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Psychological Disorders

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Title: Psychological Disorders


1
Psychological Disorders
  • An Introduction
  • Stolen from www.appsychology.com

2
  • What are 2 major classifications of disorders?
  • What makes a psychological disorder?
  • What is the DSM-IV?
  • What are culture-bound syndromes?
  • What are anxiety disorders?
  • What are mood disorders?
  • What are somatoform disorders?
  • What are dissociative disorders?
  • What are schizophrenic disorders?
  • What are sleep disorders?
  • What are eating disorders?
  • What are personality disorders?
  • What is trephening?
  • What is the Rosenhan Study?

3
What is a Psychological Disorder?
  • A harmful dysfunction in which behavior is
    judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive
    and unjustifiable.

All this depends on
  • Culture

Is playing video games 5 hours per day a
disorder?
  • Time Period
  • Environmental Conditions
  • Individual Person

4
Early Theories
  • Afflicted people were possessed by evil spirits.

5
Early Theories
  • Music or singing was often used to chase away
    spirits.
  • In some cases trephening was used

Cutting a hole in the head of the afflicted to
let out the evil spirit.
6
Trephening
7
Early Theories
  • Another theory was to make the body extremely
    uncomfortable.

8
History of Mental Disorders
  • In the 1800s, disturbed people were no longer
    thought of as madmen, but as mentally ill.

They were first put in hospitals.
Did this mean better treatment?
9
Early Mental Hospitals
  • They were nothing more than barbaric prisons.
  • The patients were chained and locked away.
  • Some hospitals even charged admission for the
    public to see the crazies, just like a zoo.

10
Philippe Pinel
  • French doctor who was the first to take the
    chains off and declare that these people are sick
    and a cure must be found!!!

11
Somatogenic
  • At this time- it was believed that mental illness
    had a bodily cause- Somatogenic.
  • Remember that soma body

But Somatogenic could not explain disorders such
as hysteria (now called conversion disorder).
Many disorders are psychogenic the origin is
psychological, not physical.
12
Current Perspectives
  • Medical Perspective psychological disorders are
    sicknesses and can be diagnosed, treated and
    cured.

13
Current Perspectives
  • Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective assumes
    biological, psychological and sociocultural
    factors combine to interact causing psychological
    disorders.

Used to be called Diathesis-Stress Model
diathesis meaning predisposition and stress
meaning environment.
14
Classifying Psychological Disorders
  • What is the DSM-IV? Diagnostic Statistical Manual
    of Mental Disorders the book to classify mental
    disorders

Two Major Classifications
15
Psychotic Disorders
  • Person loses contact with reality, experiences
    distorted perceptions

16
Neurotic Disorders
  • Distressing but one can still function in society
    and act rationally
  • Spongebob may be hyperactive and manic, but not
    psychotic.

17
Personality Disorders
  • Psychological disorders characterized by
    inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that
    impair social functioning.

18
Personality Disorders
  • Paranoid
  • Antisocial
  • Borderline
  • Histrionic
  • Narscisstic
  • Schizoid
  • Avoidant
  • dependent

19
Paranoid Personality Disorder
  • Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by
    a distrust of others and a constant suspicion
    that people around you have sinister motives.
    Everyone is out to get you.

20
Paranoid Personality Disorder
  • They search for hidden meanings in everything and
    read hostile intentions into the actions of
    others.
  • They are quick to challenge the loyalties of
    friends and loved ones and often appear cold and
    distant to others. They usually shift blame to
    others and tend to carry long grudges.

21
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • antisocial personality disorder is characterized
    by a lack of conscience
  • People with this disorder are prone to criminal
    behavior, believing that their victims are weak
    and deserving of being taken advantage of. They
    tend to lie and steal

22
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • they are careless with money and take action
    without thinking about consequences

They are often aggressive and are much more
concerned with their own needs than the needs of
others.
23
Borderline Personality Disorder
  • characterized by mood instability and poor
    self-image

I hate you. Get away! . . . Why did you leave
me asshole?!
24
Borderline Personality Disorder
  • they will take their anger out on themselves,
    causing themselves injury

Suicidal threats and actions are not uncommon
They are quick to anger when their expectations
are not met.
25
Histrionic Personality Disorder
  • constant attention seekers

They need to be the center of attention all the
time, often interrupting others in order to
dominate the conversation.
26
Histrionic Personality Disorder
  • They may dress provocatively or exaggerate
    illnesses in order to gain attention.

They also tend to exaggerate friendships and
relationships, believing that everyone loves them
27
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
  • characterized by self-centeredness

They exaggerate their achievements, expecting
others to recognize them as being superior
28
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
  • They tend to be choosy about picking friends,
    since they believe that not just anyone is worthy
    of being their friend.

