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IV. The Late Nineteenth Century and Immigration

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Title: IV. The Late Nineteenth Century and Immigration


1
IV. The Late Nineteenth Century and Immigration
2
1. The United States economy significantly
expanded after the Civil War.
  • True
  • Westward expansion meant more natural resources,
    expanded interests in agriculture, ranching and
    mining, and completion of a transcontinental
    railroad.
  • Captains of industry, such as Andrew Carnegie and
    John D. Rockefeller pioneered new forms of
    business organizations.
  • The rise of heavy industry led to vast
    urbanization, a changing landscape and a host of
    environmental concerns.

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2. The powers of the federal government
significantly expanded after the Civil War.
  • False
  • As the Industrial Revolution took off after the
    Civil War, laissez faire capitalism was the
    dominant rule of the day. The ideas of Karl Marx
    and the principles of socialism had some appeal
    in Europe, but not in the United States.
  • There were no income taxes and very few
    government regulations.
  • There was also no government protection for
    consumers, factory workers or farmers.

5
3. In the late nineteenth century, labor unions
significantly grew in size and won most of the
confrontations they experienced with management.
  • False
  • It is true that unions such as the Knights of
    Labor and the American Federation of Labor
    attracted millions of members.
  • It is also true that at places like Homestead,
    Pennsylvania and at the Pullman Palace Car
    Company, there were violent confrontations.
  • However, most of these strikes ended in failure.
    This was primarily due to the role played by
    government, which tended to favor the side of
    management.

6
4. After 1880, most immigrants came from
Ireland, England, Germany and other nations
located in western Europe.
  • False
  • After 1880, immigration from northern and western
    Europe tapered off as the conditions in those
    nations improved.
  • However, the number of immigrants coming from
    Italy, Poland, Greece, Russia and other nations
    in southern and eastern Europe dramatically
    increased. Most passed through Ellis Island in
    New York City or Angel Island in San Francisco.
  • Most immigrants were exploited as a source of
    cheap labor and as votes for machine bosses like
    Boss Tweed in New Yorks Tammany Hall,

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5. Most immigrants either moved into crowded
slums in eastern cities or settled on farms on
the northern prairies.
  • True
  • After the Civil War, immigrants especially from
    Germany and Scandinavia, settled on farms in
    Minnesota, Iowa and the northern plains.
  • The vast majority from southern and eastern
    Europe settled into the slums of eastern cities.
  • Their experience included factory jobs with low
    pay, crowded conditions in tenement apartments
    and machine politicians that wanted their vote
    but provided very little in the form of good
    government.

9
6. The nations first restrictions on
immigration were targeted on the Chinese.
  • True
  • Chinese immigrants had come over in large number
    to look for gold, help build the railroads and
    establish small businesses.
  • For the most part, they were successful, but
    their success stirred up the rise of prejudice
    and nativism. In addition, they did not
    assimilate as well as other immigrant groups.
  • Therefore, in 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act
    became the nations first major restriction on
    immigration into the United State.

10
7. In the late nineteenth century, American
cities tended to be dirty, crowded and governed
by politically corrupt leaders.
  • True
  • Thanks to the Industrial Revolution, urbanization
    had taken place at a very rapid pace.
  • As a result, there were few (if any) zoning laws
    or building codes. There was also not enough in
    the way of proper sanitation, schools, parks or
    playgrounds.
  • Many cities were also governed by machine
    politicians who were more concerned with staying
    in power and lining their pockets than addressing
    the problems of their crowded cities.

11
8. The governments policy towards Native
Americans was consistently designed to encourage
them to assimilate into the great American
melting pot.
  • False
  • Assimilation did become a goal in the late 19th
    century with the passage of the Dawes Act.
  • This act was designed to divide reservation lands
    amongst individual Indian families and to
    encourage them to farm. Leftover land was given
    to white homesteaders.
  • However, the reservation system has survived to
    the present. Despite their isolation and
    poverty, they are the best means for insuring the
    survival of tribal cultures.

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9. The late 1800s was a period when economic
wealth was increasingly controlled by a handful
of powerful and wealthy men.
  • True
  • Men like Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller,
    Cornelius Vanderbilt and J.P. Morgan built vast
    fortunes from steel, oil, railroads and finance.
  • They found ways to reduce business competition by
    creating trusts, holding companies and other
    forms of monopolies. They also used a form of
    Evolution called Social Darwinism to defend
    their vast wealth.
  • As a result, the Gilded Age (a term coined by
    Mark Twain) was a period when the rich got
    richer and the poor got poorer.

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10. The late 1800s was a period of lasting
change, progress and reform.
  • False
  • For the most part, the only progress was economic
    and technological and there was very little
    reform
  • Towards the end of the century, farmers and
    factory workers banded together to form the
    Populist Movement. At their apex in 1896, they
    ran William Jennings Bryan in a failed effort to
    win the presidency.
  • This movement pushed for government reforms to
    improve factory conditions, regulate railroads
    and circulate more currency. However, little was
    achieved until the outset of the 20th century.
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