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GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

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Title: GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE


1
GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
  • Synthetic analytical types of languages
  • Analytical verb-forms
  • function word full word
  • Synthetic verb-forms
  • inflectional morphemes inner flexions

2
GRAMMAR
  • - study of rules governing the use of a language
  • Prescriptive approach
  • Descriptive approach
  • In traditional terms morphology and syntax.

3
MORPHOLOGY (Greek morphé logos)
  • how words are formed out of smaller units -
    morphemes
  • Morpheme
  • smallest meaningful unit in a given language
    (L. Bloomfield)
  • different realisations (morphs) in different
    context (do, does, dont)
  • Allomorphs variants of a single morpheme, e.g.
  • pl. -s /-z/,/-s/,/iz/

4
MORPHEMES
  • Free morphemes
  • lexical functional
  • Bound morphemes
  • derivational inflectional

5
WORD CLASSES / PARTS OF SPEECH
  • Full / content / notional words
  • Function words

6
NOUNS (Latin nomen name)
  • person, place, thing, idea, animal, quality,
    activity, state, event,
  • Some nouns
  • the same form as verbs
  • graphically different
  • phonetically different

7
DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF NOUNS
  • noun-forming derivational affixes
  • the threefold inflectional sibilant
  • marking by determiners
  • fixed position in the sentence
  • substitutable by pronouns

8
CLASSIFICATION OF NOUNS
  • PROPER NOUNS names of individuals/group of
    indiv.
  • COMMON NOUNS
  • Countable concrete (a book), abstract (an idea)
  • Uncountable concrete (water), abstract
    (honesty)
  • CONCRETE NOUNS - definite objects
  • ABSTRACT NOUNS - quality, action, state, ideas,
  • COLLECTIVE NOUNS - groups of people / things
  • MATERIAL NOUNS - no limiting modifiers, no pl.

9
MORPHOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF NOUNS
  • 1) SIMPLE NOUNS no affixes
  • 2) DERIVATIVE NOUNS
  • prefixes un-, mis-, pre-, for- anti-, co-, ex-,
    il-, -in-,
  • non-, semi-, sub-, super-, vice-,
  • suffixes (from Vs) -al, -ance, -ence, -ant,
    -ar, -er, -or,
  • -ion, -our, -ledge, -ment, -y, -ee
  • (from Adj) -age, -ce, -cy, -ry, -ity, -ness,
  • (from Ns)-ation, -dom, -ess, -hood, -ian, -ism,
    -ist,-ship
  • -ing forms used as nouns
  • - diminutives -let, -ing, -ie, -ock, -ette
  • - names of nationalities -ian, -er, -ese, -an,
    -ish, -ite

10
3) COMPOUND NOUNS
  • NN
  • AdjN
  • AdvN
  • VN
  • Derivational CNs
  • CNs with -ing forms
  • CNs with a linking element
  • Other word formation processes
  • conversion, blending, clipping,

11
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF NUMBER
  • Countable Ns sg pl
  • valley country BUT
  • photo BUT
  • VOICING PLURAL wife BUT
  • MUTATED PLURAL Englishman BUT
  • -en PLURAL child BUT
  • UNINFLECTED PLURAL sheep BUT
  • FOREIGN PLURAL phenomenon analysis bacterium
    BUT

12
PLURAL IN COLLECTIVE NOUNS
  • - in sg. followed by Vs in sg. foliage
  • - in sg. followed by Vs in pl. vermin
  • - in sg. used with Vs in sg. or pl. committee
  • N with -s
  • V in pl. scissors
  • V in sg mumps news BUT
  • V in sg. or pl. series species

13
PLURAL
  • IN COMPOUNDS
  • bedroom
  • postman
  • brother-in-law
  • passer-by
  • forget-me-not
  • OF NAMES OF NATIONS
  • Switzerland
  • sg. a Swiss, pl. many Swiss, nation the Swiss
  • the Netherlands (Holland)
  • sg. Dutchman, pl. Dutchmen, nation the Dutch