They are generally uninterested in the feelings
of others and may take advantage of them.
29
Schizoid Personality Disorder
  • People with schizoid personality disorder avoid
    relationships and do not show much emotion

They genuinely prefer to be alone and do not
secretly wish for popularity.
30
Schizoid Personality Disorder
  • They tend to seek jobs that require little social
    contact

Their social skills are often weak and they do
not show a need for attention or acceptance
They are perceived as humorless and distant and
often are termed "loners."
31
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
  • characterized by a need for social isolation, odd
    behavior and thinking, and often unconventional
    beliefs such as being convinced of having extra
    sensory abilities.
  • Some people believe that schizotypal personality
    disorder is a mild form of schizophrenia.

32
Avoidant personality disorder
  • characterized by a pervasive pattern of social
    inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and extreme
    sensitivity to negative evaluation.
  • consider themselves to be socially inept or
    personally unappealing, and avoid social
    interaction for fear of being ridiculed or
    humiliated.

33
Dependent personality disorder
  • characterized by a pervasive psychological
    dependence on other people.
  • has difficulty making everyday decisions without
    an excessive amount of advice and reassurance
    from others

34
Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder
  • characterized by a general psychological
    inflexibility, rigid conformity to rules and
    procedures, perfectionism, and excessive
    orderliness.
  • people with OCPD tend to stress perfectionism
    above all else, and feel anxious when they
    perceive that things aren't "right".

35
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36
Mood Disorders
  • Psychological Disorders characterized by
    emotional extremes.
  • Dysthymic Disorder
  • Major Depressive Disorder
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder

37
Depression
38
Depression
39
Major Depressive Disorder
  • A person, for no apparent reason, experiences two
    or more weeks of depressive moods.

Includes feelings of worthlessness and diminished
interest or pleasure in most activities.
40
Dysthymic Disorder
  • Suffering from mild depression every day for at
    least two years.

41
Seasonal Affective Disorder
42
Bipolar Disorder
  • Person alternates between the hopelessness and
    lethargy of depression and the overexcited state
    of mania.

43
Famous People with Bipolar
44
Bipolar Brain
45
Norepinephrine
Increases arousal and boosts moods.
46
Suicide
47
Suicide
48
Eating disorders
  • Anorexia starving yourself
  • Bulimia binging and purging
  • Both deal with poor self image
    and
  • possibly body dysmorphic disorder

49
Anxiety Disorders
  • a group of conditions where the primary symptoms
    are anxiety or defenses against anxiety.

the patient fears something awful will happen to
them.
Are anxiety disorders a neurosis or psychosis.?
50
Anxiety disorders?
  • GAD generalized anxiety disorder
  • Panic disorder
  • Phobias
  • OCD obsessive compulsive disorder

51
What is anxiety?
  • is a state of intense apprehension, uneasiness,
    uncertainty, or fear.

52
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • An anxiety disorder in which a person is
    continuously tense, apprehensive and in a state
    of autonomic nervous system arousal.

The patient is constantly tense and worried,
feels inadequate, is oversensitive, cant
concentrate and suffers from insomnia.
53
Panic Disorder
  • An anxiety disorder marked by a minutes-long
    episode of intense dread in which a person
    experiences terror and accompanying chest pain,
    choking and other frightening sensations.

Can cause secondary disorders, such as
agoraphobia.
54
Phobias
  • A person experiences sudden episodes of intense
    dread.

55
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
  • An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted
    repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions
    (compulsions).

56
Common Examples of OCD
Common Obsessions Common Compulsions
Contamination fears of germs, dirt, etc. Washing
Imagining having harmed self or others Repeating
Imagining losing control of aggressive urges Checking
Intrusive sexual thoughts or urges Touching
Excessive religious or moral doubt Counting
Forbidden thoughts Ordering/arranging
A need to have things "just so" Hoarding or saving
A need to tell, ask, confess Praying
57
Explanations for Anxiety Disorders
  • You Learn them through conditioning.
  • Evolution
  • Genes
  • Physiology (the brain)

58
Dissociative Disorders
59
What are dissociative disorders?
  • DID dissociative identity disorder
  • Dissociative amnesia
  • Dissociative fugue

60
What are dissociative disorders?
  • Dissociative fuge
  • Dissociative amnesia
  • Dissociative identity disorder

61
Dissociative Disorders
  • Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes
    separated (dissociated) from previous memories,
    thoughts and feelings.

62
Dissociative Amnesia
  • This disorder is characterized by a blocking out
    of critical personal information, usually of a
    traumatic or stressful nature.

63
Dissociative Amnesia
  • Dissociative amnesia, unlike other types of
    amnesia, does NOT result from other medical
    trauma (e.g. a blow to the head).

