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Breeds As breeders selected and bred for desirable traits after generations a breed of horses developed. A breed is defined as a group of horses with common ancestry ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Breeds%20and%20Classes%20of%20Horses

Breeds and Classes of Horses
  • As breeders selected and bred for desirable
    traits after generations a breed of horses
  • A breed is defined as a group of horses with
    common ancestry that breed to produce common
  • World wide about 300 breeds of horses exist.
  • Many breeds of horses started with a foundation
    sire and for those breeds all registered foals
    must be able to trace their ancestry back to
    these stallions.

  • Three foundation stallions make up the
  • Darley Arabian
  • Byerly Turk
  • Godolphin Arabian
  • Justin Morgan is the foundation sire for the
    Morgan breed.
  • Allen F-1 A Morgan Stallion was the foundation
    sire for the Tennessee walking horse.
  • Morgan Stallions also contributed to the
    development of the standard bred, quarter horse,
    American Albino, and Palomino breeds.

Horse Breeds
  • The five most popular horse breeds in the World
  • 1. The American Quarter Horse
  • 2. The American Paint Horse
  • 3. The Arabian Horse
  • 4. The Thoroughbred Horse
  • 5. The Appaloosa Horse

  • Certain breeds were developed with color
    requirements. And for some that is the only
    registry requirement is color.
  • Palomino was the first color breed. Others
  • Appaloosas
  • Albinos
  • Paints
  • Pintos
  • Buckskins
  • Whites
  • Cremes
  • Spotteds

  • Horses are also classified according to size,
    weight, build and use
  • The common measurement for horses is the hand. A
    hand is equal to four inches.
  • The height of the horse is measured from the top
    of the withers to the ground.
  • A horse that is 15 hands is 60 inches or 5 feet
    at the withers.

Light Horses
  • Light horses are 14.2 to 17.2 hands high and
    weigh 900 to 1400 pounds.
  • They are used for riding , driving, showing,
    racing, or farm and ranch work.
  • Light horses are more agile and can travel at
    greater speed than draft horses.

Draft Horses
  • Draft horses are 14.2 to 17.2 hands high and
    weigh 1400 pounds or more.
  • They are used for heavy work and for pulling

  • Ponies stand under 14.2 hands and weigh 500 to
    900 pounds
  • Ponies are generally draft, heavy harness, or
    saddle type.

  • Horses are also classified based on there origin
    of breeding and temperament.
  • The three classifications are
  • Cold bloods
  • Hot bloods
  • Warm bloods

Cold Bloods
  • In the northern regions of the world, the climate
    produced lush pastures. The horses that lived
    there became heavy, strong and slow moving. To
    help them survive the freezing weather conditions
    in winter, nature equipped these horses with long
    hair, a thick skin and a layer of fat underneath
  • Most of the work and heavy draught horses of
    today fall into the category of cold-bloods.
  • Cold blood horses generally have a very calm

Hot Bloods
  • Hot-bloods developed quite differently from their
    northern relatives. In the south, where they
    lived, there was less extremes of climate. As a
    consequence, southern horse had thin coats to
    keep them cool and comfortable in the hottest of
  • Food was in short supply, so the horses learned
    to sur-vive from poor grazing. This also made
    them lighter, although they were often few places
    for them to hide in times of trouble, so they
    became swift to escape their predators.
  • Hot bloods are light boned, fast and agile, and
    highly spirited.
  • Most horses with Arabian breeding fit this
  • Thoroughbreds are another example.

Warm Bloods
  • The Warmbloods are a combination of hot and cold
    blooded breeds
  • Warmbloods are also lighter horses used for
    riding, they may not have the fiery temperament
    and may have a little more size than the hot
  • The seven most common Warmbloods,
  • Hanoverian,
  • Holsteiner,
  • Oldenburg,
  • Selle Francais,
  • Swedish Warmblood,
  • Trakehner,
  • Dutch Warmblood.

Types and Uses
  • Riding horses are generally thought of as the
    gaited horses, stock horses, and horses used for
    equine sport.
  • Driving horses are horses that are used for heavy
    harness and fine harness horses and ponies.
  • All purpose horses are used for family enjoyment,
    showing and ranch work.
  • Miniature horses are used for driving and as
    pets. Registered miniature horses are no more
    than 34 inches at the withers.