14
COUNTABILITY
  • CNs living beings or things with a definite
    form
  • some abstract Ns sg/pl articles numerals How
    many?
  • UNs sth can be measured but not counted,
  • without shape/limits 1 form the no num. How
    much?
  • material, liquids, substances
  • abstract qualities ideas
  • UN in EN, BUT countable in Slovak
  • UN in sg BUT in pl. kinds, extension, intensity
  • Both CN/UN

15
PARTITIVES
  • general piece, bit, item
  • specificball, bar, cube, lump, sheet, slice ,
  • containers bag, box, cup, jar, packet, tube,
  • Collective Ns followed by OF
  • board, flock, swarm, bunch, crop, set,

16
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF GENDER
  • Gender in OE in ModE
  • masculine feminine neuter
  • gender-forming suffix -ess
  • other suffixes -ine, -er, -ette
  • gender expressed lexically
  • - by different words
  • - by pronouns
  • - by words indicating the gender
  • Ns with a generic term a pair
  • horse pig sheep monarch

17
COMMON GENDER
  • singer, journalist, neighbour, student,
    foreigner,
  • pronouns male or female
  • A pet F cat, parrot M dog, horse, canary
  • Personification (in poetry)
  • MASCULINE GENDER
  • Ns - strength, inflexibility, resistance,
    necessity
  • names of winds, rivers, mountains
  • winter, the sun, anger, love, murder, war, death,
  • fatherland

18
(No Transcript)
19
FEMININE GENDER
  • Ns denoting tenderness, feableness, loveliness
  • names of universities countries, cities, towns
  • denoting political or economic units
  • (indicating geographical units neuter)
  • the moon, the earth, mercy, charity, faith, hope,
  • modesty, justice, nature, luck, religion, ships,
    car

20
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF CASE
  • OE 4 cases N, G, D, Acc.
  • ModE
  • the common case uninflected form
  • the possessive/genitive case inflected by
  • -s in sg
  • a girls book
  • my mother-in-laws book
  • Peter and Pauls quarrel
  • - in pl girls school
  • BUT childrens toys Dickens/ Dickenss
    novel

21
DEPENDENT GENITIVE
  • proper names
  • personal nouns
  • personal indefinite pronouns
  • names of animals
  • collective nouns
  • geographical names
  • institutional names

22
DEPENDENT GENITIVE
  • expressions of time, space, weight, distance
  • names of seasons/months/days
  • with words sun, moon, earth, world
  • with words ship, boat, vessel
  • with personification (in poetry)
  • fixed expressions

23
THE ABSOLUTE / ELYPTICAL GENITIVE
  • without a following noun
  • when it is clear what / who we are talking about
  • when referring to work-places, shops, banks,
    houses

24
THE DOUBLE GENITIVE
  • when a noun is determined by
  • articles
  • numerals
  • some
  • demonstrative pronouns

25
THE OF-CONSTRUCTION / OF-GENITIVE
  • refers to
  • things when we cannot form a compound
  • parts of things
  • abstract nouns
  • partitives
  • geographical notions
  • other nouns

26
DETERMINERS words used in front of common
nouns determine (affect) the meaning of Ns
  • CENTRAL DETERMINERS mutually exclusive
  • 1) articles
  • 2) possessive
  • 3) demonstrative
  • 4) assertive nonassertive
  • 5) negative
  • 6) universal
  • 7) dual
  • 8) WH-determiners

27
PREDETERMINERS
  • precede the required CD in a N phrase
  • quantifying
  • fractional
  • intensifying
  • multiplying

28
POSTDETERMINERS
  • follow the required CD in a N phrase
  • cardinal numerals
  • ordinal numerals
  • many, much its relatives
  • the forms of other
  • the phrasal quantifiers

