nacional de Atividades Espaciais) Group for the
    Organization of the National Space Activities
    Commission (forerunner to INPE) is started.
  • 1965 First campaigns for launching work-loaded
  • probing rockets
  • 1969 Remote Sensing activities started
  • 1988 Brazil begins work with China in satellite
    development
  • 1993 First launch of wholly Brazilian satellite
    by INPE (in USA)
  • 1994 Civilian Authority overseen by President
    AEB
  • 2005 INPE reaches 100 thousand images makes
  • it the largest CBERS world distributor
  • 2006 First Brazilian space astronaut in space
    -Marcos Pontes (Russian launch to ISS
  • 2008 INPE distributes more than half a million
    CBERS images via internet

Marcos Pontes
Website http//www.inpe.br/
26
CHINA
BACKGROUND
KT-1 2001
  • Since its birth in 1956, China's space
    industry was developed on the basis of weak
    infrastructure industries and a relatively
    backward scientific technological level, under
    special national and historical conditions. In
    the process of carrying out space activities
    independently, China has opened a road of
    development unique to its national situation and
    scored a series of important achievements with
    relatively small input and within a relatively
    short span of time. Now, China ranks among the
    most advanced countries in the world in many
    important technological fields satellite
    recovery, multi-satellite launch with a single
    rocket, rockets with cryogenic fuel, strap-on
    rockets, launch of geo-stationary satellites and
    TTC.
  • Significant achievements have also been
    gained in the development and application of
    remote-sensing satellites and telecommunications
    satellites, and in manned spacecraft testing and
    space micro-gravity experiments.

27
CHINA
CNSA China National Space Administration
  • The CNSA policy white paper lists short term
    goals as
  • Build a long term earth observation system
  • Set up an independent satellite
    telecommunications network
  • Establish an independent satellite navigation and
    positioning system
  • Provide commercial launch services
  • Set up a remote sensing system
  • Study space science such as microgravity, space
    materials, life sciences, and astronomy
  • Plan for exploration of the moon
  • Among their stated longer term goals are
  • Improve their standing in the world of space
    science
  • Establish a manned space station.
  • Conduct manned missions to the moon.
  • Establish a manned lunar base.
  • Achieve marketization industrialization of
    space technology apps.

Website http//www.cnsa.gov.cn/main_e.asp
28
CHINA
CNSA
  • 1956 The first space program in China was aimed
    at developing China's aviation, guided missiles,
    rockets and missile defense needs by the Central
    Defense Commission.
  • 1960 Chinas first ever T-7M sounding rocket
    was successfully launched from the Nanhui launch
    site
  • 1968 ????????? Chinas Space Medical Institute
  • was founded
  • 1970 ??? First Chinese satellite launched
  • -Dong Fang Hong I
  • 1975 ????? First recoverable satellite by
    China
  • 1985 China started commercial launch program
    for
  • Asian and European interests
  • 1985 Challenger STS-51-B Taylor Wang is first
  • Chinese-born man (US citizen) in space
  • 2003 Yang Liwei is first Chinese man sent into
    space by the Chinese space program
  • 2006 Chang'e-1 First Lunar probe project
  • 2008 Shenzhou 7 First spacewalk (EVA) for China

Yang Liwei
Taylor Gun-Jin Wang
29
ESA European Space Agency
GOALS AIMS
The European Space Agency (ESA) is Europes
gateway to space. Its mission is to shape the
development of Europes space capability and
ensure that investment in space continues to
deliver benefits to the citizens of Europe and
the world.
Shot of Europe from space ESA
  • Maintain scientific research projects
  • Engage in astronomy space missions
  • Design, develop test technology for manned Mars
    mission in 2030 (not with NASA due to prohibitive
    U.S. technology sharing laws)

30
ESA European Space Agency
  • Europe formed two organizations to establish a
    European Space
  • Program European Launch Development
    Organization (ELDO)
  • and European Space Research Organization (ESRO).
  • 1966 European Space Research Organization
    formally established (17 member states
    headquartered in Paris main spaceport in Guiana
    Mission Control Astronaut Centre in Germany
    Earth observing missions in Italy).
  • 1968 European Space Research Technology
    Centre (ESTEC) formed (Netherlands)
  • 1971 Prospero First UK Satellite launched
  • 1974 ESA Established intergovernmental
    organization dedicated to space exploration.
  • Founding members Belgium, Germany,
    Denmark, France, UK, Italy,
  • the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and
    Spain.
  • 1975 European Space Agency formed
  • (11 European nations)

