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Survey of Church History

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Title: Survey of Church History


1
Survey of Church History
  • BI 3325-3

2
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • Long before Martin Luther attacked indulgences
    others had been critical of RC doctrine and
    practice and some had broken away into separate
    religious communities.
  • Peter Waldo
  • A wealthy merchant of Lyons, France, W. was
    impressed with the way of poverty and service to
    Christ as the way to heaven (based on Mt. 1921)
    in 1176 he sold most of his possessions and gave
    the proceeds to the poor.

3
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • He retained some property for his wife and
    daughters.
  • Shortly, he was joined by others, men and women,
    who called themselves the Poor in spirit, and
    undertook an itinerant ministry of preaching
    repentance and living on the handouts of
    listeners.
  • As RCs, they appealed to the Third Lateran
    Council in 1179 for permission to preach but were
    refused because they were thought to be ignorant
    laymen.

4
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • Convinced that they should obey God rather than
    man, they continued to preach.
  • In 1184, Pope Lucius III excommunicated them
    this act brought them numerous supporters and the
    movement spread into southern France, Italy,
    Spain, the Rhine Valley and Bohemia.
  • The Waldensians seem to have taken the NT as a
    rule of faith and life in a legalistic sense.

5
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • They went about two by two, wearing simple
    clothing, preaching repentance, frequently
    fasting, and living from the gifts of others.
  • They rejected purgatory and masses and prayers
    for the dead and insisted on vernacular
    translations of Scripture.
  • They insisted on the right both lay men and women
    to preach, but did have an organization with
    bishops, priests, and deacons.

6
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • While Waldo (also Valdez or Valdes) seems never
    to have achieved primitive Christianity, he
    opened the door for others.
  • The Waldensians were severely persecuted for
    centuries part of the reason for their spread
    was that they were driven from their homeland.
  • In Bohemia they became a part of the Hussite
    movement in the Alps between France Italy
    (their real home by the Reformation) they adopted
    the theology government of the Geneva Reformers
    in 1532.

7
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • In 1545, 3-4,000 were massacred in France
    finally in 1848 they won toleration in the
    kingdom of Sardinia and later in a united Italy.
  • They are the only late medieval separatist group
    to survive to the present, though with changes in
    organization and teaching.

8
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • John Wycliffe
  • W. (1330?-1384) also brought to bear the
    teachings of Scripture on practices of the RCC.
  • He also engaged in Bible translation and was
    responsible for the first English version (before
    the printing press) its widespread use had an
    influence on the development of the English
    language.
  • Educated at Oxford, he later became master of
    Balliol College there.

9
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • John Wycliffe
  • As chaplain to the king, with access to
    Parliament, he was able to reach some of the
    upper class, but sought to reach the common
    people and sent out lay evangelists (Lollards) to
    instruct them.
  • Pope Gregory XI condemned him in 1377, W. was
    protected by John of Gaunt, who was Duke of
    Lancaster and son of Edward III.

10
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • John Wycliffe
  • This was the period of the Hundred Years War and
    no Englishman would surrender one of their
    outstanding countrymen to a pope at Avignon.
  • For W. Scripture was the sole authority for the
    believer decrees of the pope were not infallible
    unless they were based on Scripture.
  • Clergy were not to rule, but to serve and help
    people.

11
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • John Wycliffe
  • Christ and not the pope was the head of the
    church if the pope were too eager for worldly
    power, he might even be regarded as the
    antichirst.
  • Ultimately he came to repudiate the entire papal
    system he attacked transubstantiation and seems
    to have come to a belief similar to Luthers.
  • He condemned the dogma of purgatory and the use
    of relics, pilgrimages and indulgences.

12
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • John Wycliffe
  • Followers of W. were suppressed by force in 1401
    and afterward went underground and helped prepare
    the way for Reformation principles that would
    come to England over a hundred years later.
  • Bohemians studying at Oxford in Ws time carried
    his ideas (in lecture notes) to their homeland
    and influenced the teachings of John Hus.

13
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • John Hus
  • H. (1372?-1415), professor of philosophy at the
    U. of Prague and preacher at Bethlehem Chapel was
    influenced by Wycliffe but also was in the
    tradition of a native Czech reform movement.
  • Hs approach was similar to W. and his influence
    on the Continent was even greater.
  • Hs great work was entitled On the Church.