29
THE DEFINITE ARTICLE the
  • from OE demonstrative pronoun sé
  • - particular object sth that is known specific
    or definite reference
  • - C in sg. C in pl. U the definite object
  • - we know exactly from the context
  • - unique things
  • - political parties the whole family nouns of
    nationalities
  • - in proverbs
  • - ordinal numerals superlative degree adj.
    substantivized adj.
  • - with some places, even if we dont know exactly
    which
  • - with same, very, right, wrong the weather
  • - some, many, none, most preposition of
  • - abstract Ns modified by an attribute in
    post-position

30
THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE a / an
  • from OE numeral án (one)
  • - meaning one Ns denoting time, measure,
    weight, numerals
  • - people or things in general
  • - all the representatives of the class every
  • - Ns introduced for the 1st time - CNs
  • - object belonging to a class some, any
  • - with jobs, Ns of nationalities some illnesses
  • - proper Ns (member of family literature, art)
  • - Ns period, population, distance, height,
    salary OF constr.
  • - after there is, what a ..., such a ...
  • - personal names modified by certain

31
THE ZERO ARTICLE
  • shows that Ns are used in a general sense
  • - with pl CNs in general statements
  • - abstract Ns UNs of material
  • - some illnesses illnesses in -s
  • - activities sport games
  • - in general names of periods of a year, months,
    days, holidays
  • - languages names of subjects names of food
  • - names of persons forms of addressing people
    titles names
  • - Ns expressing relationship
  • - in certain prepositional phrases

32
THE USE OF ARTICLES
  • No article Articles
  • I like spring. It happened in the
    spring of 1968.
  • It was spring. It was a cold spring.
  • Day is meant for work, He wont
    forget the day when...
  • night for sleep. The
    night was warm.
  • to be in prison ( prisoner) to be in the
    prison ( building)
  • to leave school/at school (study) to leave the
    school a good school
  • Is dinner ready? The dinner we had today was
    ...
  • speak French use the French language at work
  • Dickens, the great novelist, ... Its a
    Dickens novel. /a Picasso

33
THE USE OF ARTICLES
  • NO ARTICLE THE DEFINITE ARTICLE
  • Africa, Asia, Europe the Antarctica, the
    Continent (Europe)
  • England, Germany the UK, the Vatican, the
    Ukraine
  • - the Pacific (Ocean), the Black
    Sea, the Nile
  • Lake Ontario, Lake Geneva the Ontario
    (no lake)
  • Mount Everest, Mont Blanc, the
    Matterhorn, the Jungfrau,
  • Elbrus, Snowdon, Ben Nevis the Alps, the
    Himalayas,
  • Malta, Sicily, Madagaskar the Isle
    of Capri, the Isle of Man
  • groups of islands the Bahamas, the Azores, the
    Canaries
  • - the Gobi (Desert), the Sahara
  • London / Westminster Bridge the Golden Gate
    Br., the Tower Br.

34
PRONOUNS point out objects / qualities without
naming them
  • Specific
  • personal
  • possessive
  • demonstrative
  • reflexive
  • interrogative
  • elative
  • reciprocal
  • Indefinite
  • universal
  • partitive
  • quantifying

35
PERSONAL PRONOUNS
  • refer to the person speaking, spoken to, spoken
    about
  • Gram. categories of P, N, C, G 3rd sg.
  • Common case is replaced by
  • subjective case
  • objective case

36
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
  • refer to parts of the body personal belongings
  • Gram. categories P, N, G
  • 2 forms
  • the dependent / attribute form
  • (possessive determiners)
  • the independent / the nominal form

37
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
  • express the number contrast
  • point at what is nearer or farther in time
    space
  • Such of this/that kind
  • such as for example
  • Same always with the

38
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
  • indicate - action expressed by V passes back to
    S
  • Gram. categories P, N, G 3rd sg.
  • as direct or indirect O
  • after a preposition
  • after by meaning alone
  • as part of the predicative of the V to be
  • in fixed phrases
  • to emphasize sth.
  • used with reflexive Vs