64
Dissociative Amnesia
  • Localized amnesia is present in an individual who
    has no memory of specific events that took place,
    usually traumatic. The loss of memory is
    localized with a specific window of time. For
    example, a survivor of a car wreck who has no
    memory of the experience until two days later is
    experiencing localized amnesia.
  • Selective amnesia happens when a person can
    recall only small parts of events that took place
    in a defined period of time. For example, an
    abuse victim may recall only some parts of the
    series of events around the abuse.
  • Generalized amnesia is diagnosed when a person's
    amnesia encompasses his or her entire life.
  • Systematized amnesia is characterized by a loss
    of memory for a specific category of information.
    A person with this disorder might, for example,
    be missing all memories about one specific family
    member.

65
Dissociative Fugue
  • An individual with dissociative fugue suddenly
    and unexpectedly takes physical leave of his or
    her surroundings and sets off on a journey of
    some kind.
  • These journeys can last hours, or even several
    days or months.

66
Dissociative Fugue
  • Individuals experiencing a dissociative fugue
    have traveled over thousands of miles.

An individual in a fugue state is unaware of or
confused about his identity, and in some cases
will assume a new identity (although this is the
exception).
67
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • A rare dissociative disorder in which a person
    exhibits two or more distinct and alternating
    personalities.
  • Also known as multiple personality disorder.

68
Somatoform disorders
  • Soma body
  • Physical illnesses caused by the mind
  • ex conversion disorder significant loss of
    bodily function with no physical cause
  • Ex hysterical blindness blindness after
    traumatic event (no physical cause)
  • Hysterical pregnancy body acts pregnant but no
    baby!
  • Hypochondriasis excessive worry about getting
    sick.


69
Schizophrenia
70
How Prevalent?
  • About 1 in every 100 people are diagnosed with
    schizophrenia.

71
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72
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • Disorganized thinking.
  • Disturbed Perceptions
  • Inappropriate Emotions and Actions

73
Disorganized Thinking
  • The thinking of a person with Schizophrenia is
    fragmented and bizarre and distorted with false
    beliefs.
  • Disorganized thinking comes from a breakdown in
    selective attention.- they cannot filter out
    information.

Often causes
74
Delusions (false beliefs)
  • Delusions of Persecution
  • Delusions of Grandeur

75
Disturbed Perceptions
  • hallucinations- sensory experiences without
    sensory stimulation.

76
Inappropriate Emotions and Actions
  • Laugh at inappropriate times.
  • Flat Effect (no emotion)
  • Senseless, compulsive acts.
  • Catatonia- motionless Waxy Flexibility

77
Positive v. Negative Symptoms
  • Positive Symptoms
  • Presence of inappropriate symptoms
  • Negative Symptoms
  • Absence of appropriate ones.

78
Types of Schizophrenia
79
Paranoid Schizophrenia
  • preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations.
  • Somebody is out to get me!!!!

80
Disorganized Schizophrenia
  • disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or
    inappropriate emotion.

81
Catatonic Schizophrenia
  • parrot like repeating of anothers speech and
    movements

82
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
  • Many and varied Symptoms.

83
  • 1 A person who seeks therapy form a clinical
    psychologist because she is tense, has difficulty
    sitting still, and is continually worried about
    the future is suffering from a/an
    ____________________ disorder.
  • A) anxiety
  • B) panic
  • C) obsessive-compulsive
  • D) somatoform

84
  • 2 A college student seeks help from the
    counseling center because he is experiencing
    frequent episodes during which he becomes very
    fearful, or even terrified, often for no apparent
    reason. A likely diagnosis for this student's
    problem is ___________.
  • A) phobic
  • B) dysthymic
  • C) panic
  • D) conversion

85
  • 3 A person who has developed such an intense
    fear of insects that she rarely leaves her
    apartment has developed a _______________
    disorder.
  • A) panic
  • B) post-traumatic stress
  • C) bipolar
  • D) phobic

86
  • 4. A student visits the student health service
    several times each week complaining of severe
    stomach pain, but no physical cause of his
    symptoms can be found. The student is
    experiencing a __________ disorder.
  • A) panic
  • B) bipolar
  • C) somatoform
  • D) dissociative

87
  • 5. A young man found wandering the streets of
    his hometown claimed that he did not know his
    name or where he lived. He was taken to a
    hospital for examination, but no physical
    injuries were found. After several days in the
    hospital, he awoke and remembered that he had had
    an argument with his parents that included
    threats of physical violence on both sides. In
    order to escape this stressful situation, the
    young man developed ____________________.
  • A) dissociative amnesia
  • B) learned helplessness
  • C) agoraphobia
  • D) catatonic schiziophrenia