Ariane-5 ECA Flight 164 launch 2005
Website http//www.esa.int/esaCP/index.html
31
ESA European Space Agency
HIGHLIGHTS
Ulf Merbold, German
  • 1975 COS-B First ESA science mission detect
  • map gamma ray emissions across the
    universe.
  • 1978 IUE First astronomical satellite in high
    Earth orbit.
  • 1983 Ulf Merbold First ESA astronaut in space
    (German)
  • 1986 GIOTTO First deep-space mission (passed
    close to Comet Halley) and robotic spacecraft
    found first evidence of organic material in a
    comet.
  • 2007 Corot -First detection of extrasolar
    planet (French led)
  • (Expected) 2010 Cupoloa Observatory module for
    direct view of ISS robotics and Earth

32
FRANCE
GOALS AIMS
  • Its task is to invent the space systems of the
    future, bring space
  • technologies to maturity and guarantee Frances
    independent
  • access to space.
  • CNES is helping to foster new technologies that
    will benefit
  • society as a whole, focusing on
  • Access to space
  • Civil applications of space
  • Sustainable development
  • Science and technology research
  • Security and defense

Veronique, 1959
33
FRANCE
CNES Centre National dEtudes Spatiales
Jean-Loup Chretien
  • 1949 Veronique First flight test for first
    French rocket. The full-scaled Veronique
    launched in 1952
  • 1958 CERN First co-operative European
    scientific lab developed due to large number of
    scientists leaving Europe after WWII.
  • 1961 CNES founded
  • 1965 Aesterix 1 First French satellite
    launched -FRANCE
  • 1982 Salyut 7. Jean-Loup Chretien is first
    Western European in space French Air Force, CNES
    (Soviet vehicle)
  • 2001 CNES transfers all projects to ESA

Website http//www.cnes.fr/
34
INDIA
GOALS AIMS
Launch pad at Sriharikota
  • Develop space technology and its application to
    various national tasks.
  • Two major space systems
  • INSAT for communication, television broadcasting
    and meteorological services
  • Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS) system for
    resources monitoring and management.
  • Developed two satellite launch vehicles, PSLV and
    GSLV, to place INSAT and IRS satellites in the
    required orbits.

35
INDIA
ISRO Indian Space Research Organization
  • 1962 Indian National Committee for Space
    Research (INCOSPAR) was founded led by founding
    father, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai
  • 1969 Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
    was founded
  • 1972 India develops its own Department of Space
  • 1975 Aryabhata First Indian satellite
    launched from Russian site
  • 1980 Rohini 1 First Satellite launched into
    space INDIA
  • 1984 Saylut 7 First Indian in space -Rakesh
    Sharma
  • 2007 SRE-1 Experimental space capsule that
    was launched, remained in space for 12 days and
    re-entered for research before manned mission
    occurs (expected by 2015)
  • 2008 CARTOSAT-2A, IMS1 8 foreign nano
    satellites launched from Shriharikota
  • 2008 MIP Chandrayaan-I First Indian
    spacecraft to land on Moon

Rakesh Sharma
Website http//www.isro.org/
36
ISRAEL
VISION MAIN GOALS
Ofeq 72007
  • "Space research and exploration is an essential
    instrument for the defense of life on Earth the
    lever for technological progress the key to
    existing in a modern society essential for
    developing an economy based on knowledge and the
    central attraction for scientific and qualified
    human resources.
  • Preserve and broaden the comparative advantage
    of Israel to place it among the group of
    leading countries in the space research and
    exploration area.
  • Build support satellite systems for space
    Earth research from space.
  • Develop technologies, knowledge scientific
    infrastructure (including laboratories and human
    resources) required for space research.
  • Promote international cooperation in space
    research exploration, and for strengthening
    Israels national interests.
  • Promote ties between Israeli society, space
    research, exploration.
  • ISA has signed cooperation agreements with the
    space agencies of USA (NASA), France (CNES),
    Canada (CSA), India (ISRO), Germany (DLR),
    Ukraine (NSAU), Russia (RKA), Netherlands (NIVR)
    and Brazil (AEB).

