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Fall of the Roman Republic

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Fall of the Roman Republic Fall of the Roman Republic 6. Generals gained power Optimates vs. Populares Groups of patrician/senatorial politicians organized for ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fall of the Roman Republic


1
Fall of the Roman Republic
2
(No Transcript)
3
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 1. Agricultural Crisis

4
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • Agricultural Crisis
  • Small landowners were
  • Major producers of food and
  • Majority of the soldiers in the legions

5
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • Agricultural Crisis
  • War brought problems they could not deal with
  • Destruction of farms by Hannibal
  • Neglect
  • New provinces (Sicily and Spain) flooded food
    markets with inexpensive products
  • Slave labor
  • Patricians investing in land caused the price of
    land to skyrocket

6
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • Agricultural Crisis
  • Formation of latifundia
  • Small farmers who sold moved to cities
  • Looking for jobs
  • Unemployed
  • Resentful, class warfare
  • Larger gap between rich and poor

7
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 2. Land reform failed

8
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 2. Land reform failed
  • Increased geographic size of Republic strained
    government
  • Roman Society SPQR
  • Roman Senate Roman People
  • patricians vs. plebeians

9
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 2. Land reform failed
  • Increased geographic size of Republic strained
    government
  • Roman Senate
  • Original patrician families
  • Responsible for government stress/strain
  • Conflict with plebeians and other patricians
  • Increased size of Republic Rome
  • plus provinces

10
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 2. Land reform failed
  • Increased geographic size of Republic strained
    government
  • Roman Senate
  • Unwilling to admit new men to the inner circle
    of power
  • Dominated the political process
  • Adopted a narrow us vs. them approach to
    government and the Republic

11
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 2. Land reform failed
  • Increased geographic size of Republic strained
    government
  • Roman People
  • Manpower for citizen militia army
  • Land owning farmers
  • Decreasing supply of soldiers when needed most
  • Assemblies less representative, participation

12
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 2. Land reform failed
  • Owning land and farming were basics of Roman
    society, culture and economy
  • Individuals used booty to buy out smaller farmers
    (straight or default loan/tax sales)
  • Ex-farmers moved to big cities or the provinces
  • Reduced
  • social status
  • participation in decision making

13
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 2. Land reform failed
  • Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus tried
  • remove a portion of public land from patricians
  • distribute land to landless plebeians
  • eligible for military service

14
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 2. Land reform failed
  • Conflict between Senate and Gracchi brothers
  • All agreed reform was necessary, but
  • Uncertainty and doubt about proposal
  • Methods to be used to enact proposal were new,
    untried and often bordered on being illegal

15
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 2. Land reform failed
  • Conflict between Senate and Gracchus brothers
  • Real intentions of the Gracchi
  • Created divisions in Senate which worked for
    their own gain
  • Create winners and losers- involved land, but
    really about power/clients
  • Threatened nobles control of government

16
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 2. Land reform failed
  • Conflict between Senate and Gracchus brothers
  • Results
  • Reforms failed
  • Political violence by all sides
  • Brothers murdered by patricians
  • Open divisions in Republic Senate vs. people,
    landed vs. non-landed, patrician vs. patrician,
    etc

17
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 2. Land reform failed
  • Conflict between Senate and Gracchus brothers
  • Results
  • Benefits from success of Republic
  • Support of people reforms
  • Source of power and wealth to exploit for
    personal gain

18
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 3. Politics became corrupt and violent

19
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 3. Politics became corrupt and violent
  • Threat of foreign warfare removed
  • Patrician vs. Plebeian warfare
  • Unemployed plebeians rioted
  • Patricians assassinate Gracchi brothers

20
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 3. Politics became corrupt and violent
  • Patricians sought wealth and power rather than
    protecting Rome
  • Plebeians followed leaders who promised free food
    and entertainment

21
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 4. Slave Revolts

22
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 4. Slave Revolts
  • 135 B.C. first slave revolt in Sicily
  • Spartacus led slave revolt of 90,000
  • 1 out of every 4 people in Rome was a slave

23
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 5. War plunder decreased

24
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 5. War plunder decreased
  • Territory added before 100 B.C.
  • Central Italy, Northern Italy, Southern Italy,
    Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Spain, Portugal,
    Northern Africa, Greece, Turkey, Syria
  • Territory added 100 B.C. 0
  • Gaul

25
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 5. War plunder decreased
  • Refocus
  • Away from foreign threat to threats at home
  • Centered on power/clients and wealth
  • Patrician vs. patrician
  • Optimates vs Populares

26
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power

27
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Period of
  • political confusion
  • social unrest
  • political violence
  • mass assassination

28
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Gaius Marius
  • Plebeian novos homo
  • Common soldier to military tribune
  • Uneducated, rough, vulgar, but skilled commander
  • Hero of the lower classes
  • Elected consul 7 times

29
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Lucius Cornelius Sulla
  • Old patrician family- but no wealth- removed from
    Senate
  • Fanatical supporter of the anti-Gracchi group
  • Legate for Marius
  • Elected consul 2 times
  • Dictator in 81 BC

