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CONTEXT CLUES

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Examples of Definition Context Clues EXAMPLES: Entomology is the study of insects. ... PowerPoint Presentation Author: WSE Last modified by: localuser Created Date: – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CONTEXT CLUES


1
  • CONTEXT CLUES
  • BY
  • Mr. Gonzalez
  • Language Arts Reading Teacher
  • John I. Smith K-12 Center

2
Reading Standards Workshop Activity
  • Title Context Clues Unit
  • The students will be able to
  • 1) recognize different types of context clues
  • 2) use context clues to determine the meaning
    of an unfamiliar word
  • 3) analyze words, phrases, and word
    relationships to determine meaning
  • 4) analyze the context surrounding a word with
    multiple meanings to determine the correct
    meaning of the word.

3
Concept map WHAT ARE CONTEXT CLUES?
  • Context
  • Clues

4
How Do You Guess The Meaning Of An Unfamiliar
Word?
  • There are words or phrases around an
    unfamiliar word that can help you understand the
    meaning of a new word.
  • These words and phrases are called context
    clues. 
  • If you learn how to use these clues, you
    can save yourself a trip to the dictionary,
    increase your vocabulary, and improve your
    reading comprehension. 

5
CONTEXT CLUES
THERE ARE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES
Definition Synonym or restatement Antonym or
contrast Example Comparison List or Series Cause
and Effect Inference or general context

6

TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES
TYPE   DESCRIPTION CLUES SIGNAL WORDS EXAMPLE
1. Definition The author provides a direct (explicit) definition of an unknown word in the sentence. Is, are Is /are called Is / are known as Is defined as Means, Or, Refers to - Martha is a curator, a person who is responsible for looking after a museums collection. -Entomology is the study of insects. - Archeology is the scientific study of prehistoric cultures by excavation of their remains.
2. Synonym or Restatement The author uses a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another word or other words in a sentence. Commas , Semicolon Dashes - Parenthesis ( ) Sometimes signal words or, that is, or in other words are used. - Carnivores, that is, meat eaters, are the top of the food chain. - My best friend squandered all his money his drinking and gambling wasted all his earnings. -After seeing the picture of the starving children, we all felt compassion or pity for their suffering. - After a time, glaciers, or slowly moving rivers of ice, formed over many parts of the Earth.
3. Antonym or Contrast The author uses another word or phrase that means the opposite of an unfamiliar word Words used are But, however, although, otherwise, unless, instead of, on the contrary, on the other hand, while, unlike, different from -Mikes parrot was loquacious, but Marias said very little.  -The gentleman was portly, but his wife was thin. -While Luis is hardworking, his indolent brother spends most of the time watching TV or sitting around with friends.
  4. Comparison   In comparison clues, the author uses words and phrases that have the same or similar meaning as an unfamiliar word.   Words used are like, as, similar to, in the same way, likewise, resembling, too, also, similarly   -My brother is enthralled by birds similar to the way that I am fascinated by insects. - The stench of the old shoes was like the smell of garbage.

7

TYPE   DESCRIPTION CLUES SIGNAL WORDS EXAMPLE
5. Example/ Explanation The author provides examples or additional explanations or summaries to help you understand an unfamiliar word. The word is cleared up by giving an example. For example For instance Including Such as Especially, Specifically To illustrate -The archeologist found different amulets, such as a rabbits foot and bags of herb. -Paula was suspended from school because of several infractions of the rules, including smoking in the bathroom and dressing improperly. - Celestial bodies, such as the sun, moon, and stars, are governed by predictable laws.
6. Cause and Effect The meaning of an unknown word depends on the cause/effect relationship with other words in the text. As a result, Due to Accordingly Because, Since, So Consequently For this reason Hence, if then -Since no one came to the first meeting, attendance for the second one is mandatory for all staff. - Because the conflagration was aided by wind, it was so destructive that every building in the area was completely burned to the ground.
7. List or Series The unfamiliar word is included in a series of related words that give an idea of the words meaning. Look for a list of words -North American predators include grizzly bears, pumas, wolves, and foxes. -The debris in the stadium stands included numerous paper cups, ticket stubs, sandwich wrappings, and cigarette butts.
8. Inference or General Context The meaning of an unfamiliar word can be inferred (guessed) from the description of a situation. The author provides non-specific clues, often spread over the sentence or number of sentences. Look for clues over several words or sentences -The monkeys vociferous chatter made me wish I had earplugs. - Katies belligerence surprised everyone. She threw her book across the room, glared at Chris, and then pushed him to the floor.  
8

