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Our Dynamic EarthDynamic Earth


Earth s Oceans All of the oceans are ... Dam Removal Dam removal benefits Avoid catastrophic dam failure Benefit aquatic life and migratory fish Restore ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Our Dynamic EarthDynamic Earth

The Hydrosphere
  • The hydrosphere includes all of the water on or
    near the Earths surface.
  • This includes water in the oceans, lakes, rivers,
    wetlands, polar ice caps, soil, rock layers
    beneath Earths surface, and clouds.

The Water Cycle
  • The water cycle is the continuous movement of
    water from the ocean to the atmosphere to the
    land and back to the ocean.

Earths Oceans
  • All of the oceans are joined in a single large
    interconnected body of water called the world
    ocean. The world ocean play important roles in
    the regulation of the planets environment.

Earths Ocean Basins
  • Pacific largest and deepest ocean single
    largest geographic feature on Earth
  • Atlantic half the size of the Pacific
  • Indian smaller than the Atlantic but has the
    same average depth
  • Arctic 7 the size of the pacific and ¼ as deep
    as the other oceans

Ocean Water
  • The difference between ocean water and fresh
    water is that ocean water contains more salts.
  • Salinity is a measure of the amount of dissolved
    salts in a given amount of liquid.
  • The salinity can vary depending upon the amount
    of rain, temperature, and freshwater that flows
    into the ocean.
  • Deep water has a higher salinity because it is

Global Temperature Regulator
  • One of the most important functions of the world
    ocean is to absorb and store energy from sunlight
    which in turn regulates temperatures in Earths
  • If the ocean did not regulate atmospheric and
    surface temperatures, temperatures would be too
    extreme for life to exist on Earth.

El Nino and La Nina
  • El Nino- an episode-occurring every 3 to 7 years-
    of ocean warming that affects the eastern
    tropical Pacific warm counter currents become
    usually strong and replace normally cold off
    shore waters with warm equatorial waters. Marked
    by abnormal weather patterns in Equador and Peru.
  • La Nina- surface conditions in eastern Pacific
    are colder than average can increase hurricane

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  • Fresh water is water that contains insignificant
    amounts of salts. It makes up 3 of the Earths
    water supply.
  • Most of the fresh water is locked up in icecaps
    and glaciers while the rest is found in places
    like lakes, rivers, wetlands, the soil and
  • A river system is a network of streams that
    drains an area of land and contains all of the
    land drained by a river including the main river
    and all its smaller streams or rivers that flow
    into larger ones, or tributaries.

Tributary- a stream that empties into another
Running Water
  • Streams are most important agents of erosion
  • The ability of a stream to erode and transport
    depends on its velocity.

Running Water
  • Factors that determine velocity
  • Gradient - the slope or steepness of a stream
    channel. The steeper the gradient, the more
    energy the stream has as it flows downhill.
  • Channel characteristic - the course the water in
    a stream follows. As the water flows, it
    encounters friction from the sides and the
    bottom. The amount of friction is affected by
    the shape, size, and roughness of the channel.
  • Discharge - the volume of water flowing past a
    certain point in a given unit of time.

River Basin
  • A large area that drains to the ocean
  • Ex. Catawba River Basin
  • Water Shed- a smaller area that drains to a
    certain area.
  • Aquifer- An underground (groundwater) water
    source that we use
  • Water quality of NC chemical, physical and biotic

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  • Rain and melting snow sink into the ground and
    run off the land. Most of this water trickles
    down through the ground and collects as
  • Although it makes up only 1 percent of all the
    water on Earth, groundwater fulfills the human
    need for fresh drinking water, and supplies
    agricultural and industrial need.

Human Impact on the Hydrosphere
Water Pollution
Water Pollution
Clean Water A Life Sustaining Liquid
  • Remember that freshwater makes up a very small
    fraction of all water available on Earth.

Where does water pollution come from?
  • Sources of Point Pollution
  • 23 million septic-tank systems
  • 190,000 storage lagoons for polluted waste
  • 9,000 municipal landfills
  • About 2 million underground storage tanks
    containing pollutants such as gasoline
  • Thousands of public and industrial wastewater
    treatment plants
  • Sources of Nonpoint Pollution
  • Highway construction and maintenance eroding soil
    and toxic chemicals
  • Storm-water runoff from city or suburban streets
    oil, gasoline. Dog feces, litter
  • Pesticides from 112 million hectares of cropland
    treated with these substances each year.
  • 50 million tons of fertilizer applied to lawns
    and crops
  • 10 million tons of dry salt applied to highways
    for snow and ice

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Marine Water Pollution
Where does pollution come from in our oceans?
  • Wells are dug or drilled to tap into underground
    water. With a dug well it is hard to prevent
    contamination of the water.
  • Drilled wells are made into underground aquifers.
    These are lined, sealed, and do a much better
    job of keeping out microorganisms and chemicals.

Problems with Wells
  • Contamination by microorganisms or by chemicals.
  • Soil salination as the water table drops, the
    salt in the soil dries out which can cause a
    problem for nearby vegetation.

Aquifer Depletion
  • Salt water intrusion-occurs when salt water moves
    in where fresh water should be located.
  • Subsidence- When the land level falls due to loss
    of groundwater.

Dams and Dam Removal
  • Dams are used to provide drinking water, water
    for agriculture, generate hydroelectric power,
    and recreational opportunities.
  • Dams can also cause problems
  • Flooding of natural habitats upstream
  • Fragmentation of migratory fish population
  • Sedimentation behind dam can cause there to be
    less water available for hydroelectric power
  • reservoir is a breeding ground for disease
    causing insects like mosquitoes.
  • Disrupts the natural flow of streams and rivers.

Dam Removal
  • Dam removal benefits
  • Avoid catastrophic dam failure
  • Benefit aquatic life and migratory fish
  • Restore downstream habitats
  • Restore the natural flow of streams and rivers

Importance of Water Conservation
  • Goals of water conservation
  • Sustainability withdrawal of water should not
    exceed its natural replacement rate
  • Energy conservation pumping and treating water
    takes a lot of energy
  • Habitat conservation
  • Reduce water consumption per capita use water
    more efficiently and responsibly.
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