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Evolution%20Lecture%202

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Evolution Lecture 2 Human Evolution Types of Selection Classification Types of Primates 10 Features of Primates Five Grasping Digits Fingernails and Toenails ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Evolution%20Lecture%202


1
Evolution Lecture 2
  • Human Evolution
  • Types of Selection
  • Classification

2
Types of Primates
3
10 Features of Primates
  1. Five Grasping Digits
  2. Fingernails and Toenails
  3. Fingertips
  4. Ball and Socket Joints
  5. Stereoscopic Vision
  6. Small Nose
  7. Omnivorous
  8. K-Strategist
  9. Large Brain
  10. Social Group

4
Distinctions Between Humans and Apes
5
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6
Trends in Hominid and Human Fossils
7
Uncertainties about Human Evolution
  • Many gaps and questions in human evolution
    timelines
  • Fossil record is incomplete most bodies are
    decomposed and dont leave behind a fossil or
    fossils degenerate over time as a result,
    difficult to determine how different species of
    hominid are related
  • Most hominid fossils are limited to bones and
    teeth
  • Difficult to estimate cranial sizes because of
    differences between males, females and juveniles

8
In the evolution of hominids, there is a general
trend showing an increase in cranial capacity
9
Humans have undergone Genetic and Cultural
Evolution
  • Genetic evolution deals with inherited
    characteristics
  • Physical characteristics (brain size, bipedalism)
  • Number of chromosomes
  • Particularities of biochemicals such as blood
    proteins
  • Cultural evolution deals with acquired
    knowledge that can be passed within a social
    group and through generations
  • Language (spoken and written)
  • Customs and rituals (burying the dead)
  • Art
  • Technology (obtaining food, warfare)

10
Human Classification
  • Animalia Eukaryotic, Multicellular, Motile
  • Chordata Vertebral column
  • Mammalia Mammary glands, sweat glands, hair
  • Primate Opposable thumbs, stereoscopic vision
  • Hominidae Bipedal, large brain
  • Homo Flat face, small teeth and jaw
  • Sapiens Language, complex tools

11
Types of Selection
12
Stabilizing Selection Curves
13
Theories of Evolution - Corollaries
  • Random genetic drift is the loss of alleles from
    a population's gene pool through chance.
  • Mutation introduces genetic variation into a
    breeding population.
  • Gene flow occurs through interbreeding the
    transmission of genetic material from one
    population to another. Gene flow decreases
    differences and inhibits speciation, the
    formation of new species.

14
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15
Homologous Structures
16
Vestigial Structures
17
Classification
  • http//www.ib.bioninja.com.au/standard-level/topic
    -5-ecology-and-evoluti/55-classification.html
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