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Motivation

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Title: Motivation


1
Motivation
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What is Motivation?What do you think it means?
4
Motivation
  • The forces that act on or within an organism to
    initiate and direct behavior
  • A need or desire that energizes and directs
    behavior

5
Motivation
  • Activation initiation or production behavior
  • Persistence continued effort to get something
  • Intensity greater vigor of responding

6
Theories
  • Theories have proven weak over time, but we take
    a little from each to form our modern
    understanding...

7
  • Instinct Theories
  • Motivation is innate and due to genetic
    programming
  • Instincts are rigidly patterned throughout a
    species
  • Animals display instinctive behavior patterns
    such as migration and mating behavior
  • IE. Salmon returning to their birth place, birds
    migrating south for the winter

8
Instinct
  • A complex, inherited, unlearned behavior that is
    rigidly patterned throughout a species

9
Instinct Motivation
  • Examples of Instincts
  • Rivalry Submission
  • Sympathy Modesty
  • Fear Secretiveness
  • Shyness Repulsion
  • Cleanliness Jealousy
  • Food-Seeking Curiosity
  • Sociability Combativeness
  • Parental Love Hunting
  • Mating Constructiveness

10
Why
Why does Jimmy get into a lot of fights?
11
Why is Sally so quiet and timid?
12
Why is Dave so overweight?
13
Why does Jane beat her children?
14
Why do people do the things that they
do?(Instinct Theory)
  • Why does Jimmy get into a lot of fights?
    Combativeness Instinct
  • Why is Sally so quiet and timid? Shyness
    Instinct
  • Dave is overweight and cant stop eating because
    of his food-seeking instinct.
  • Jane beats and neglects her children because she
    wasnt born with a parental love instinct.

15
  • By 1920s and 1930s theory is out, but the idea
    that some human behaviors are innate and
    genetically programmed remained an important
    element in the overall understanding of
    motivation

16
Drives
  • Aroused states of tension created by an imbalance
  • Organism must reduce the drive to restore balance

17
DRIVE REDUCTION THEORY
  • Behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce
    internal tension caused by unmet biological needs

18
Drive-Reduction Theory
19
Drive-Reduction Theory
20
Drive-Reduction Theory
21
Drive-Reduction Motivation
  • Homeostasis The body monitors and maintains
    relatively constant levels of internal states,
    such as body temperature, fluid levels, and
    energy supplies
  • If any of these levels deviates very far from the
    optimal level, the body initiates processes
    (motivation) to bring the condition back to normal

22
Why did Shawn steal that candy bar?
23
Why does Carrie wear sweatshirts, even in the
summer?
24
Why do people do the things that they
do?(Drive-Reduction Theory)
  • Why did Shawn steal that candy bar? To satisfy
    his hunger and to maintain homeostasis. His body
    told him that he needed it.
  • Carrie always wears long sleeve shirts, even in
    the summer. She must have an internal thermostat
    that drops very easily, and in order to maintain
    a certain internal body temperature, she always
    has to wear an extra layer of clothing.

25
Homeostatic Regulation
26
Homeostatic Regulation
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Homeostatic Regulation
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Homeostatic Regulation
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Homeostatic Regulation
30
Homeostatic Regulation
31
Homeostatic Regulation
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Homeostatic Regulation
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Homeostatic Regulation
34
  • Drive theories are inadequate
  • many people strive to increase tension and
    physiological arousal

Such as by running a marathon or jumping out
planes
35
Arousal Theory we are motivated to maintain an
optimal level of arousal
  • When arousal levels get too low, a person might
    watch an exciting movie or go for a jog.
  • When arousal levels get too high, a person looks
    for ways to relax such as meditating or reading a
    book.
  • Arousal level can vary based on the individual or
    the situation.

36
Incentive Theory
  • Extrinsic Motivation
  • Behavior is motivated solely by the pull of
    external rewards (reinforcement principal)
  • or punishment

37
Intrinsic Motivation
  • Intrinsic motivation is when you are motivated by
    internal factors, to do something for its own sake
  • Intrinsic motivation drives you to do things just
    for the fun of it, or because I believe it is a
    good or right thing to do.

38
Why did Kevin kill Bill?
39
Why does Janet swim everyday, for many hours?
40
Why does Steve do nothing but homework?
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Why do people do the things that they
do?(Incentive Theory)
  • Kevin committed murder because he was paid to do
    so.
  • Jane swims everyday, before and after school, on
    weekends, etc. so that she can win an Olympic
    Gold medal.
  • Steve is considered a geek because he does all of
    his homework so that he can get all As. If he
    does, he can have a television in his bedroom.

42
  • Why did Cassie become a nun?

43
  • Why does Greg work at the homeless shelter on
    weekends, instead of playing baseball?

44
  • Why does Karen spend so many hours working on her
    perfecting her swing?