1) Armadillos are unusual mammals that are
widespread in parts of South America and in the
Southern part of the United States. They get
their name from the Spanish word armado, which
means one that is armed, because of the armor
covering their bodies. There are 20 species that
include the nine-banded armadillo, the giant
armadillo, the apara, the fairy armadillo, the
pichi, and the naked-tailed armadillo. They live
in burrows that they dig with their sharp front
claws in open grasslands and tropical forests,
but they are unable to survive in arid areas such
as deserts, or in very cold areas. The
nine-banded armadillo, the species found in
Florida, is the only armadillo that can swim. It
inflates its stomach and intestines with air to
keep itself buoyant. It also can cross a small
river by holding its breath for up to six minutes
and walking on the river bottom. 2) Many
mammals are active primarily during the day, but
armadillos are nocturnal. They have a varied
diet, eating insects or invertebrates, plants,
and small vertebrates, such as snakes and
lizards. They sometimes feed on carrion that is,
rotting animal flesh. The giant armadillo of
South America is even said to have dug into flesh
graves to eat corpses. Armadillos main food
sources are ants and termites. They dig into ant
runs or termite mounds with their sharp claws and
use their long, sticky tongues to extract
insects. The nine-banded armadillo eats up to
40,000 ants at one feeding. 3) The
nine-banded armadillo mates in July and August,
but the egg does not become implanted in the
uterine wall for about three months. This
process, in which development of the embryo does
not take place immediately, is called delayed
implantation. Once the embryo starts forming, the
gestation period is 120 days. The young are then
born in the spring when food is more plentiful.
The nine-banded armadillo has four in a litter.
The young are identical quads and always of the
same sex because all four develop from the same
egg. All four are attached by umbilical cords to
the same placenta. The placenta is the area of
the uterine wall specialized for transferring
food, etc. between the blood of the mother and
that of the embryo. This kind of multiple births
is rare in other mammals, but it is rule for
nine-banded armadillos. 4) Armadillos are
covered with bony plates of armor. These plates
are hinged so that the armadillo can roll itself
into an armored roll to protect its soft
underparts and limbs from predators. Armadillos
appear to be hairless at first glance, but as
with elephants, a closer look reveals that most
species have sparse hair on their bodies. 5)
The population of armadillos has dwindled in
South America, mainly because their habitat has
been destroyed by the expansion of agriculture.
In the United States, however, the population of
armadillos has not dwindled. Many are killed each
year on highways, but this has not caused a
significant drop in the population. In fact, in
some areas they have become agricultural pests
because they dig up so many crops in their quest
for insects. The armadillo is an interesting
mammal. Watch for it as you travel around Florida.
9

Context Clues Chart for the Text
Armadillos
WORD MY DEFINITION CONTEXT CLUE TYPE OF CONTEXT CLUE
1)   apara            
2)   arid          
3)   buoyant       
4)    nocturnal          
5)    carrion          
6)    placenta      
10

Context Clues Chart for the Text
Armadillos
WORD MY DEFINITION CONTEXT CLUE TYPE OF CONTEXT CLUE
7) sparse      
8) dwindled      
9)      
10)      
11)      
12)      
11
DEFINITION
  • Writers often define a word after they use it.
    They use words and phrases such as means, is,
    refers to, and are called to signal that a
    definition is to follow.

12
Examples of Definition Context Clues
  • EXAMPLES
  • Entomology is the study of insects.
  • Archaeology is the scientific study of
    prehistoric cultures by excavation of their
    remains.
  • The cattle was disturbed by a pack of coyotes,
    small wolves that live in the western United
    States.
  • Broad, flat noodles that are served with sauce or
    butter are called fettuccine.

13
SYNONYM or RESTATEMENT
  • The meaning is usually right after the
    unfamiliar word and often separated from the rest
    of the sentence with commas, dashes, or
    parentheses sometimes, or, that is, or in other
    words is used. A synonym may also be set off with
    a pair of dashes, a pair of parentheses, or a
    pair of commas before and after it.


14
Look at the following cases
  • EXAMPLES
  • Carnivores, that is, meat eaters, are at the top
    of
  • the food chain.
  • My opponent's argument is fallacious, misleading
    plain wrong..
  • Ashamed of his flaccid flabby muscles, Glenn
    joined the local gym.
  • My best friend squandered all his money his
    drinking and gambling wasted all his earnings.
  • Christinas use of curses and personal attacks
    against the waitress mortified embarrassed
    everyone.

15
EXAMPLE Context Clues
  • The unfamiliar word is cleared up by giving an
    example for instance, for example ,such as,
    like, including, consisting of may be used as
    signals.
  • EXAMPLE
  • The archeologist found different amulets, such
  • as a rabbits foot and bags of herbs, near the
  • ancient altar.
  • Celestial bodies, such as the sun, moon, and
  • stars, are governed by predictable laws.

