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Italian Renaissance Art

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Italian Renaissance Art Patronage Florence was the leader in Renaissance art especially in the quattrocento (1400s) Giorgio Vasari (1511-74): The Lives of the Artists ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Italian Renaissance Art


1
Italian Renaissance Art
2
Patronage
  • Florence was the leader in Renaissance art
    especially in the quattrocento (1400s)
  • Giorgio Vasari (1511-74) The Lives of the
    Artists
  • Contemporary Renaissance art historian who left
    much valuable information about Renaissance
    artists and their works.
  • Massive patronage for the arts came from wealthy
    merchant-families (such as the Medicis) who
    commissioned countless works
  • In essence, the wealth of Florence was mirrored
    by the superb artistic output of the Renaissance
  • A good example is Donatellos David which stood
    in the Medici courtyard during the wedding of
    Lorenzo de Medici.
  • In Milan, the Sforzas commissioned Leonardos
    The Last Supper

3
Patronage
  • c. Patronage also came from local churches who
    increasingly saw Renaissance art as a means of
    glorifying God. Some notable examples include
  • Brunelleschis Il Duomo built for the Santa Maria
    del Fiore cathedral
  • Ghibertis two sets of doors for the baptistery
    opposite Il Duomo
  • Michelangelos David was originally commissioned
    for the cathedral (but was too heavy and thus
    placed elsewhere).

4
Rome
  • Became the center of the Renaissance in 1500s
    (cinquecento)
  • With the decline of Florence in the late-15th
    century, Renaissance dominance shifted to Rome.
  • Pope Alexander VI (r. 1492-1503) most notorious
    of the Renaissance popes spent huge sums on art
    patronage (e.g. Bramantes Tempietto)
  • A few of the notable works commissioned by the
    Church in this period include
  • Michelangelos dome atop St. Peters Cathedral,
    his paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine
    Chapel, and the sculpture Pieta that is located
    within the cathedral
  • Raphaels The School of Athens (a fresco painting
    inside the papal apartments)
  • Bramantes Tempietto, a small church that is a
    masterpiece in classical architecture and his
    floor plan for a newly rebuilt St. Peters
    cathedral. (Much of his plans were altered after
    his death)

5
New artistic techniques
  • Painting
  • Perspective 3-D effects on a 2-dimensional
    surface
  • Medieval works, in contrast, looked flat and
    two-dimensional
  • Chiaroscuro use of dark and light colors to
    create the illusion of depth
  • Faces of subjects expressed unique individual
    characteristics (embodied Renaissance ideal of
    ?individualism)
  • Also, more emotion was shown on human faces
  • In contrast, medieval paintings tended to be more
    stylized in their portrayal of human faces (i.e.
    more generic)
  • Sfumato developed by Leonardo a technique of
    blurring or softening sharp outlines

6
1. Realism Expression
  • Expulsion from the Garden
  • Masaccio
  • 1427
  • First nudes since classical times.

7
2. Perspective
  • The Trinity
  • Masaccio
  • 1427

Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
First use of linear perspective!
What you are, I once was what I am, you will
become.
8
Perspective
9
3. Classicism
  • Greco-Roman influence.
  • Secularism.
  • Humanism.
  • Individualism ? free standing figures.
  • Symmetry/Balance

The Classical Pose Medici Venus (1c)
10
4. Emphasis on Individualism
  • Batista Sforza Federico de Montefeltre The
    Duke Dutchess of Urbino
  • Piero della Francesca, 1465-1466.

11
Isabella dEste da Vinci, 1499
  • 1474-1539
  • First Lady of the Italian Renaissance.
  • Great patroness of the arts.
  • Known during her time as First Lady of the
    World!

12
5. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures
  • The Dreyfus Madonna with the Pomegranate
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • 1469
  • The figure as architecture!

13
6. Light Shadowing/Softening Edges
Sfumato
Chiaroscuro
14
7. Artists as Personalities/Celebrities
  • Lives of the Most Excellent Painters,
    Sculptors, and Architects
  • Giorgio Vasari
  • 1550

15
Sculpture
  • Renaissance sculpture was often free-standing,
    designed to be seen in the round
  • Heavily influenced by ancient Greek and Roman
    sculpture
  • Contrast with medieval sculpture that largely was
    done in relief
  • Many sculptures glorified the human body and many
    portrayed nude figures (like works in ancient
    Greece and Rome)
  • Like Renaissance painting, many Renaissance
    sculptures glorified the individual

16
Lorenzo the Magnificent
Cosimo de Medici
1478 - 1521
1517 - 1574
17
The Liberation of Sculpture
  • David by Donatello
  • 1430
  • First free-form bronze since Roman times!

18
David Verrocchio 1473 - 1475
19
Leonardo, the Sculptor
  • An Equestrian Statue
  • 1516-1518

20
  • David
  • Michelangelo Buonarotti
  • 1504
  • Marble

21
? 15c
What a difference a century makes!
16c ?
22
The Popes as Patrons of the Arts
  • The Pieta
  • Michelangelo Buonarroti
  • 1499
  • marble

23
Architecture
  • Utilized ancient Greek and Roman forms such as
    Greek temple architecture (with triangular
    pediments), Greek columns, Roman arches and domes
    (e.g. the Pantheon in Rome)
  • Simplicity, symmetry and balance.
  • Contrasted sharply with the highly-ornamented
    gothic style of the middle ages of pointed arches
    (as evidenced in numerous medieval cathedrals)

24
Florence Under the Medici
Medici Chapel
The Medici Palace
25
  • Filippo Brunelleschi 1377 - 1436
  • Architect
  • Cuppolo of St. Maria del Fiore

26
Filippo Brunelleschi
  • Commissioned to build the cathedral dome.
  • Used unique architectural concepts.
  • He studied the ancient Pantheon in Rome.
  • Used ribs for support.

27
Brunelleschis Dome
28
Comparing Domes
29
Other Famous Domes
Il Duomo St. Peters St. Pauls
US capital (Florence) (Rome)
(London) (Washington)
30
A Contest to Decorate the Cathedral Sacrifice of
Isaac Panels
Brunelleschi
Ghiberti
31
Ghiberti Gates of Paradise Baptistry Door,
Florence 1425 - 1452
The Winner!
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