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Chapter 29 Neurologic Conditions

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Chapter 29 Neurologic Conditions Risk Factors for Neurologic Disorders Cigarette smoking Obesity Ineffective stress management Elevated cholesterol Unsafe actions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 29 Neurologic Conditions


1
Chapter 29 Neurologic Conditions
2
Risk Factors for Neurologic Disorders
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Obesity
  • Ineffective stress management
  • Elevated cholesterol
  • Unsafe actions
  • Infections of the ear or sinus
  • Sexually transmitted diseases

3
Subtle Indicators of Neurological Disease
  • New headaches
  • Change in vision
  • Sudden deafness ringing in ears
  • Mood, personality changes
  • Altered level of consciousness

4
Subtle Indicators of Neurological Disease (cont.)
  • Clumsiness unsteady gait
  • Numbness and tingling of extremities
  • Unusual sensation of pain over nerve

5
Possible Factors Involved in the Development of
Parkinsons Disease
  • A history of metallic poisoning
  • Encephalitis
  • Cerebrovascular disease, especially
    arteriosclerosis
  • Presence of the Lewy body

6
Symptoms of Parkinsons Disease
  • A faint tremor in the hands or feet that
    progresses
  • Muscle rigidity and weakness
  • Masklike appearance of face
  • Increased appetite
  • Shuffling gait

7
Treatment of Parkinsons Disease
  • Anticholinergics
  • Avoidance of foods that are high in vitamin B6
  • Use of the herb passion flower
  • Use of pulse generators
  • Use of drug infusion systems
  • Gene therapy
  • Performing active and passive range-of-motion
    exercises

8
Causes of Transient Ischemic Attacks
  • Situations that reduce cerebral circulation
  • Hyperextension and flexion of the head
  • Reduced blood pressure resulting from anemia and
    certain drugs
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Sudden standing from a prone position

9
Manifestations of a TIA
  • Hemiparesis
  • Hemianesthesia
  • Aphasia
  • Unilateral loss of vision
  • Diplopia
  • Vertigo
  • Nausea vomiting
  • Dysphagia

10
Risk Factors for Cerebrovascular Accident
  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Hypothyroidism
  • MI
  • TIA
  • Dehydration
  • Cigarette smoking

11
Warning Signs of a CVA
  • Light-headedness
  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Drop attack
  • Memory and behavioral changes

12
Nursing Interventions to Reduce Effect of
Limitations of CVA
  • Talking in normal voice
  • Offering short explanations
  • Using familiar objects
  • Providing sensory stimulation
  • Offering positive feedback
  • Showing patience

13
Nursing Interventions in the Acute Phase of CVA
  • Maintain a patent airway.
  • Provide adequate nutrition and hydration.
  • Monitor neurologic and vital signs.
  • Prevent complications associated with immobility.

14
Nursing Interventions Following the Acute Phase
of CVA
  • Talk to the patient during routine activities.
  • Briefly explain what occurred and what to expect.
  • Speak distinctly but do not shout.
  • Devise an easy means of communication.
  • Minimize environmental confusion, noise, traffic,
    and clutter.
  • Aim for consistency of those providing care and
    of care activities.

15
Nursing Interventions Following the Acute Phase
of CVA (cont.)
  • Use objects familiar to patients.
  • Keep a calendar or sign in the room.
  • Supply sensory stimulation.
  • Provide frequent positive feedback.
  • Expect and accept errors and failures.

16
Nursing Interventions to Promote Independence
  • Self-help devices
  • Periodic home visits by a nurse
  • Regular contact with a family member or friend
  • Daily call from a local telephone reassurance
    program
  • Continuing patience, reassurance, and
    encouragement

17
Preventing Injury to Patients Following CVA
  • Scrutinize the environment for unsafe conditions
  • Loose carpeting
  • Poorly lit stairwells
  • Clutter
  • Ill-functioning appliances
  • Lack of fire warning systems and fire escapes
  • Lack of tub rails and nonslip tub surfaces, and
    other safeguards

18
Source
  • Eliopoulos, C. (2005).  Gerontological Nursing,
    (6th ed.).  Philadelphia Lippincott, Williams
    Wilkins (ISBN 0-7817-4428-8).
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