  • Breeds registered by the American Donkey and Mule
    society include the following
  • The Mammoth or American Standard Jack
  • The Large Standard or Spanish Donkey
  • The Standard Donkey or Burro
  • The Miniature Mediterranean Donkey
  • The American Spotted Ass.

Mammoth Donkeys
  • Are a blend of several breeds imported to the
    U.S. in the 1800s from Southern Europe.
  • They are the largest of the asses with the jacks
    being 56 inches or more high.
  • The foundation sire was a jack named Mammoth. His
    name was given to the breed.

  • The Spanish donkeys stand between 48 and 56
    inches tall.
  • Burros or the Standard donkey stands between 36
    and 48 inches tall.
  • The miniature Mediterranean donkey imported from
    Sicily and Sardinia must stand under 36 inches
    to qualify for registry.
  • Height restriction is the only requirements for
    registration by the American Donkey and Mule

  • Miniature donkeys are not only used as pets the
    are also used as companions to foals at weaning
    time to reduce foal stress.
  • Miniature donkeys are also used to calm nervous
    horses, or they are placed in stalls with horses
    who are recovering from surgery.
  • They do not take up much room or eat much but
    they have a great calming effect on horses.

  • One characteristic unique to donkeys is the black
    cross found on all donkeys.
  • It consists of a dorsal stripe from the main to
    the tail and a cross stripe between the withers.
  • Both Donkeys and Mules lack the horses calluses
    or chestnuts on the hind legs.

  • A mule is a cross between a Male Donkey (a Jack)
    and a Female Horse (a Mare).
  • A Hinny is a cross between a Female donkey (a
    Jenny) and a Male Horse (A Stallion) A Hinny is
    similar to a mule but is smaller and more horse
    like with shorter ears and a longer head.

  • A mule has a shorter thicker head than a horse,
    long ears and the braying voice of the donkey.
  • The most noticeable points are its long ears,
    short thin mane, which may stand upright like a
    donkey's or be a little longer and flop over. The
    withers are low or non-existent, the back flat,
    the body flat-sided with weaker quarters than the
    horse, and also narrower and less
    deep-shouldered. The legs are, like the donkey's,
    straight, with small, hard, dense, upright,
    straight-sided hooves. The head is a little
    narrower than the donkey's, but otherwise very

  • Hinnies are more difficult to get then mules.
  • While mules may display normal sex drive they are
    98 or 99 sterile.
  • The reason they are sterile is because of a
    unbalance in the chromosome make up of a mule.
  • Donkeys have 62 chromosomes
  • Horses have 64 chromosomes

  • When a Horse mates with a donkey the stallion
    contributes ½ of his chromosomes (32) and the
    Jenney contributes ½ of her chromosomes (31).
  • Combined they produce a mule that has 63
    chromosomes which is an odd number making it

  • Mules are classified as
  • Draft
  • Pack / Work
  • Saddle
  • Driving
  • Jumping
  • Miniature
  • The type of mule produced depends on the breed of
    horse and donkey used to produce the mule.

  • A male mule is called a John
  • A female Mule is called a Molly
  • Mules, having hybrid vigor, can grow taller than
    both parents. Weight for weight they are stronger
    than horses, and are much longer-lived, although
    maturing slightly later. They rarely become ill
    or lame, Have better feet and can often go with
    out shoes where horses could not. Mules can
    withstand extremes of temperature, can live on
    frugal rations, have tremendous stamina and are
    exceptionally sure-footed.

  • Mules have a reputation for being obstinate and
    bad-tempered, but as with donkeys, the mule's
    legendary stubbornness is in fact a manifestation
    of its talent for self-preservation.
  • If a mule takes care of itself, then it follows
    that it is also taking great care of its cargo,
    human or otherwise. It is not for nothing that
    mules are chosen rather than horses to take
    tourists down the Grand Canyon!

  • The reputation for bad temper is, due to the
    mule's untrusting nature. Until he has learnt to
    trust a person, he is worried that the person may
    do him harm, and will take defensive action by
    kicking them, should he feel the occasion merits
    it. And mules are splendid kickers - they kick
    fast and accurately and they rarely miss.
  • A mules temperament suggests that you cannot
    force him to do anything, but must persuade him,
    or organize his work so that he is only asked to
    do those things which he will want to do. Failure
    to appreciate this has led to many a battle
    between man and mule, and to the mule's bad