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Chapter 27

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Title: Chapter 27


1
Chapter 27 Early Years of the Cold War
Section Notes
Video
Adjusting to Peace War in Korea and a New Red
Scare The Nation Prospers
The Impact of Television
Maps
Cold War Europe, 1955 The Korean War
History Close-up
Inside a Bomb Shelter
Images
Jackie Robinson Advertisement Linking to Today
The United Nations Primary Source Fear of
Communism
Quick Facts
The Yalta and Potsdam Conferences The Fair
Deal Postwar Boom, 1945-1960 Chapter 27 Visual
Summary
2
Adjusting to Peace
  • The Big Idea
  • After World War II, Americans adjusted to new
    challenges both at home and around the world.
  • Main Ideas
  • As World War II ended, leaders began planning the
    future of the postwar world.
  • The United States and the Soviet Union went from
    being allies to enemies after World War II.
  • Americans adjusted to postwar life.

3
Main Idea 1 As World War II ended, leaders began
planning the future of the postwar world.
  • Yalta Conference
  • Leaders met to discuss Europes future.
  • Supported creation of international peacekeeping
    organization
  • Agreed on free elections for countries liberated
    from German control
  • Potsdam Conference
  • Allied leaders divided conquered Germany into
    four zones.
  • Britain, France, the United States, and the
    Soviet Union would each control one zone.
  • Berlin also divided into four zones
  • War Crimes Trials
  • The Nuremberg trials put high-ranking Nazi
    officials on trial.
  • The International Military Tribunal of the Far
    East put Japanese officials on trial.
  • Established that individuals must be held
    responsible for committing war crimes, even when
    acting on behalf of a government

4
The United Nations
  • In 1944, American, British, Soviet, and Chinese
    representatives met to draft a plan for the
    United Nations an organization dedicated to
    resolving international conflicts.
  • In 1945, representatives from 50 countries met to
    write the UN Charter.
  • One of its first major actions was to divide
    Palestine into separate Arab and Jewish states.
  • May 14, 1948 Jewish leaders announced the
    creation of nation of Israel.
  • Arab leaders protested and invaded.
  • Israeli forces drove Arabs back and a truce was
    made.

5
Main Idea 2 The United States and the Soviet
Union went from being allies to enemies after
World War II.
From Allies to Enemies
  • After the war, differences arose between United
    States and Soviet Union.
  • Americans committed to capitalism and democracy
  • Soviets hoped to spread communism around the
    world.

The Iron Curtain
  • Stalin established Communist governments in
    Poland and Eastern Europe, cutting them off from
    the rest of the world.
  • The term iron curtain came to be used to describe
    this division.
  • The phrase Cold War came to be used to describe
    the struggle for global power between the Soviet
    Union and the United States.

6
U.S. Foreign Policy
Goal containment, or preventing the Soviet Union
from expanding its influence around the world
Truman Doctrine policy of providing aid to help
foreign countries fight communism
Marshall Plan Western Europe received more than
13 billion in U.S. loans and grants for European
economic recovery between 1948 and 1952.
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization a coalition
    of the United States, nine Western European
    countries, Canada, and Iceland.
  • Members promised to defend each other if
    attacked.
  • Soviet Union responded by creating Warsaw Pact,
    a military
  • alliance with its Eastern European satellite
    countries.

7
Main Idea 3 Americans adjusted to postwar life.
  • Government urged women to give up their jobs once
    veterans returned.
  • The Servicemens Readjustment Act, or GI Bill of
    Rights, offered veterans money for school, as
    well as loans for houses, farms, and businesses.
  • Inflation rose as people rushed to buy products
    that were limited during war.

Economy
  • More than 35 percent of non-farm workers were
    union members in 1946.
  • With inflation on rise, many went on strike.
  • Labor unions became a major political problem.
  • Government worked to reduce power of labor
    unions.
  • Passed the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947 that outlawed
    closed shops, or business that could hire only
    union members.

Labor
8
Civil Rights after the War
  • African American veterans faced segregation and
    prejudice at home.
  • Helped lead a major effort to gain equal rights
  • Truman appointed Committee on Civil Rights to
    investigate discrimination and suggest solutions.
  • Congress failed to act on the committees report.
  • In 1948 Truman issued an executive order to
  • End segregation in the armed forces, and
  • Ban discrimination in the hiring of federal
    employees.

9
Election of 1948
  • President Truman faced many challenges for
    reelection.
  • Southern Democrats opposed his support for civil
    rights laws.
  • Republicans controlled Congress and felt their
    candidate, New York governor Thomas Dewey, could
    beat Truman.
  • Truman took his case for reelection to the
    American people.
  • Traveled thousands of miles and gave hundreds of
    speeches
  • Defended his views and attacked Congress
  • In 1948 election, Truman won a surprise victory.
  • Urged Congress to support his plan for a package
    of domestic programs called the Fair Deal
  • Congress approved some parts, including higher
    minimum wage and expanded Social Security
    benefits.
  • Congress rejected other parts, including civil
    rights legislation.

10
War in Korea and a New Red Scare
  • The Big Idea
  • During the Cold War, the U.S. government
    confronted communism globally and within the
    United States.
  • Main Ideas
  • The United States fought Communist North Korea in
    the Korean War.
  • Fear of Communists led to a new Red Scare at
    home.
  • President Eisenhower faced Cold War crises around
    the world.