37
ISRAEL
ISA Israeli Space Agency
TECSAR Hi Res Imaging
Ilan Ramon
  • 1983 Israeli Space Agency (ISA hebrew ??????
    ???? ????????) founded
  • 1988 Ofeq 1 First Israeli satellite launched
    into space
  • 1992 SDS-107 First Israeli science experiment
    on an American Space Shuttle
  • 1995 Ofeq 3 First Israeli reconnaissance
    satellite
  • 2002 Ofeq 5 Demonstrated ICBM potential
  • 2003 Columbia/NASA First Israeli astronaut
    (Ilan Ramon)
  • 2003 TAUVEX... Jt. development w/ India of
    satellite telescope.
  • (Expected) 2009 Opsat Satellite High
    resolution new generation remote optical sensing
  • Website http//www.iai.co.il/Default.aspx?F
    olderID14467langEN

38
ITALY
BACKGROUND
San Marco platform, near Kenya
  • The Italian Space Agency came into being in
    1988. Its purpose was to coordinate all of
    Italys efforts and investments in the space
    sector that had begun in the 1960s.
  • Today, ASI has a key role at the European
    level where Italy is the third contributor
    country to the European Space Agency (ESA). It
    also is involved at the international level. For
    example, ASI has a close working relationship
    with NASA, which has led to its participation in
    many of the most interesting scientific missions
    (including Cassini-Huygens, ISS, etc.) of recent
    years.

39
ITALY
ASI Agenzia Spaziale Italiana
  • 1964 San Marco Italys first satellite part
    of European (ESA) space efforts (US -launched)
  • 1988 ASI founded
  • 1991 ItalSat F1 first launch for ASI
  • 1992 Tethered 1 First Italian to travel in
    space -Franco Malerba
  • 1996 Beppo Sax Mission to learn about gamma
    ray bursts served as input for NASAs SWIFT and
    ASIs AGILE projects
  • 2000 SRTM Mission led to COSMO the first
    global 3D planet mapping.
  • 2001 ISS First Italian to travel to ISS
    Umberto Guidoni
  • 2004 Rosetta Probe. Launched to collect
    samples from comet (expected 2014)
  • 2007 AGILE Fully Italian satellite launched
    that studies X and Gamma ray emissions

Rosetta Probe
Website http//www.asi.it/SiteEN/Default.aspx
40
JAPAN
VISION
S-520 2008
  • Build a secure prosperous society through the
    utilization of aerospace technology
  • Prepare for the unraveling of the mysteries of
    the universe and for lunar utilization, in order
    to seek the origins of the Earth and humankind
  • Implement world-class space transportation and
    Japans indigenous space activities
  • Develop aerospace as Japans next key industry
  • Establish Japans aviation industry develop
    supersonic aircraft

41
JAPAN
JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
??????????
Motto Reaching for the skies, exploring
space
Mamoru Mohri
  • 1970 Osumi First Japanese satellite launched
  • 1985 Suisei Sakigake First Japanese
    missions beyond Earth for observation of Halleys
    Comet
  • 1990 Soyuz TM-11 First Japanese person in
    space (commercial venture)
  • 1992 STS-47 First Japanese astronaut
    Mamoru Mohri
  • 2003 Three Japanese organizations merge to
    form JAXA Institute of Space and Astronautical
    Science (ISAS), National Aerospace Laboratory of
    Japan (NAL), and National Space Development
    Agency (NASDA).
  • 2006 Launch of HINODE (Solar-B) for observation
  • of solar effects on the Earth UK, Japan US

Website http//www.jaxa.jp/
HINODE
42
RUSSIA
MAJOR TRENDS
Launch site at Baikonur
Vostok-1
  • Monitor natural environment and control critical
    emergencies
  • Global positioning of high precision coordinate
    time data and enhance space navigation system
  • Support global communications TV broadcasting
  • Evolve orbital mission crews and support
    international collaborative efforts on ISS
    development
  • Evolve space technologies and production of
    materials with unique properties
  • Create and enhance space vehicles, launchers and
    ground objects of the space infrastructure and
    ground experimental facilities through
    technological developments
  • Research markets
  • Study exoatmospheric astrophysics,
  • planetology, space biology, physiology
  • materials science