45
  • Why did Jessica serve on jury duty, even though
    she missed several days of work and an exam?

46
Why do people do the things that they
do?(Intrinsic Motivation)
  • Cassie became a nun because she felt that it was
    morally the right thing to do.
  • Greg works at the homeless shelter because it
    makes him feel good to help other people in need.
  • Karen practices her swing because she enjoys
    softball, and so that she can become a better
    softball player.
  • Jessica was a jurier in the murder trial because
    putting away criminals is the right thing to do.

47
Dont forget Freud.
  • Psychanalysis - Motives come from the unconscious
    mind
  • Eros your life instinct is the drive for
    survival, procreation and creativity
  • continually at odds with your Thanatos
  • Thanatos - is its opposite, your death
    instinct - the goal of all life is death
  • people hold an unconscious desire to die which
    is exhibited by self-destructive behaviors.
    Often directed outward onto others, it is
    expressed as aggression and violence.

48
Social Acceptance
MORE MOTIVATIONS
  • Behaviors are motivated by the desire to
    increase our social acceptance and inclusion in
    social groups.

49
Control
MORE MOTIVATIONS
  • Motivation is driven by a need to control ones
    environment.
  • to be decisive, assertive, and influence others
    for personal gain.

50
Competition
MORE MOTIVATIONS
  • Comparing your performance to others can enhance
    your self-esteem.
  • This could determine your behavior in school, on
    the field or elsewhere

51
Motivation
  • Humanistic Theory
  • People are motivated to satisfy a progression of
    internal needs, beginning with the most basic and
    moving towards the realization of personal
    potential
  • Sound Familiar.?

52
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
  • Humanistic psychologist who developed the
    hierarchy of needs

53
Humanistic Motivation
  • Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological Needs Food Water Warmth Rest
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  • When the physiological needs are met, the need
    for safety will emerge.

57
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Safety Needs Security Safety
58
Humanistic Motivation
  • Safety Needs
  • Security of employment
  • Security of revenues and resources
  • Physical Security - violence, delinquency,
    aggressions
  • Moral and physiological security
  • Familial security
  • Security of health

59
Humanistic Motivation Safety Needs
  • Safety needs have to do with establishing
    stability and consistency in a chaotic world.
  • IE. We need the security of a home and family.
    If a family is dysfunctional, a child cannot move
    to the next level because they are constantly
    concerned for their safety. Love and
    belongingness (Step 3) have to wait until they
    are no longer cringing in fear.

60
  • In addition, safety needs sometimes motivate
    people to be religious.
  • Religions comfort us with the promise of a safe
    secure place after we die and leave the
    insecurity of this world.

61
  • After physiological and safety needs are
    fulfilled, the third layer of human needs are
    based on the needs for belongingness and love.

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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Belongingness and Love Needs Intimate
Relationships Friends
64
Humanistic Motivation
  • Belongingness and Love Needs
  • emotionally-based relationships
  • friendship, sexual relationship, or having a
    family.

65
  • Humans have a desire to belong to groups clubs,
    work groups, religious groups, family, gangs,
    etc.
  • We need to feel loved (non-sexual) by others, to
    be accepted by others.
  • We need to be needed.

66
Humanistic Motivation Belongingness and Love
Needs
  • People have a constant desire to feel needed.
  • In the absence of these elements, people become
    increasingly susceptible to loneliness, social
    anxiety, and depression.

67
  • Once the needs of Stages 1 thru 3 have been met,
    humans can concentrate on fulfilling esteem needs.

68
Esteem Needs Prestige, Feelings of
Accomplishment, Self-Worth
69
  • There are 2 types of esteem needs.
  • First is self-esteem which results from
    competence or mastery of a task. Respecting
    yourself!
  • Second, there's the attention and recognition
    that comes from others.

70
  • Imbalances at this level can result in a low
    self-esteem and inferiority complexes
  • on the other hand in an inflated sense of self
    and snobbishness.

71
  • Only if the needs of Stages 1 thru 4 have been
    met can a person move on the Stage 5.
  • Most people spend the majority of their lives
    striving to achieve and maintain the goals set
    forth in Stages 1 thru 4, and may never reach
    Stage 5,
  • self-actualization.

72
Self-Actualization Achieving ones full potential
73
Self-Actualization
  • At the top of Maslows pyramid
  • According to Maslow, the need to live up to ones
    fullest and unique potential

74
Humanistic Motivation
  • Self-Actualization
  • Self-actualization is the instinctual need of a
    human to make the most of their unique abilities.
    Maslow described it as follows
  • Self Actualization is the intrinsic growth of
    what is already in the organism, or more
    accurately, of what the organism is.

75
  • The need for self-actualization is "the desire to
    become more and more what one is, to become
    everything that one is capable of becoming."
  • - Maslow

76
  • Which students usually take up environmental
    causes, join the Peace Corps, do missionary work,
    etc.?
  • Those whose other needs have been satisfied!