39
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS
  • form questions always precede the V
  • Who 3 case-forms - S O G/Possessive
    (determiner)
  • only for persons
  • What
  • for things, for an activity, to ask for
    a persons profession, character, etc., in
    idiomatic expressions
  • Which choice among a certain number of sth
  • for things persons sg. / pl s or O
  • often followed by an of-phrase
  • Compound interrogatives used for emphasis

40
RELATIVE PRONOUNS
  • point out back to a N/Pron. antecedent.
    Forms
  • personal
  • non-personal
  • That for persons/things in restrictive relative
    clauses
  • - left out of a sentence no preposition
  • - after the superlative after most indefinite
    pronouns
  • after opening phrases antecedent person
    thing
  • What is used when an antecedent is not expressed
  • Compound relative pronouns
  • Relative as after such after the same (also
    that)

41
RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS
  • express mutual action or relation
  • the subject  always in pl.
  • Each other implies only two
  • One another two or more persons
  • The common case
  • The genitive case

42
UNIVERSAL PRONOUNS
  • ALL persons/things in sg/pl unity
  • as a pronoun meaning everything
  • as an adjective meaning the whole of
  • in some expressions
  • EACH 2 or more persons/things separately
  • a limited number after of at the end
  • pronoun determiner
  • EVERY more than 2 meaning altogether
  • - unlimited Nr after nearly, not only as
    Determ.
  • - in idiomatic phrases Compounds
  • BOTH with pl N pl V

43
PARTITIVE PRONOUNS
  • SOME determ./nominal CNs UNs compounds
  • indef. quant./Nr contrast particular but
    unidentified
  • affirmative interrog.positive reply before
    numerals
  • ANY no matter who/which/what CNs UNs comp.
  • interrog. negative indirect quest. condit.
    cl. adv.
  • NO determiner function not any, not a CNs
    UNs
  • Compounds nominal fun., sg V replaced by any-
  • NONE nominal function sg pl
    of-constructions
  • THE OTHER, ANOTHER, THE OTHERS, OTHERS
  • EITHER1/the other of 2 both NEITHER

44
QUANTIFYING PRONOUNS
  • MANY, FEW pl., used with CNs
  • MUCH, LITTLE sg., used with UNs
  • in affirm. a lot of, lots of, plenty of, a good
    deal of,
  • MANY, MUCH interrog. neg. MUCH adverbially
  • FEW, LITTLE neg.meaning A FEW, A LITTLE posit.
  • SEVERAL in pl. determ. nom., with
    of-construction
  • ENOUGH with CNs UNs determ. nom. function
  • ONE
  • - numerical, replacive (word-substitute, not with
    UNs)
  • - indefinite people in general, after WHICH

45
ADJECTIVES / MODIFIERS
  • limit or qualify words by describing them
  • According to the position in a phrase or
    sentence
  • Attributive adjectives
  • Predicative adjectives
  • Constructions with comparison
  • as as
  • not as as
  • not so as
  • than

46
GRADABILITY OF ADJECTIVES
  • GRADABLE (with words very, too, enough)
  • the positive
  • the comparative
  • the superlative
  • 2 types
  • synthetic (by inflections)
  • analytical (by gram. particles)
  • NON-GRADABLE (absolute in their meaning)
  • Irregular (suppletive) forms
  • Spelling rules

47
ADJECTIVES
  • According to their meaning
  • QUALITATIVE/descriptive
  • size, shape, colour, mental physical qualities
  • RELATIVE
  • through their relation to materials, place, time,
    action
  • SUBSTANTIVIZED ADJECTIVES wholly or partially
  • Pre-modifiers x post-modifiers
  • Word order of adjectives
  • O S A Sh C O M (past part.)