Russian cosmodrome sites
43
RUSSIA
RKA Russian Federal Space Agency
Laika
Korolev
  • 1921 Tikhomirovs rocket development lab is
    established in Moscow. This marked the
    initial consideration of the multistage rocket.
  • 1927 Moscow Worlds first exposition of
    technology for interplanetary travel.
  • 1935 Soviet intelligence learns of development
    of German secret missile.
  • 1946 Soviet government launches a missile
    development program, based upon German technology
    (post WWII)
  • 1950 Soviets develop long range missile program
    Sergei Korolev
  • 1957 Sputnik 1 First artificial satellite
    ever
  • launched and started Space Race with the
    U.S.
  • 1957 Sputnik 2 Proved living being could be
  • launched into space and survive
    weightlessness
  • Laika, the dog -served as precursor to
    human missions

http//www.roscosmos.ru/index.asp?LangENG
Site of German missile testing 1943
44
RUSSIA
HIGHLIGHTS
Valentina Tereshkova
Yuri Gagarin
  • 1961 Voskok 3KA-2 First human ever to travel
    into space
  • -Yuri Gagarin
  • 1963 Voskok 6 First woman ever to travel in
    space -Valentina Tereshkova
  • 1971 DOS-7K First Soviet space station
    launched
  • 1975 7K-TM Docked with Apollo
  • 1986-2001 MIR First permanent base in space
  • 1992 International Space Shuttle Russia joins
    forces on work on ISS use of Soyuz spacecraft
    ISS docking with MIR
  • 2003 Soyuz Russia launches first spacecraft
    from Kourou, French Guiana
  • 2005 Russia launches ESAs Venus Express
  • 2009 (Expected) Russia to launch spacecraft
    for
  • study of Mars its Moon, Phobos

DOS-7K
45
USA
MAJOR TRENDS
First Human extra-vehicular spaceflight Gemini
4 Ed White - Astronaut
  • NASA's mission is to pioneer the future in
    space exploration, scientific discovery and
    aeronautics research.
  • AERONAUTICS pioneers and proves new flight
    technologies that improve our ability to explore
    and which have practical applications on Earth.
  • EXPLORATION SYSTEMS creates new capabilities and
    spacecraft for affordable, sustainable human and
    robotic exploration.
  • SCIENCE explores the Earth, moon, Mars and
    beyond charts the best route of discovery and
    reaps the benefits of Earth and space exploration
    for society.
  • SPACE OPERTIONS provides critical enabling
    technologies for much of the rest of NASA through
    the space shuttle, the International Space
    Station and flight support.

46
USA
NASA National Aeronautics and Space
Administration
HIGHLIGHTS
President Eisenhower creates NASA
  • 1958 NASA is established
  • 1961 Freedom 7 First American in Space Alan
    B. Shepard, Jr.
  • 1961 President Kennedy announces plan for U.S.
    to have a person make it to the moon within the
    decade
  • 1962 Friendship 7 First American to orbit in
    space
  • -John H. Glenn, Jr.
  • 1965 - NASA announces search for
    scientist-astronauts
  • 1967 NASA Administrator, James Webb,
  • advocated enlisting help of universities for
  • lunar science studies
  • 1969 Apollo 11/Columbia Eagle First manned
  • lunar landing , EVA exploration safe
    return
  • 1963 President Kennedy calls for cooperative
  • efforts in space discovery between the U.S.
    and Soviets
  • Website http//www.nasa.gov/home/index.html

Apollo 15 David Scott The Hammer and the
Feather.
47
USA
HIGHLIGHTS
  • 1983 Sally Ride First American woman in space
  • 1999 NASA remote sensing technology (LiDAR )
    helps forest rangers monitor wildlife (i.e. CA
    Spotted Owls) habitats from the sky
  • 2002 NASAs Aster image demonstrates extent of
    Colorados Hayman fires
  • 2006 - IKONOS satellite helps NASA scientists
    and
  • U of NH students locate over 1,000 yrs . old
    Mayan
  • ruins in Guatemala
  • 2006 First HDTV broadcast from space (ISS)
  • to Earth
  • 2007 - Phoenix Launch of spacecraft
  • to dig N section of Mars for
  • soil samples