16
OTHER EXAMPLES
  • Some creatures can regenerate parts of
    themselves, such as a starfish growing a new arm
    or a lizard growing a new tail.
  • Paula was suspended from school because of
    several infractions of the rules, including
    smoking in the bathroom and dressing improperly.
  • My uncle often has had some embarrassing mishaps,
    such as back his car into the side of his bosss
    Honda and trying to walk through a glass door.
  • In the past month, we have had almost every type
    of precipitation, including rain, snow, sleet,
    and hail.
  • Toxic materials, such as arsenic, asbestos,
    pesticides, and lead, can cause bodily damage.

17
ANTONYM or CONTRAST
  • The unfamiliar word is shown to be different
    from or unlike another word, and is often an
    opposite but, however, although, otherwise,
    unless, instead of, on the contrary, in contrast,
    yet, on the other hand, as opposed to, while,
    unlike, never or not may be used to signal
    contrast.
  • EXAMPLE
  • Mikes parrot was loquacious, but Marias said
    very little.
  • Instead of living with other people, she chose to
    be a recluse.

18
MORE EXAMPLES of ANTONYM CONTEXT CLUES
  • The coach takes every opportunity to reprimand
    his players yet he ignores every chance to
    praise them.
  • Julie Ann refused to remain illiterate, instead
    she worked to become well-educated.
  • The employee received not a commendation but a
    rebuke for working overtime.
  • While Luis is hardworking, his indolent brother
    spends most of the time watching TV or sitting
    around with friends.

19
COMPARISON
  • The unfamiliar word is shown to be the same as
    or like another word too, like, as, similar to,
    or in the same way may be used to signal the
    comparison.

EXAMPLE My brother is enthralled by birds
similar to the way that I am fascinated by
insects.
20
LIST OR SERIES
  • The unfamiliar word is included in a
  • series of related words that give an
  • idea of the words meaning.

EXAMPLE North American predators include
grizzly bears, pumas, wolves, and foxes. The
debris in the stadium stands included numerous
paper cups, ticket stubs, sandwich wrappings, and
cigarette butts.
21
CAUSE AND EFFECT
  • The meaning of an unfamiliar word
  • is signaled by a cause-and-effect
  • relationship between ideas in the
  • text.
  • EXAMPLE
  • Because the conflagration was aided by wind,
  • it was so destructive that every building in the
  • area was completely burned to the ground.

22
INFERENCE or GENERAL CONTEXT (DESCRIPTION)
  • The meaning of an unfamiliar word
  • can be inferred from the description
  • of a situation or experience.

EXAMPLE The monkeys vociferous chatter made me
wish I had earplugs. The newly weds agreed to
be very frugal in their shopping because they
wanted to save enough money to buy a house.
Katies belligerence surprised everyone. She
threw her book across the room, glared at Chris,
and then pushed him to the floor.
23
CONTEXT CLUES PRACTICE
  • Read each sentence or paragraph and circle
  • the correct answer.
  • The archeologist carefully removed the tome from
    its ancient
  • resting and proceeded to read the pages related
    to marriage in
  • ancient Greece. What does the word tome probably
    mean?
  • a. Pen b. weapon c. book
    d. sausage
  • The Navajo language is an unwritten language of
    extreme
  • complexity with no alphabet or symbols, and is
    spoken only on
  • the lands of the Navajo Nation in the American
    Southwest. During
  • World War II a Navajo code was created for the
    U.S. Navy. This
  • code was virtually undecipherable to anyone
    except Navajo
  • speaking persons. What does the word virtually
    probably mean?
  • a. Pleasant b. almost
    c. never d. always

24
CONTEXT CLUES PRACTICE Cont.
  • 3. Lakes occupy less than two percent of the
    Earths surface, yet
  • they help sustain life. For instance, lakes give
    us fish to eat, irrigate
  • crops, and generate electrical power. What does
    the word sustain
  • probably mean?
  • a. support b. obstruct c.
    prolong d. destroy

4. The ancient Greeks pioneered many of the
kinds of writing we consider standard today. They
wrote speeches, plays, poems, books about
science and learning, long histories of the
things that happened to them. What does the word
pioneered probably mean? a. complicated b.
developed c. destroyed d. explored
25
CONTEXT CLUES PRACTICE Cont.
  • 5. Fifty-five mostly prominent, male delegates
    attended the Philadelphia Convention in 1787.
    About seventy-five percent of the delegates had
    served in Congress and others were important
    people in their home states. These men are often
    referred to as the Framers of the Constitution.
    What does the word prominent probably mean?
  • a. unimportant b. unknown c. common
    d. important

6. Bats that eat fruit and nectar spread seeds
and help flowers grow. Without bats many
important plants would not thrive. What does
the word thrive probably mean? a. flourish
b. die c. wither d.
deteriorate
26
THE END
  • QUESTIONS?
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