48
MORPHOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF ADJECTIVES
  • primary / simple
  • secondary converted
  • derivative
  • prefixes pre-, hyper-, neg. im-, in-, il-,
    ir-, un-, dis-
  • suffixes-ic, -y, -less, -ish, -ful, -able,
    -ible, -ive, -ant,
  • -ent, -ous, -en-, -an, -al, -ly, -like, -some,
    -ward
  • compound
  • NAdj, Npres. part., Npast part., AdjAdj,
  • AdjN-ed, NN-ed, NumN-ed, AdvN-ed

49
ADVERBS
  • express some circumstances that attend an action,
    state, or point out some characteristic features
    of an action or a quality
  • answer questions
  • HOW? WHEN? WHERE? HOW OFTEN?
  • TO WHAT EXTENT? IN WHAT ORDER?
  • can modify
  • Vs, Adj., Indefinite Pron., Other Adv., Ns,
    sentences
  • The modifying adverb is usually an intensifier.

50
ADVERBS
  • According to their structure
  • simple
  • derivative
  • compound
  • composite
  • Adverbial phrases

51
ADVERBS
  • According to their meaning adverbs of
  • manner
  • place direction
  • time
  • frequency
  • degree, measure quantity

52
GRADABILITY OF ADVERBS
  • GRADABLE
  • synthetic
  • analytical
  • Irregular forms of comparison
  • NON-GRADABLE
  • 2 forms of adverbs
  • the same forms of adverbs without -ly
    adjectives

53
POSITION OF ADVERBIALS IN A SENTENCE
  • - manner
  • Look at this photo carefully.
  • It snowed heavily.
  • Mary angrily slammed the door.
  • Quietly, he moved towards the door.
  • - degree
  • quite good
  • quite well
  • I quite like it.

54
POSITION OF ADVERBIALS IN A SENTENCE
  • - place and direction
  • She read quietly in the library all the
    afternoon.
  • I went to London by train.
  • Outside it was cold but indoors it was warm.
  • She lives in a small house in a village outside
    Norwich in Norfolk

55
POSITION OF ADVERBIALS IN A SENTENCE
  • - of time
  • We went to the theatre yesterday.
  • Yesterday we went to the theatre.
  • I have just finished.
  • He is still working.
  • He still works.
  • Have you finished yet?
  • No, I havent finished yet.

56
POSITION OF ADVERBIALS IN A SENTENCE
  • - frequency
  • He seldom smiles at her.
  • Sometimes we go to the cinema.
  • Do you usually have cream in your coffee?
  • I get paid on Fridays usually.
  • OFTEN
  • Do you come here often?
  • I dont come here often.

57
VERBS word class (in syntax clause element)
  • Grammatical categories of Vs
  • tense, aspect, voice, mood
  • A sentence
  • single verb finite verb phrase (VP) simple
  • cluster of Vs VP complex
  • A complex VP
  • up to 4 auxiliaries in front of the main V

58
BASIC TYPES OF THE COMPLEX FINITE VP
  • modal
  • perfective
  • progressive
  • passive

59
VERBS
  • According to the function within a VP
  • 3 classes of Vs
  • primary auxiliary Vs
  • modal auxiliary Vs
  • lexical (main, full) Vs
  • According to the finiteness
  • finite V forms
  • non-finite V forms

60
VERBS
  • According to morphological forms
  • regular Vs
  • irregular Vs
  • REGULAR VERBS 4 morphological forms
  • the base form
  • the -ed form
  • the -s form
  • -ing form

61
IRREGULAR VERBS
  • either 5 or 3 forms, classified into
  • 3 forms alike
  • 3 forms different
  • past tense equals -ed participle
  • V base equals -ed participle
  • V base equals the past tense

62
PRIMARY AUXILIARY VERBSassist the main V to
express gram. contrasts
  • PRIMARY AUXILIARY VERB TO BE
  • unique, 8 forms (un)contracted negative forms
  • 2 functions
  • as an aspect auxiliary for the progressive
  • as a passive auxiliary
  • Forms
  • present, past, present perfect, past perfect,
    future,
  • future perfect, present progressive, past
    progressive

63
PRIMARY AUXILIARY VERB
  • TO HAVE
  • Forms
  • base, -s, past, -ing, (-ed participle only as a
    lexical V)
  • (un)contracted negative
  • present, past, present perfect, past perfect,
    future,
  • future perfect
  • HAVE x HAVE GOT interchangeable.
  • Questions in BrE by inversion, in AmE by
    operators