14
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • John Hus
  • He taught that all the elect are members of
    Christs church, of which Christ rather than the
    pope is head.
  • He argued against simony, indulgences, and abuses
    of the mass he demanded a reform in the lives of
    the clergy and asserted the right of the laity to
    take both the bread and win in the Communion.

15
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • John Hus
  • Almost the whole nation supported H. in spite of
    his excommunication by the pope.
  • After his death reform continued and ca. the
    middle of the 15th c. the Bohemian Brethren rose
    from the embers of the fire H. had built they
    still exist as the Moravian Brethren.
  • When the pope summoned H. to the Council of
    Constance, emperor Sigismund ordered him to go
    and promised safe conduct.

16
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • John Hus
  • But when the council condemned him and burned him
    at the stake, Sigismund did not have the power to
    save him.
  • Europe was not as ready for the Reformation in
    1415 as it would be a century later.

17
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • Savonarola
  • S. (1452-1498) was a forceful preacher against
    the worldliness and corruption of church and
    society in Florence.
  • A Dominican, he was transferred to Florence in
    1482 his studies in the OT prophets and the book
    of Revelation helped to make him a powerful
    preacher against the corruption of society.
  • He served as spiritual leader of the party that
    came to power with the flight of the Medici in
    1494.

18
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • Savonarola
  • Exercising virtual dictatorship over the city, he
    tried to reform both the state and church.
  • With the passage of time opposition to him
    increased.
  • Pope Alexander VI excommunicated him in 1497 and
    in 1498 he was arrested and tried from sedition
    and heresy and cruelly tortured finally he was
    hanged and his body burned.

19
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • Savonarola
  • Unlike Wycliffe Hus, S. had no quarrel with the
    teachings or organization of the church.
  • But because he openly condemned the evil
    character and misrule of Alexander VI and the
    corruption of the papal court, he won the
    opposition of the papacy.

20
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • Brethren of the Common Life
  • Contemporary with Wycliffe and Hus was a mystical
    movement that flowered in Holland, Belgium,
    northern France and northern Germany during the
    latter 14th the 15th centuries.
  • Emphasizing Bible reading, meditation, prayer,
    personal piety and religious education it
    produced such figures as Jan Van Ruysbroeck
    (d.1381), who wrote The Seven Steps of Spiritual
    Love, and Gerhard Grote (d. 1384) who founded the
    Brethren of the Common Life.

21
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • Brethren of the Common Life
  • Their primary aim was to bring about a revival of
    practical religion.
  • They gathered in houses rather than monasteries,
    held property in common, worked to support
    themselves and avoided the negative reactions
    from the community by not seeking tax exempt
    status or begging.
  • They generally had good relations with the
    people, but sometimes incurred the suspicion or
    opposition of the clergy.

22
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • Brethren of the Common Life
  • They attended parish churches and had no peculiar
    doctrinal positions.
  • The movement is commonly called the new
    devotion (devotio moderna) they could be
    described as cells of devotion or true piety in
    the community.
  • They were deeply devoted to the cause of
    education and established schools in the
    Netherlands and Germany that were known for
    scholarship and piety.

23
Forerunners of the Reformation
  • Brethren of the Common Life
  • Four of their best known students were Nicholas
    of Cusa, Erasmus, Luther, and Thomas a Kempis,
    who is credited with writing the Imitation of
    Christ.
  • There were numerous other movements in the
    period, but it was Martin Luther who provided a
    channel for all this energy in what is now called
    the Protestant Reformation.

24
On the Eve of the Reformation
  • Politics

25
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26
On the Eve of the Reformation
  • Politics
  • Around the fringes of Europe national states were
    rising, challenging the supranational power of
    the papacy.
  • In central Europe the HRE (now essentially a
    German entity) had an emperor checkmated by
    numerous with slight allegiance to him.
  • Muslim hosts knocked at the doors of the empire
    soon after Luther nailed his theses to the church
    door.

27
On the Eve of the Reformation
  • Politics
  • Charles, a Hapsburg with holdings in central
    Europe and king of the Netherlands and Spain, was
    elected in 1519 as Charles V of the HRE.
  • Francis I of France made an alliance with the
    Ottoman Empire in 1526 to apply a pincer move
    against his enemy.
  • Since Charles needed the help of all the German
    princes and therefore could not force Frederick
    of Saxony to surrender Martin Luther.