11
Main Idea 1 The United States fought Communist
North Korea in the Korean War.
  • Cold War quickly spread to Asian nations of China
    and Korea.
  • China in 1949 the Peoples Republic of China was
    established by Communists, led by Mao Zedong.
  • Korea after World War II, Korea was divided at
    the 38th parallel with a Soviet-implemented
    government in North Korea and a U.S.-implemented
    government in South Korea.

12
Korean War
  • On June 25, 1950, North Korea invaded South
    Korea.
  • United States and United Nations responded by
    offering support to South Korea.
  • China sent support to North Korea.
  • By 1951, UN forces drove North Koreans and
    Chinese back across the 38th parallel but
    fighting continued.
  • The unpopularity of Trumans actions during the
    war helped Dwight D. Eisenhower win the 1952
    presidential election.
  • Korean War officially ended July 27, 1953 with a
    cease-fire.
  • More than 130,000 Americans had been killed or
    wounded.
  • Over 2 million Korean and Chinese casualties

13
Main Idea 2 Fear of Communists led to a new Red
Scare at home.
Cold War fears led to a new Red Scare in the late
1940s and 1950s.
A Congressional committee known as the House
Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was in
charge of investigating Communist influence in
America.
  • In 1947 HUAC launched hearings to expose supposed
    Communist influence in movie industry
  • They branded as red, or Communist, actors and
    writers who
  • would not answer questions or refused to
    reveal names.
  • People suspected of Communist sympathies were
    often
  • blacklisted, or denied work.

Explosive spy cases also fed fears that
Communists were at work in the United States.
14
Rise of McCarthy
  • In 1950 Wisconsin senator Joseph McCarthy charged
    that Communists were working inside the State
    Department.
  • Had no concrete proof
  • When charges were challenged, he made up new
    charges.
  • This method of making aggressive accusations
    without proof became known as McCarthyism.
  • In 1954, during televised hearings, he finally
    went too far.
  • Used brutal tactics and bullied a young legal
    assistant
  • Public outraged
  • Senate later voted to condemn McCarthys actions.
  • Came too late to help those whose careers had
    already been ruined by his attacks

15
Main Idea 3 President Eisenhower faced Cold War
crises around the world.
  • In 1952 America completed development on hydrogen
    bomb, a weapon more powerful than the atomic
    bomb.
  • By 1953 Soviet Union developed its own hydrogen
    bomb, thus beginning a nuclear arms race, as both
    rushed to build more weapons.
  • In October 1957 Soviets launched Sputnik, the
    first artificial space satellite.
  • In January 1958 the United States launched its
    own satellite and established the National
    Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

16
Cold War Crises
  • Eisenhower supported strategy of brinkmanship, a
    willingness to go to the brink of war to oppose
    communism.
  • Used covert, or secret, operations around the
    world to overthrow leaders and influence
    politics.
  • 1953 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) helped
    overthrow premier of Iran.
  • 1954 CIA helped organize removal of Guatemalan
    president.
  • Crisis in Egypt briefly brought Americans and
    Soviets together.
  • After crisis averted, Cold War continued.

17
The Nation Prospers
  • The Big Idea
  • An expanding economy led to new ways of life for
    many Americans in the 1950s.
  • Main Ideas
  • Americas economy boomed in the 1950s.
  • Americans enjoyed new forms of popular culture.
  • Social critics found fault with 1950s society.

18
Main Idea 1 Americas economy boomed in the
1950s.
  • Millions of Americans earned more money than ever
    and could spend more.
  • Young Americans getting married and starting
    families led to a baby boom, a significant
    increase in births.

Economy
  • Many businesses and workers moved to the Sun
    Belt southern and western states that offered a
    warm climate year-round and low tax rates.
  • 1956 Highway Act encouraged travel and made
    commutes easier.

On the Move
19
Suburbs and Cities
  • Rising demand for homes encouraged development of
    new suburban neighborhoods.
  • By mid-1950s, builders were constructing
    preplanned suburbs all over the country.
  • By 1970 more Americans lived in suburbs than in
    cities.
  • Suburban life appealed to many.
  • Many enjoyed the additional space and
    convenience.
  • Suburban life was criticized by others.
  • Critics believed suburban life too heavily based
    on consumer culture
  • Lacking in diversity most people living in
    suburbs were white and middle-class
  • Discrimination some communities refused to sell
    homes to black families
  • Move to suburbs meant cities collected fewer
    taxes and began to decline.
  • Federal government began urban renewal program to
    improve life in cities.

20
Main Idea 2 Americans enjoyed new forms of
popular culture.
  • Television
  • By end of 1950s, nearly 90 percent of American
    families owned television sets.
  • Americans shared the experience of watching the
    same news, comedies, and sports shows.
  • American families watched about six hours of
    television a day.
  • Music
  • New styles of music helped reshape American
    culture.
  • New style of jazz, known as bebop, became
    popular.
  • Rock n roll swept the nation.
  • Teenage fans bought more than 70 percent of all
    records sold in the late 1950s.

21
Main Idea 3 Social critics found fault with
1950s society.
  • Some women were frustrated at lack of
    opportunities.
  • Could only find work in limited fields
  • Discouraged by expectation that they would give
    up jobs when they got married
  • Novelists commented on society in their work.
  • J.D. Salinger criticized culture filled with love
    of money and conformity.
  • Ralph Ellison wrote of how African Americans were
    excluded by society.
  • Young people known as beatniks, or beats,
    criticized society with unusual writing styles
    and rebellious behavior.
  • Beat authors inspired many to question the rules
    of mainstream society.
  • Many identified with rebellious characters in
    popular movies of the 1950s.

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