64
PRIMARY AUXILIARY VERB
  • TO DO
  • Forms
  • present, -s, past,
  • (un)contracted negative
  • -ing, ...
  • Used in
  • negated imperative,
  • questions, tag questions,
  • emphatic or persuasive constructions,
  • inversion caused by introductory words
  • (negative adverbs never, hardly, seldom)

65
MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS
  • the speakers attitude toward the action or state
    indicated by the infinitive
  • defective, not inflected
  • followed by bare infinitive
  • cannot form imperative
  • do not have infinitive forms
  • negative interrogative without auxiliaries

66
MODAL CAN
  • I CAN / COULD ( periphrastic form)
  • CAN ability, capability
  • CANNOT/CANT inability, incapability
  • CAN expresses
  • physical mental abilities
  • asking giving permission
  • with Vs with perception
  • possibility

67
MODAL CAN, COULD
  • CANT perfect infinitive (have -ed
    participle)
  • COULD perfect infinitive
  • COULD NOT perfect infinitive
  • referring to the past
  • CAN passive infinitive (to be past
    participle)
  • CANT passive infinitive
  • translated into Slovak možno, dat sa

68
MODAL MAY, MIGHT
  • I MAY / MIGHT ( periphrastic form)
  • permission
  • in questions MAY more formal than CAN
  • MIGHT in more polite requests
  • MUSTNT
  • used in the negative
  • stronger prohibition than MAY NOT
  • MAY
  • possibility ( it is possible)
  • present infinitive expect/guess about
    pres./future

69
MODAL MAY, MIGHT
  • MAY present infinitive
  • about present/future happenings
  • MAY/MIGHT perfect infinitive
  • expect/guess about past happening
  • MIGHT
  • expresses reproach
  • MIGHT perfect infinitive
  • action not carried out in the past
  • MAY
  • as a subjunctive auxiliary (expresses wish)

70
MODAL MUST
  • I MUST (to have to)
  • to be obliged to/ to be compelled to
  • inescapable obligation, duty or necessity
  • NEEDNT, DONT HAVE TO
  • absence of obligation
  • MUSTNT
  • a strong way of forbidding to do sth.

71
MODAL MUST
  • MUST, HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO interchangeable
  • obligation comes from the speaker
  • stronger obligation for other persons
  • MUST in notices, documents, commands
  • MUST in pressing invitation and emphatic advice
  • MUST present infinitive
  • deduction refers to the present
  • MUST perfect infinitive
  • deduction about the past

72
MODAL SHALL
  • volition (mostly for 1st sg.)
  • in questions obligation or suggestion
  • insistence, threat
  • in legal documents in 2nd, 3rd person

73
MODAL SHOULD
  • SHOULD
  • in reported speech
  • in offers, suggestions, requests
  • escapable obligation, duty
  • probability
  • after if in case suggests a less strong
    possibility
  • recommendations from an outside authority
  • our own subjective opinionconnected If I were
    you

74
MODAL OUGHT TO
  • OUGHT TO
  • more objective
  • talk about laws, duties
  • SHOULD/OUGHT TO perfect infinitive
  • action not carried out

75
MODAL WILL
  • WILL
  • prediction about the future
  • about the present
  • giving orders
  • habitual predictive meaning in conditional
  • willingness to do sth.
  • intention to make promises or threats
  • to make requests or to give orders
  • WILL perfect infinitive
  • logical deduction about the past

76
MODAL WOULD
  • WOULD
  • past form of will
  • in reported speech
  • about past habits characteristic behaviour
  • (not with state V)
  • as conditional
  • more polite request than WILL
  • after I wish / If only I ... to express
    willingness

77
MARGINAL MODALS / SEMI-MODALS
  • NEED
  • in the negative
  • Yes/No questions
  • after negative adverbs (hardly, seldom, rarely)
  • in formal style, expressing doubts
  • in informal use ordinary (lexical) V form
  • NEEDNT perfect infinitive
  • sb did it but it was not necessary