77
Specific Motivations
  • Hunger
  • Sex
  • Achievement

78
Hunger
  • What physiological factors cause us to feel
    hungry?
  • What psychological factors cause us to feel
    hungry?

79
Hunger Physiological Factors
  • Glucose/Blood-Sugar Levels
  • Glucose is the form of sugar that circulates in
    the blood and provides the major source of energy
    for body tissues.
  • Low blood-sugar levels triggers hunger. Low
    level messages are sent to the hypothalamus.
  • Orexin
  • Orexin is the hunger-triggering hormone secreted
    by the hypothalamus.

80
Hunger Physiological Factors
  • Leptin
  • Leptin is a protein secreted by fat cells. When
    it is abundant, it causes the brain to increase
    metabolism and the bodys activity levels, and
    decreases hunger. When there is too little
    leptin, it causes the brain to decrease
    metabolism, lower activity levels, and increases
    hunger.

81
Hunger Physiological Factors
  • Ghrelin
  • Gherlin is the hormone secreted by an empty
    stomach. It sends an Im hungry signal to the
    brain.
  • PYY
  • PYY is a digestive tract hormone that sends an
    Im not hungry signal to the brain.

82
Hunger Physiological Factors
  • Lateral Hypothalamus part of the brain
    responsible for hunger
  • Ventromedial Hypothalamus part of the brain
    responsible for stopping eating
  • Set-Point Theory the hypothalamus decides what
    signal to send based on a genetic metabolic rate
    (how quickly the body uses energy)

83
Hunger Psychological Factors
  • Our eating habits (when we eat, what we eat, how
    much we eat, etc.) is not only controlled by
    internal signals of hunger or fullness, but also
    by external factors related to taste preferences,
    culture, media influences, convenience, moods,
    religion, etc.

84
Hunger Psychological Factors
  • Some people have a preferences for hot and spicy
    foods, while others enjoy sweets or salty foods.
  • In some cultures or time periods heaviness
    indicated wealth, so eating was/is encouraged.
  • Eastern cultures often enjoy dog, rat, and horse
    meat. In some Middle Eastern cultures the eye of
    a camel is considered a delicacy.
  • Hindus avoid eating beef because Hindus believe
    that all living things contain a part of the
    divine spirit.

85
Hunger Psychological Factors
  • Mood - When you are happy you may eat certain
    foods, but when you are sad you may indulge in
    other foods.
  • Supply - If there is an abundance or lack of
    grocery stores, fast-food drive-thru, and
    restaurant, eating habits may differ.
  • Media - influence eating behaviors as well. If
    the Hollywood standard is thin, if models are
    heroin chic, then eating habits may change,
    especially with regards to young women.

86
Hunger Psychological Factors
  • The Garcia Effect Simply thinking about a
    certain food and its pairing with an unpleasant
    episode will curb your desire for that food
  • IE. At the movies, your friend vomits popcorn
    all over the seat and your shoes. Popcorn no
    longer has an appeal to you.
  • Similar to a taste aversion but it does not
    follow the rules of classical conditioning

87
Hunger Psychological Factors
  • Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa an eating disorder in which a
    normal-weight person diets and becomes
    significantly underweight, yet still feeling fat,
    continues to starve
  • Bulimia Nervosa an eating disorder
    characterized by episodes of overeating,
    (binging) followed by vomiting, laxative use, or
    excessive exercise

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Weight Loss Trends
  • In 2003
  • 65 of U.S. citizens indicated they tried some
    form of weight loss or weight control
  • 49 attempted to lose at least five pounds
  • 16 attempted to maintain their weight
  • Only 20 however, were "very" or "extremely"
    successful

92
  • one out of every one hundred young women between
    ten and twenty are starving themselves, sometimes
    to death. (1 have anorexia)
  • four out of one hundred, college-aged women have
    bulimia.
  • Only about 10 of people with anorexia and
    bulimia are male.

93
  • Without treatment, up to twenty percent (20) of
    people with serious eating disorders die.
  • With treatment, that number falls to two to three
    percent (2-3).

94
  • Average woman
  • 54 145 lbs. Size 11-14
    36/37-29/31-40/42
  • Barbie
  • 6 101 lbs. Size 4 39-19-33

95
Overweight
  • What motivates people to eat too much??

96
  • Studies suggest that about sixty percent of adult
    Americans, both male and female, are overweight.
    About one third (34) are obese, meaning that
    they are 20 or more above normal, healthy
    weight. Many of these people have binge eating
    disorder.
  • include fast food, snacks with high sugar and fat
    content, little physical activity including use
    of automobiles, increased time spent in front of
    TV sets and computers, and a generally more
    sedentary lifestyles than slimmer peers.

