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Lecture No 10 Extending the Processor

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Title: Lecture No 10 Extending the Processor


1
Lecture No 10 Extending the Processors Power
to Other Devices Microcomputer
Processors Creating Computer Programs
2
Extending the Processors Power to Other Devices
  • All the components of the computer are tied into
    CPU by BUS.
  • Can plug the devices into existing Sockets or
    Ports.
  • If no Ports available then install a board that
    includes the required ports.

3
Extending the Processors Power to Other Devices
  • Parallel Ports
  • 25 holes.
  • It transfers 8 bits at a time.
  • Makes Data transfer several times faster than
    serial ports.
  • Monitor is connected to the system through
    Parallel port.

4
Extending the Processors Power to Other Devices
  • Serial Ports
  • 9-25 pins
  • Data bits are transmitted one at a time.
  • PCs come with dedicated serial ports for keyboard
    and mice.
  • UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver
    Transmitter)
  • It converts parallel data from the bus into
    serial data that flows through serial ports.

5
Extending the Processors Power to Other Devices
  • Specialized expansion ports
  • - Extends the computer bus to establish links
    with peripheral devices.

6
Examples of Specialized Expansion Ports
  • SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
  • - 1 card, daisy chain the devices and Fast.
  • USB
  • - connect up to 127 devices, 1 or 2 USB ports.
  • IEEE 1394 (FireWire)
  • - 1 port. Used as standard for plugging video and
    High data throughput devices.
  • Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)
  • Plug in musical instruments. For recording,
    writing and performing. Lighting, drum machines,
    synthesizers.

7
System Expansion
  • When a user wants to have more of memory than the
    normally used memory or more sound, graphics
    capabilities than the normal ones, then that can
    be possible through Add-in Boards or PC cards.

8
Add-in Boards
  • Add in Boards expand the functions of the system.
  • Card-Like pieces of circuitry that plug into
    Expansion Slots within the system.
  • These enable the users to add specific types of
    peripheral devices or expand the capabilities of
    the system.
  • E.g. Accelerator Board, Fax\Modem Board, Sound
    Board etc

9
Plug and Play
  • The Plug and Play standard makes it easier to
    install hardware via an existing port or
    expansion slot.
  • Plug in the hardware, OS detects a new components
    automatically, checks the correct drivers and
    load the required necessary files.

10
PC Card
  • Another type of expansion card.
  • Almost the size of a credit card.
  • A PC card fits into a slot on the back or side of
    the notebook computer to provide new functions.
  • It is used for variety of purposes, can house
    Disk drives, network cards, memory.
  • Three types
  • Type I ( To add Memory), Type II ( To add
    Networking or sound capability), Type III (
    Removable Hard drives)

11
Microcomputer Processors
  • Intel
  • Advanced Micro Devices (AMD)
  • Motorola processors
  • RISC
  • Parallel processing

12
CPUs Used in Personal Computers Intel
Processors
  • Since 1978, Intel's processors have evolved from
    the 8086 and the 8088 to the 80286, 80386 and
    80486, to the Pentium family of processors. All
    are part of the 80x86 line.
  • Intel's Pentium family of processors includes the
    Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium with MMX, Pentium
    II, Pentium III, IV, Celeron, and Xeon
    processors.
  • The earliest Intel processors included only a few
    thousand transistors. Today's Pentium processors
    include 9.5 million transistors or more.

13
Latest Technology - Intel
  • Speed doubles every 18 months.
  • Pentium 4- up to 3.2 GHz, 50 Million transistors
  • Pentium III /Xeon- up to 2.0 GHz, 50 Million
    transistors.
  • Celeron- up to 1.8 GHz, 40 Million transistors
  • Itanium- up to 2 GHz, 32 bit.
  • Centrino Mobile Technology.

14
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15
CPUs Used in Personal Computers AMD Processors
  • Advanced Micro Devices was long known as a
    provider of lower-performance processors for use
    in low-cost computers.
  • With its K6 line of processors, AMD challenged
    Intel's processors in terms of both price and
    performance.
  • With the Athlon, AMD broke the 1.0 GHz barrier,
    claiming the fastest processor title for the
    first time in IBM-compatible computers.

16
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17
CPUs Used in Personal Computers Motorola
Processors
  • Motorola makes the CPUs used in Macintosh (680x0)
    and PowerPC computers.
  • 1) 680x0 family 2) PowerPc Family
  • Macintosh processors use a different basic
    structural architecture than IBM-compatible PC
    processors.
  • With the release of the G3 and G4 PowerPC
    processors, Macintosh computers set new standards
    for price and performance. New G5, 64-bit.