78
MARGINAL DARE, USED TO
  • DARE
  • in questions negatives
  • with bare infinitive or a full V
  • in informal style
  • the negative DARENT
  • YOU DARE! or DONT YOU DARE! to discourage
  • I DARE SAY probably
  • USED TO
  • past habit in simple past also with state V
  • USED NOT or USEDNT
  • in the negative in questions

79
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF VOICETHE ACTIVE VOICE
  • The clause with transitive Vs contains
  • 3 grammatical elements SVO
  • 3 semantic units A P (Action) G
  • SUBJECT AGENT if V is in the active voice
  • OBJECT GOAL
  • If the WO ( an important element in EN)
    change
  • both grammatical semantic roles of Ns change
  • In SK if the WO is reversed, the roles remain
    clear.

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THE PASSIVE VOICE
  • the subject - not interpreted as the agent
  • AGENT
  • preposition by, or unexpressed (if
    unknown/unimport.)
  • Emphasis on the action, not on people
    performing it.
  • Sth that the AGENT perform the action prep.
    with
  • After ditransitive Vs
  • either OBJECT SUBJECT of a passive clause

81
THE FORMS OF THE PASSIVE VOICE to be -ed
participle
  • present simple John is helped by Mary.
  • present progressive
  • present perfect
  • simple past
  • past progressive
  • past perfect
  • simple future
  • future perfect
  • present infinitive
  • perfect infinitive
  • -ing form
  • perfect -ing form

82
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF ASPECT
  • reflects the way in which the verb action is
    regarded or experienced with respect to time
  • is closely connected in meaning with tense
  • Present perfective action continuing up to the
    pres.
  • He has been at school for two hours.
  • (probably still there).
  • This meaning of current relevance contrasts with
    past
  • tense meaning
  • He was at school an hour ago. (Now he is out.)

83
TWO TYPES OF ASPECTUAL CONTRAST
  • 1) THE PERFECTIVE ASPECT
  • 2) THE PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS) ASPECT
  • 1) THE PERFECTIVE ASPECT
  • is associated with time orientation various time
    indicators for, already, since, so far, lately,
    recently, up to now, how long, ever...

84
1.1 THE PRESENT PERFECT
  • have -ed participle
  • past happening related to present time
  • past events with results in the present time
  • indefinite events in a period leading up to the
    present time
  • habit in a period leading up to the present time
  • state leading up to the present time

85
1.2 THE PAST PERFECT
  • had -ed participle
  • past in the past
  • conjun. after, when which event took place
    earlier
  • describing one event following another in the
    past
  • event in -when clause completed before the
    event in the past simple started
  • in reported speech after past Vs
  • in events looking back from a point in the past
  • to express an unrealized hope, wish

86
1.3 THE FUTURE PERFECT
  • will perfect infinitive
  • at a certain time in the future sth will be
    completed / achieved (often used with by time
    reference)

87
2 THE PROGRESSIVE ASPECT
  • to be -ing form
  • refers to activity in progress, therefore
    suggests that
  • a) the activity is temporary (i.e. of limited
    duration)
  • b) it need not be complete

88
2.1 PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
  • am/is/are -ing
  • actions in progress at the moment of speaking
    (now, just)
  • temporary situation, activity is taking place in
    the present time will continue for a limited
    period
  • future reference with Vs of motion
  • (arrive, come, go, leave)
  • activities planned for the future
  • repeated actions unexpectedly/annoyingly
    (always, constantly)

89
2.2 PAST PROGRESSIVE
  • was/were -ing
  • an action in progress at a specified time in the
    past
  • an action started before the event in the past
    simple
  • was in progress when the event in the PS
    occured
  • two parallel actions were in progress at the same
    time (while)
  • progress with adverbials beginning with all
  • (all morning, all day, all night)
  • repeated actions
  • the background for a narrative in the past

90
2.3 PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
  • has/have been ing
  • an activity taking place in the recent period up
    to the present
  • started in the past continues up to the present
    possibly into the future (since, for)