97
Overweight
  • Who to Blame?
  • Genetics
  • Population Trends
  • Lifestyle
  • High-Carb Diets
  • Decline in Smoking
  • Less Demanding Workplace
  • Television
  • Social Class

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Sex
  • What physiological factors motivate us to have
    sex?
  • What are the stages of the human sexual response
    cycle? How do sex hormones influence human
    sexual development and arousal?
  • What psychological factors cause us to have sex?

100
Sex Physiological Factors
  • Hormones
  • Estrogen a sex hormone, secreted in greater
    amounts by females than by males.
  • Testosterone a sex hormone, secreted in greater
    amounts by males than by females.

101
Sex Physiological Factors
  • The Sexual Response Cycle
  • Excitement
  • Plateau
  • Orgasm
  • Resolution

102
Sex Physiological Factors
  • Excitement
  • The genital areas become engorged with blood,
    causing a mans penis to swell and a womans
    clitoris to swell, as well as opening a womans
    vagina.

103
Sex Physiological Factors
  • Plateau
  • Excitement peaks as breathing, pulse, and blood
    pressure rates continue to increase. Secretions
    from the penis and clitoris may occur.

104
Sex Physiological Factors
  • Orgasm
  • Further increases in breathing, pulse, and blood
    pressure, accompanied by muscle contractions all
    over the body. Males propel semen from the penis
    while a females uterus is put into a position to
    receive sperm during this stage.

105
Sex Physiological Factors
  • Resolution
  • After orgasm, the body gradually returns to its
    unaroused state.
  • Refractory Period a resting period after an
    orgasm, during which a person cannot achieve
    another orgasm (a few minutes to a day or more
    for typical men, far less time for a woman)

106
Sex Psychological Factors
  • External Stimuli
  • Seeing, hearing, or reading erotic material
  • Imagination and Daydreams
  • Cultural Influences
  • Personal Morals and Beliefs
  • Media Portrayals of Sex
  • Religious Convictions
  • Drugs and Alcohol
  • Contraception

107
Achievement
  • Achievement Motivation refers to a desire for
    significant accomplishment for mastery of
    things, people, or ideas for attaining a high
    standard

108
Achievement Motivation
  • A desire for significant accomplishment
  • A desire for the mastery of things, people, or
    ideas
  • A desire for attaining a high standard

109
Achievement
  • Industrial-Organizational Psychology is the
    application of psychological concepts and methods
    to optimizing human behavior in the workplace
  • Personnel Psychology focuses on recruitment,
    selection, placement, training, appraisal, and
    development of workers
  • Organizational Psychology focuses on how work
    environments and management styles influence
    worker motivation , satisfaction, and
    productivity

110
Achievement
  • When applying achievement motivation to a
    workforce, managers generally chose one of the
    following
  • Theory X workers will only work with benefits
    or threatened with punishment
  • Theory Y workers have internal motivation to do
    good work and only need encouragement

111
Achievement
  • Characteristics and Factors related to ones
    need to achieve
  • Job Satisfaction
  • Employee Engagement
  • Harness Your Strengths
  • Set Goals
  • Choosing An Appropriate Leadership Style

112
Achievement
  • Characteristics and Factors related to ones
    need to achieve
  • A persistence and eagerness for realistic
    challenges
  • Ambition
  • Energetic
  • Self-disciplined
  • Preparation
  • Practice

113
Achievement
  • Characteristics and Factors related to ones
    need to achieve
  • Disciplined Motivation
  • Continuously Productive
  • Positive Mood
  • Leadership
  • Organization and Goal Focus
  • Mediating Conflict

114
When Motives Conflict
  • Sometimes you know exactly what to do in a
    situation, and sometimes the solution is unclear,
    you are confused, or knowing what you should do
    conflicts with what you want to do.

115
  • Approach-Approach Conflict
  • This occurs when you have a choice between two
    desirable outcomes
  • IE. Do I go to the rock concert or the ball
    game? Both are great choices.

116
  • Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
  • Occurs when you must choose between to
    undesirable outcomes
  • IE. Do I clean my room first, or mow the lawn?

117
  • Approach-Avoidance Conflict
  • A choice you are going to make has good and bad
    potential outcomes
  • IE. You are lactose intolerant, but that ice
    cream cone on a hot day would be great.

118
  • Multiple Approach-Avoidance Conflicts
  • You must choose between two or more things, each
    with good and bad outcomes
  • IE. Time for college. College A has your major,
    but is too far from home. College B is less
    expensive, but has too many students.

119
Developing Self Motivation
  • Associate your high achievement with positive
    emotions
  • Connect your achievement with your efforts
  • Raise your expectations

120
Motivating Others
  • Cultivate intrinsic motivation
  • Attend to individual motives
  • Set specific, challenging goals
  • Choose an appropriate leadership style
  • Task leadership
  • Social leadership

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