88
  • 6 A middle-aged woman did not return from a
    shopping trip one day and was not found until the
    police located her in another city three months
    later. Formerly a restaurant owner, she was
    working as a server in a restaurant and had just
    been promoted to a supervisory role. She had
    rented an apartment and was engaged to be
    married. This behavior is an example of
    ____________________.
  • A) paranoid schizophrenia
  • B) post-traumatic stress disorder
  • C) dissociative fugue
  • D) bipolar disorder

89
  • 7. A psychologist who spends most of his time
    treating people suffering from depression and
    bipolar disorders focuses on ____________________.
  • A) phobic disorders
  • B) somatoform disorders
  • C) dissociative disorders
  • D) mood disorders

90
  • 8 A college student seen by a counseling
    psychologist stated that he had cut almost all
    his classes during the past two weeks, had
    experienced difficulty sleeping, and felt like
    his academic situation was hopeless. The
    psychologist's diagnosis would be
    _____________________.
  • A) dissociative disorder
  • B) major depressive disorder
  • C) undifferentiated schizophrenia
  • D) bipolar disorder

91
  • 9. After being depressed for two years following
    her divorce, a middle-aged woman makes an
    appointment with a clinical psychologist. She
    tells the psychologist that in addition to her
    mood, she lost weight and has never felt happy
    for more than a week during this time. The
    psychologist's diagnosis would be
    ____________________,
  • A) bipolar disorder
  • B) major depressive disorder
  • C) paranoid schizophrenia
  • D) dysthymic disorder

92
  • 10. For the past two weeks, a realtor has been so
    depressed that she can barely make the effort to
    show houses to prospective buyers. However, this
    period of depression was preceded by a similar
    period when her energy and enthusiasm enabled her
    to sell several houses. She is consulting a
    clinical psychologist because this is a recurring
    behavior pattern. The psychologist's diagnosis
    will be ______________________.
  • A) major depressive disorder
  • B) hypochondriasis
  • C) bipolar disorder
  • D) panic disorder

93
  • 11. Because of his age, a man in late middle age
    has been unable to find a permanent job since
    being laid off by his employer three years ago.
    During this time, he has had to sell many of his
    possessions and has been unable to provide the
    medical care his wife requires. He is referred to
    a clinical psychologist because he is apathetic
    and tells people that he can do nothing about his
    situation. This behavior is an example of
    ____________________.
  • A) learned helplessness
  • B) post-traumatic stress disorder
  • C) catatonic schizophrenia
  • D) antisocial personality disorder

94
  • 12. A psychologist who bases his diagnosis of a
    man's mental disorder primarily on the presence
    of hallucinations and delusions is making a
    diagnosis of ____________________.
  • A) phobic disorder
  • B) mood disorder
  • C) dysthymia
  • D) schizophrenia

95
  • 13. A man believes that his escape from a house
    destroyed by a tornado was a message that he has
    a special mission in life to advise the president
    about religious matters. He has been referred to
    a clinical psychologist because he believes that
    people opposed to his views are attempting to
    kill him in order to keep him from expressing
    them. The psychologist diagnosis would be
    ________________ schizophrenia.
  • A) catatonic
  • B) disorganized
  • C) paranoid
  • D) undifferentiated

96
  • 14. A clinical psychologist is treating a man
    whose behavior includes hallucinations,
    delusions, and incoherent speech and mannerisms.
    However, the man's behavior does not clearly fit
    a particular type of schizophrenia. The man's
    behavior is an example of _______________
    schizophrenia.
  • A) catatonic
  • B) disorganized
  • C) paranoid
  • D) undifferentiated

97
  • 15. A clinical psychologist explains his
    diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia to a client's
    family by stating that the client had a genetic
    predisposition to develop the disorder and that
    the stress of losing her job was probably the
    precipitating event. The psychologist's
    explanation is based on _______________.
  • A) the diathesis-stress view
  • B) learned helplessness
  • C) an insanity defense
  • D) DSM-IV

98
  • History and Approaches (2-4) (no)
  • Research and Methods (6-8) (no)
  • Biological Bases of Behavior (8-10) (50)
  • Sensation and Perception (7-9) (yes)
  • States of Consciousness (2-4) (maybe next week)
  • Learning (7-9) (totally)
  • Cognition (8-10) (no)
  • Motivation and Emotion (7-9) (a little from sex
    film)
  • Developmental Psychology (7-9) (80)
  • Personality (6-8) (all the hard stuff 80)
  • Testing and Individual Differences (5-7)
    (intelligence 70)
  • Abnormal Psychology (7-9) (yes!!)
  • Treatment of Psychological Disorders (5-7) (yes)
  • Social Psychology (7-9) (today)
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