Sally Ride Challenger 1983
CA Spotted Owls
Aster image of Hayman fires in CO
IKONOS satellite false color view of deep
rainforest Mayan ruin of Tikal
HDTV broadcast Times Square, NY
Phoenix photo on Mars surface
48
USA
HIGHLIGHTS
Hubble shot of cavernous star-forming region of
NGC 3324, blasted out by intense stellar
radiation. 10/2008
  • 2007 Dawn Successful launch for rendezvous and
    orbit of 2 asteroids for research of their
    internal structures
  • 2007 STEREO First 3D images of Solar UV rays
  • 2008 SOHO Finds 1500th comet
  • 2008 U.S. House of Representatives extends
    waiver to the Iran, North Korea Syria
    Nonproliferation Act, allowing NASA to purchase
    seats on the Russian Soyuz spacecrafts through
    July 2016.
  • 2008 MRO/HIRISE Evidence found of early water
    on MARS
  • 2008 SWIFT Most distant gamma -ray burst ever
    detected -NASA
  • 2008 Hubble celebrates 10 years in space
  • 2008 NASA is 50 years old

SWIFT shot of GRB 090813
MRO/HIRISE photo of possible canyon/canal sites
on MARS
49
USA
NASA Celebrates 50 Years of Space Exploration
Discovery
Expedition 17 Flight Engineer Greg Chamitoff
addresses the group from the ISS
  • Oct. 1, 2008 NASA celebrated its 50th
    Anniversary at the Smithsonians National Air
    Space Museum Steven F. Udvar -Hazy Center

50
USA
FUTURE GOALS
  • In the next 20 years, NASA will be laying the
    groundwork for sending
  • humans not only beyond Earth's orbit, but further
    into to space than
  • they've ever been. The next key steps are
  • Complete the International Space Station and
    retire the Space Shuttle by 2010
  • Begin robotic missions to the Moon by 2008 and
    return people there by 2020
  • Continue robotic exploration of Mars and the
    Solar System
  • Develop a crew exploration vehicle and other
  • technologies required to send people beyond
  • low Earth orbit by 2014
  • Kepler Mission -2009 For Extrasolar
  • Terrestrial Planet Detection

Full Moon
51
USA
FUTURE NASA PROJECTS
  • Broaden programs in science and aeronautics,
    while focusing the human spaceflight endeavors on
    exploration
  • Develop and expand partnerships with private
    industries
  • Develop a program to return humans to the Moon,
    establish a lunar base and pursue subsequent
    exploration of Mars and other destinations
  • Continued joint international efforts

Mars panorama, Spirit shot
Private company
52
Barack Obamas Plan
STRENGTHEN AMERICAS LEADERSHIP IN SPACE SCIENCE
  • It is essential to maintain U.S. leadership in
    space In 2010,
  • the U.S. will face a five-year gap in the
    ability to send astronauts
  • to the International Space Station. The Obama
    Administration
  • will restore Americas leadership in space
    science
  • Establish a robust program for human and
    robotic exploration
  • that preserves our space workforce, engages
    international
  • allies and draws on expertise in the private
    sector.
  • Close the gap in NASA access to lower earth
    orbit and better
  • utilize the International Space Station.
  • Strengthen NASAs missions in space science,
    weather, climate
  • research, and aeronautical research.
  • Develop a new generation of space vehicles to
    replace the
  • Space Shuttle scheduled to retire in 2010.
  • Improve NASAs educational outreach and
    programs that
  • promote spin-off consumer technologies.

53
World Space Travel
As of May, 2008 , individuals from 39 countries
have traveled in space 24 have been beyond low
Earth orbit.
  • BELGIUM - 2
  • BULGARIA 2
  • CANADA 8
  • FRANCE - 9
  • GERMANY 10
  • ITALY - 5

JAPAN - 7 NETHERLANDS - 2 Peoples
Republic of CHINA - 3 RUSSIA - 41 SOVIET
UNION - 72 UNITED STATES of America - 305

OTHERS - 27
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