28
On the Eve of the Reformation
  • Humanism and Individualism
  • H., a main feature of the Renaissance, was a new
    emphasis on man and his culture and an effort to
    make the world a better place in which man might
    live.
  • The pull of the future life was not so strong as
    it had been in the Middle Ages.
  • In a return to the literature of the classical
    age, humanists put new emphasis on the study of
    Greek (and Hebrew) in an effort to read the
    classics in the original languages.

29
On the Eve of the Reformation
  • Thus the emphasis on ancient languages led many
    to the Scriptures.
  • Zwingli, Calvin, Melanchthon and Erasmus were
    examples of the more biblical of the literary
    humanists.
  • That Erasmus, among others, was a great satirist
    of the evils of the institutional church, as well
    as of the evils of society in general,
    underscores the fact that criticism of Romanism
    by Renaissance leaders contributed to the
    Reformation.

30
On the Eve of the Reformation
  • Also advancing the effectiveness of the
    Reformation was the Renaissance spirit of
    individualism, which paved the way for Luthers
    emphasis on the priesthood of the believer and
    its attendant ideas of the right of believers to
    go directly to God and to interpret the
    Scriptures for themselves.

31
On the Eve of the Reformation
  • Printing/Universities
  • Without the invention of movable type and the
    spread of printing, Reformers could not have had
    the same effect in fact, the literary activity
    of the Reformers was largely responsible for
    building the printing trade in many areas.
  • Also, the rapid growth of universities, which
    provided education for a larger number of people,
    fostered the critical spirit, and provided a
    means whereby the leaders could be reached with
    Reformation principles and a place where they
    could be trained to promulgate them.

32
On the Eve of the Reformation
  • Religion
  • The religion of E. was in decay the evils of the
    church were manysimony, economic oppression, the
    purchase of salvation through indulgences,
    immorality of many of the clergy, etc.
  • The effects of the Babylonian Captivity and the
    Papal Schism had been great.
  • The secularism of the 15th c. had affected all
    levels of church life from the common people to
    the Pope.

33
On the Eve of the Reformation
  • Religion
  • Decadence led to many calls for reform.
  • The Observant Franciscans in England, the Oratory
    of Divine Love in Italy and the Brethren of the
    Common Life in the Lowlands were symptomatic of
    this concern.
  • Books of devotion found a wide audience.

34
On the Eve of the Reformation
  • Society and Economics
  • Feudalism was on the decline and was largely
    extinct and was paralleled by the rise of towns
    and nation-states.
  • In these a new middle class emerged, as did a
    degree of social mobility not known for 1000
    years this new class wanted to become social,
    political and economic insiders.
  • The rising middle class felt that they were the
    equals of the old aristocracy.

35
On the Eve of the Reformation
  • Society and Economics
  • Both national governments and the middle class
    needed a ready supply of cash.
  • All this naturally hindered the flow of wealth to
    the church, and efforts of the church to drain
    money from an area were met with something less
    than enthusiasm by king and middle class alike.

36
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37
The Lutheran Reformation
  • Martin Luther (1483-1546) was born the son of a
    miner Hans Luther was able to build an adequate
    estate and to provide Martin with an excellent
    education.
  • After early studies at Mansfeld, Magdeburg (where
    he was taught by Brethren of the Common Life),
    and Eisenach, L. earned B.A. and M.A. degrees at
    the U. of Erfurt.
  • Afterward, on his fathers urging, he entered law
    school at the university.

38
The Lutheran Reformation
  • But in the same year, when knocked to the ground
    by lightening, he vowed to enter a monastery if
    spared from death.
  • There was more to the decision L. hoped to find
    at the Augustinian monastery in Erfurt the peace
    his soul could not find otherwise.
  • As L. lived the monastic life, he saw Christ as a
    stern judge and he spent many days in fasts and
    bodily mortificationall designed to seek release
    for his sinful soul.

39
The Lutheran Reformation
  • At this period he came under the influence of
    Johann Von Staupitz, vicar-general of his order,
    who urged him to think on Gods love for sinners
    as evidenced in Christs death in the meantime
    L. studied the Scriptures assiduously.
  • Staupitz became dean of the faculty of theology
    at the new U. of Wittenberg in Saxony and
    arranged for L. to join the faculty in 1508.