91
2.4 PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
  • had been -ing
  • describes an activity looking back from the past

92
2.5 FUTURE PROGRESSIVE
  • shall/will be -ing
  • an activity going on at a particular time or over
    a particular period in the future (we mention the
    future time)
  • future activity is the result of a previous
    decision (arrangement)
  • planned activities in the future
  • asking (politely) about peoples plans

93
2.6 FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
  • shall/will have been -ing
  • activity leading up to time in the future.
  • Usually mentioned both the particular point
  • in the future (on Saturday, soon, next year)
  • the period of time until this point
  • (for a year, for 20 minutes)

94
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF MOOD
  • indicates the factual, nonfactual, or
    counterfactual
  • status of prediction
  • THE INDICATIVE/DECLARATIVE MOOD
  • facts of which the speaker relatively confident
  • THE IMPERATIVE MOOD
  • commands, instructions
  • 2nd sg/pl (no distinction) the base of the V
  • 1st 3rd sg/pl periphrastically

95
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
  • replaced by other constructions in contemporary
    EN
  • MANDATIVE SUB. lack of regular concord btw S
    FV
  • in subord. that-clause after Vs in the main
    clause
  • advise, ask, beg, decide, demand, desire, insist,
    intend,
  • after Adj (anxious, determined) with a personal S
    or
  • (essential, important, urgent) impersonal
    it-constr.
  • after Ns (demand, intention, order, request,
  • suggestion)

96
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
  • The FORMULAIC Subjunctive
  • in certain set expressions
  • The WERE-Subjunctive
  • hypothetical
  • conditional wish clauses

97
GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF TENSE
  • relates the time of the action, or state of
    affairs referred to in the sentence to the time
    of utterance.
  • Time extra-ling. notion (past, present, future
    time)
  • Tense ling. category (no identity between time
    tense)
  • EN PRESENT PAST
  • FUTURE by modals, simple present progressive
  • To be infinitive formal arrang., instructions,
    orders
  • in if-clauses sth takes place first before sth
    else
  • Be about to, be on the point ofrefer to the next
    m.
  • Be due to refers to scheduled times

98
PRESENT TENSE
  • the state present timeless statements, eternal
    truths
  • the habitual present repeated events adv. of
    freq.
  • the instantaneous present with dynamic Vs
  • the historic presentpast time narrative, event
    described vividly
  • referring to future time
  • action in future time adverbials
  • in conditional temporal clauses
  • if, unless, after, before , when, as soon as

99
PAST TENSE
  • - denotes definite past time, adv. referring to
    the past
  • (specific) events
  • states
  • habitual action
  • attitudinal past reflects a tentative state of
    mind ( more polite effect
    than by using the present)
  • hypothetical past contrary to the speakers
    beliefs (if, wish)
  • indirect (reported) speech (so-called back-shift)

100
NON-FINITE VERB FORMS
  • 1) THE INFINITIVE
  • Forms
  • present infinitive active, present infinitive
    passive,
  • present progressive infinitive active,
    perfect/past
  • infinitive active, perfect/past infinitive
    passive,
  • perfect/past progressive infinitive active
  • bare infinitive
  • modals, let, make, had better, would rather, Vs
    of perc.
  • to-infinitive
  • some lexical Vs, to be adj., Vs Obj., indic.
    purpose

101
NON-FINITE VERB FORMS
  • 2) THE ING-FORM
  • -ing participle
  • in progressive aspect or as participial
    adjective
  • gerund
  • can take place of V or N UN, CN, after the
    Genitive
  • Forms
  • present active, present passive, past/perfect
    active,
  • past/perfect passive
  • Used after
  • Vs of (dis)liking, some lexical Vs, Adj prep,
    phrasal Vs

102
NON-FINITE VERB FORMS
  • 3) THE -ed FORM
  • Used
  • to form the passive (to be -ed)
  • to express perfective aspect (have/had -ed)
  • to begin a subordinate clause Provided that
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