30
Fall of the Roman Republic

Conflict Jurgurtha/German Wars Optimates vs.
Populares Command of the East/ Civil Wars
31
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Jurgurtha/German Wars
  • Africa (Numidia) against Jurgurtha
  • Southern France against migrating German Cimbri
    and Teutones
  • Threat allowed Marius to be elected consul 5
    consecutive years

32
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Gaius Marius
  • Sulla was legate under Marius
  • Negotiated betrayal of Jurgurtha, capturing him
    personally
  • Triumph given to Marius
  • Destroyed statue honoring Sulla- commemorated
    Jurgurthas capture by Sulla

33
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Gaius Marius
  • Created professional army of volunteers from
    landless, unemployed plebeians
  • To be given land or bonus after 16 year term was
    completed
  • Became loyal to leader rather than to republic-
    commander recruited and paid soldiers personally-
    paid in loot (Marius Mules)

34
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Optimates vs. Populares
  • Groups of patrician/senatorial politicians
    organized for personal gain (nobility vs.
    nobility)

35
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power

Optimates
Ruthless conservatives willing to
defend Property Privilege At all costs
  • Defenders of
  • Constitution
  • Law and order
  • Roman tradition

36
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power

Populares
  • Selfless reformers
  • Supported Republic and People
  • What was best for Republic
  • Ambitious politicians
  • Establish personal
  • power
  • tyranny

37
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Optimates vs. Populares

Marius Identified with
Populares
38
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Optimates vs. Populares

Sulla identified with
Optimates
39
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Command of the East/Civil Wars
  • 88 BC, Sulla elected consul, given command of the
    East
  • War against Mithridates
  • Marius, with support of the tribune of the plebs,
    took command away and had it given to himself

40
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Command of the East/Civil Wars
  • Sullas reaction
  • Gathered army, marched on City of Rome
  • Had tribune of plebs, Marius and their supporters
    outlawed
  • Marius fled, tribune and many supporters killed
  • Command of the East given back to Sulla
  • Sulla left for the East with legions

41
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Command of the East/Civil Wars
  • Return of Marius
  • Pro-Marius consul (Cinna) elected, exiled by
    Senate
  • Consul put together an army
  • Marius returned, put together an army
  • Marian/consular armies took Rome

42
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Command of the East/Civil Wars
  • Return of Marius
  • Marius massacred opponents who were leaders of
    Senate

43
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Command of the East/Civil Wars
  • In a word, so insatiable, a passion for
    bloodshed seized Marius that, when he had killed
    most of his enemies and because of excitement
    could remember no one else he wished to destroy,
    he passed the word to his soldiers to slay every
    passer-by, one after another, unless he extended
    his hand to him. Naturally in the great crowd
    and confusion many whose deaths he did not in
    the least desire died needlessly.
  • Dio Cassio 30, 102.10

44
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Command of the East/Civil Wars
  • Return of Marius
  • Marius and Cinna elected consuls next year
  • Marius died 14 days into term

45
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Command of the East/Civil Wars
  • Return of Sulla
  • Returned with 40,000 veterans
  • Defeated consular armies
  • Took Rome and began to persecute/slaughter his
    enemies
  • Enemies names posted in Forum
  • Could be killed, possessions taken

46
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Command of the East/Civil Wars
  • Return of Sulla
  • Rewards given to informers
  • outlaws could be killed without fear of
    punishment
  • 2,600 equestrians including 90 senators killed
  • Land taken used to reward Sullas 150,000
    veterans
  • Sulla declared dictator for life-restore
    authority

47
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Command of the East/Civil Wars
  • Next generation of Roman leaders and generals
  • Lived through Civil Wars
  • Sided with Sulla or with Marius
  • Patterns of leadership (Marius/Sulla) established

48
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • First Triumvirate
  • Gnaeus Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar
  • Pompey Hispania,
  • Crassus Syria,
  • Caesar Gaul
  • All opposed the Senate
  • United to elect Caesar consul
  • Why 3 leaders with equal power?

49
First Triumvirate
50
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • Most powerful and wealthy patrician
  • Military commander
  • Put down slave revolt led by Spartacus
  • Eager to prove brilliance as commander
  • Killed in Parthia

51
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • Plebeian success story
  • Brilliant military commander
  • Pompey Magnus Pompey the Great
  • Extremely wealthy and powerful politically

52
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • Career military commander but unproven
  • Powerful family
  • Elected consul
  • Weakest member of the First Triumvirate

53
Fall of the Roman Republic
54
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Civil War between Pompey and Caesar
  • Pompey defeated in Italy and Greece
  • Killed in Egypt
  • Julius Caesar
  • Patrician, but played to the plebeians
  • Named dictator for life
  • Assassinated by patricians loyal to Senate

55
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Second Triumvirate
  • Marc Antony, Lepidus, Octavian
  • Antony Egypt
  • Octavian Italy
  • Lepidus Hispania
  • Why 3 leaders with equal power?

56
Second Triumvirate
57
Fall of the Roman Republic
  • 6. Generals gained power
  • Civil War between Antony and Octavian
  • Antony/Cleopatra defeated at Actium
  • Killed in Egypt
  • Octavian
  • Titles of Augustus and Caesar
  • End of the Republic
  • Beginning of the Roman Empire
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