40
The Lutheran Reformation
  • When L. received his doctor of theology in 1512,
    he succeeded Staupitz as professor of theology,
    the position he held until his death in 1546.
  • During 1513-1518 L. lectured on Psalms, Romans,
    Galatians, Hebrews, and Titus and sometime during
    the period accepted the doctrine of justification
    by faith.
  • He abandoned the prevailing Scholastic and
    allegorical interpretation for a more strictly
    literal and grammatical interpretation.

41
The Lutheran Reformation
  • His students responded enthusiastically to his
    teaching.
  • In 1515 the town council of Wittenberg called him
    to the pulpit of City Church, where he continued
    to minister the rest of his life.
  • From that pulpit he could take his ideas directly
    to the common people.

42
The Lutheran Reformation
  • The issue that brought L. notice was indulgences.
  • In the beginning, an indulgence provided
    remission of punishment imposed by the RCC on one
    who was guilty of a specific sin an indulgence
    was based on the principle that sinners were
    unable to do sufficient penance to expiate all
    their sins hence it was necessary for them to
    draw on the treasury of merits, to which
    Christ, the Virgin Mary, and saints contributed
    and which could be dispensed by the pope.

43
The Lutheran Reformation
  • Earlier, one might gain an indulgence for risking
    his life in fighting the infidel during the
    Crusades gradually, however, financial sacrifice
    was accepted in lieu of physical risk.
  • The financing of building of churches,
    monasteries, hospitals, etc., could be designated
    by the pope as worthy of indulgences.
  • During the later Middle Ages, they came to
    involve not only remission of punishment imposed
    by the church, but also absolution of guilt
    before God (remission of sin).

44
The Lutheran Reformation
  • Pope Leo X (1513-1521), like Julius II before
    him, sought funds for the building of St. Peters
    in Rome by indulgence sales.
  • His needs coincided with those of Albert of
    Brandenburg A., just 23 years old, had gone
    heavily into debt to purchase a bishopric and two
    archbishoprics.
  • It was decided that indulgences would be sold in
    Alberts territories and the proceeds split
    between the archbishop and the pope.

45
The Lutheran Reformation
  • L. knew nothing of the popes involvement.
  • What bothered him was the promise of full
    remission of sin and punishment in purgatory for
    living persons further, it was promised that
    dead loved ones in purgatory could be forgiven
    their sins without confession or contrition.
  • Frederick of Saxony (Frederick the Wise), Ls
    prince, forbade the sale in his domain, so there
    was no traffic in Wittenberg itself but citizens
    traveled across the river to purchase them.

46
The Lutheran Reformation
  • When L. saw the effect of the sale on the moral
    and ethical standards of his parishioners, he
    posted the Ninety-five Theses (topics for debate)
    on the door of Castle Church at Wittenberg on
    Oct. 31, 1517 printed copies quickly were
    circulated far and wide.
  • L. sent a copy of the theses and a letter of
    explanation to Albert early in 1518, still not
    believing the pope had approved the sale, he sent
    an explanation (the Resolutions) to Leo X.

47
The Lutheran Reformation
  • Members of the papal court persuaded Leo to
    demand Ls appearance in Rome as a suspect of
    heresy.
  • L. appealed to Frederick the Wise for advice and
    requested a hearing be held in Germany.
  • Nationalistically minded Frederick arranged a
    meeting at Augsburg in 1518 which ended in
    standoff between the two parties.

48
The Lutheran Reformation
  • L. gradually rejected the authority of the pope
    and councils and looked to the authority of
    Scripture alone.
  • The pope could not reach L. because of
    Fredericks protection the new HRE, Charles V,
    was reluctant to come to the popes aid and thus
    alienate Frederick, because Saxony was the most
    powerful state in Germany and the emperor needed
    all the support he could get for his war against
    the Turks.

49
The Lutheran Reformation
  • Finally in 1521, L. sent to the Diet of Worms (a
    parliament of the empire) under an imperial safe
    conduct.
  • There he uttered the famous words I cannot and
    will not recant anything, for it is neither safe
    nor hones to act against ones conscience. God
    help me. Amen.
  • On the way home Fredericks men kidnapped L. to
    protect him and took him to the Wartburg Castle,
    where he translated the NT into idiomatic German
    in just 11 weeks.