18
Apples G4 computers are based on Motorola
processors
19
CPUs Used in Personal Computers - RISC Processors
  • Most PCs are based on complex instruction set
    computing (CISC) chips which contain large
    200-300 instruction sets.
  • Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC)
    processors use smaller instruction sets. This
    enables them to process more instructions per
    second than (CISC) chips.
  • RISC processors are found in Apple's PowerPC
    systems, as well as many H/PCs, workstations.
    Popular in minicomputers (AS/400), and
    mainframes.

20
Compaqs Alpha Server computers are based on RISC
processors
21
CPUs Used in PCs - Parallel Processing or
Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP)
  • In parallel processing, multiple processors are
    used in a single system, enabling them to share
    processing tasks.
  • In a Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) system,
    many processors are used.
  • Some MPP systems utilize thousands of processors
    simultaneously.

22
Creating Computer Programs
23
Computer Program
  • A set of instructions or statements, also called
    code, to be carried out by the computers CPU.

24
Examples of Common Program Extensions
  • Executable (.EXE) files
  • Dynamic link library (.DLL) files
  • Initialization (.INI) files
  • Help (.HLP) files

25
Files
  • Typically, a program is stored as a collection of
    files. Some common file types used in programs
    are
  • Executable (.EXE) files actually send commands to
    the processor.
  • Dynamic Link Library (.DLL) files are partial
    .EXE files.
  • Initialization (.INI) files contain configuration
    information for a program.
  • Help (.HLP) files contain information for the
    user.

26
Interrupt
  • A preprogrammed set of steps that the CPU
    follows.

27
Machine Code
  • Also called machine language.
  • The 1s and 0s that form the language of computer
    hardware.

28
Programming Language
  • A Higher-level language than machine language,
    enables the programmer to describe a program
    using a variation of basic English.

29
Source Code
  • File where programming instructions are kept.

30
Ways to Convert Source Code to Machine Code
  • Compiler converts a source code program into
    machine language. Creates an executable file.
  • C, Java, COBOL, Fortran, Visual Basic
  • Interpreter translates the code on the fly.
    Results immediately. No executable file produced.
  • BASIC, Unix, Perl

31
Program Control Flow
  • The order in which program statements are
    executed

32
How Programs Solve Problems Program Control
Flow
  • The order in which program statements are
    executed is called program control flow.
  • To determine program control flow, programmers
    may use a flowchart to map the program's
    sequence.
  • Programmers may also create a simple text version
    of a program's code called pseudo code to
    determine how the program will flow.

33
Flowchart
  • A chart that uses arrows and symbols to show the
    order in which a programs statement will run.

34
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35
Pseudo code
  • Simplified text version of programming code.

36
Algorithm
  • The steps represented in a flowchart that lead to
    a desired result are called an algorithm.

37
Common Flow Patterns
  • To determine when and where to pass program
    control, a developer may use conditional
    statements or loops.
  • A conditional statement determines whether a
    condition is true. If so, control flows to the
    next part of the program.
  • A loop repeats again and again until a condition
    is met. Control then passes to another part of
    the program.

38
Common Flow Patterns
  • Conditional statement
  • - A conditional statement determines whether a
    condition is true. If so, control flows to the
    next part of the program.
  • Loop
  • - A loop repeats again and again until a
    condition is met. Control then passes to another
    part of the program.

39
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40
Examples of Loops
  • For
  • While
  • Do-while

41
How Programs Solve Problems - Variables and
Functions
  • A variable is a named placeholder for data that
    is being processed. Programs contain variables
    to hold inputs from users.
  • A function is a set of steps that are followed to
    perform a specific task. By assembling a
    collection of functions together, a developer can
    build a complete program.

42
Structured Programming
  • The practice of building programs using a set of
    well-defined structures.

43
Three Control Structures of Structured Programming
  • Sequence structure (flow of the program) branch
  • Selection structures (if blocks T/F)
  • Repetition or looping structures (checks a
    condition loop repeats while condition is true

44
Syntax
  • Programming language rules.

45
Syntax Examples
  • Provide information in a certain order and
    structure
  • Use special symbols
  • Use punctuation (sometimes)

46
Three Programming Categories Based on Evolution
  • Machine languages
  • Assembly languages
  • Higher-level languages

47
Fading Third-Generation Languages
  • FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator)
  • COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language)
  • BASIC (Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic
    Instruction Code)
  • Pascal

48
Thriving Third-Generation Languages
  • C
  • C
  • Java
  • ActiveX

49
Fourth-Generation Languages (4GLs)
  • Builds programs with a front end, which is an
    interface that hides much of the program from the
    user
  • Provides prototypes, which are samples of the
    finished programs.

50
Examples of Fourth-Generation Languages
  • Visual Basic (VB)
  • VisualAge
  • Authoring environments

51
Fifth-Generation Languages (5GLs)
  • Advanced authoring environments considered by
    some to be 5GLs

52
World Wide Web Development Languages
  • HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
  • Extensible Markup Language (XML)
  • Wireless Markup Language (WML)
  • Dreamweaver
  • Flash
  • Director
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