50
The Lutheran Reformation
  • While in Warburg he was informed of extremism and
    violence at Wittenberg so he returned to quell
    the disturbance.
  • Excommunicated and living under an imperial ban
    that deprived him of physical protection, L.,
    with Fredericks help launched a new religious
    movement.
  • The Diet of Speyer (1529) resolved to forbid
    further spread of the Lutheran movement a number
    of German princes and free cities entered a
    protest against this action.

51
The Lutheran Reformation
  • The protesters came to be known as protestants
    and the name Protestant passed on to the whole
    movement.
  • In 1530 Protestant princes joined together in
    what was called the Schmalkald League.
  • Still pressed by the Ottoman Turks who appeared
    before the gates of Vienna in 1529, Charles V
    finally granted religious freedom to the princes
    in 1532 and did not interfere for several years.

52
The Lutheran Reformation
  • Roman Catholics, alarmed by the increase of
    Protestantism, formed the Holy League.
  • War broke out in 1546, the year L. died.
  • After initial victories by the RCs, Protestants
    finally defeated the imperial forces the Diet of
    Aubsburg (1555) ended the struggle and provided
    for a recognition of Roman Catholicism and
    Lutheranism as legal religions in the HRE, with
    the rule that the religion of the prince was the
    religion of the people.

53
The Lutheran Reformation
  • In other words, RC and Lutheran state churches
    were established in each of the principalities of
    the Empire and minorities were not tolerated.
  • State churches were to be the order of the in all
    the countries where the Reformation was
    successful.
  • Religious liberty and pluralism, so much taken
    for granted in the USA, were not accepted
    concepts in 16th c. Europe.

54
The Lutheran Reformation
  • Ls close associate, Philipp Melanchthon
    (1497-1560), directed the organizational,
    educational, and publishing side of the
    Reformation.
  • He is often called the teacher of Germany he
    aided in establishing primary and secondary
    schools and did much to train the clergy.
  • Recognizing the need for organizing the church
    that L. had brought into being, he prepared a
    manual for that purpose.

55
The Lutheran Reformation
  • He also wrote a systematic theology, commentaries
    on NT books and was largely responsible for
    preparing the various statements of faith that
    the Lutherans presented at some of the diets
    where they met papal foes.
  • In his preaching L. set forth 3 great
    distinctives justification by faith, salvation
    by grace alone and the Bible alone as the source
    of the believers authority for doctrine.

56
The Lutheran Reformation
  • He also had much to say about the priesthood of
    the believer every believer was a priest and had
    the right to go to God directly Christ was the
    only mediator between God and man.
  • Moveover, all believers had the right to
    interpret the Scripture for themselves under the
    guidance of the HS God spoke directly to the
    believer-priest believers could address God
    directly in prayer and especially in their songs.

57
The Lutheran Reformation
  • L. gave the German people not only a Bible in
    their own tongue, but also a hymnbook in his
    hands the hymn became a powerful spiritual weapon
    and he became the father of evangelical hymnody.
  • But L. has often been criticized because he did
    not go far enough in his reform (the retained the
    crucifix, candles, and other elements of RC),
    because he placed the church under the control of
    civil authority, and because he failed to
    cooperate with Swiss Reformers and thus present a
    solid block of Protestants against Roman Catholic
    power in Europe.

58
The Lutheran Reformation
  • Although Lutheranism spread early to many
    countries of Europe and later to the New World,
    it became the dominant faith of Scandinavia
    between the 1520s and 1554 it was established in
    all the Scandinavian countries.
  • L. also spread at the eastern end of the Baltic,
    in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, after 1539.

59
The Swiss Reformation
  • Huldreich Zwingli (1484-1531) sparked the
    Reformation in German-speaking Switzerland.
  • Z. was parish priest at Glarus where he studied
    the classics in the original languages, thus
    laying the ground work for his future Reformation
    work.
  • In 1516 he moved to the monastery church of
    Einsiedeln there studied the Greek NT published
    by Erasmus he claimed that there in 1516 he had
    begun to found his preaching on the gospel.

60
The Swiss Reformation
  • The monastery church had a well-known image of
    the Virgin Mary making it a pilgrimage
    destination Z. began to preach to pilgrims that
    religious pilgrimages were not a means of
    obtaining pardon.
  • Z. became priest at the cathedral of Zurich in
    1519 and gradually became more open in his
    reforming views he broke with the papacy and
    married and preached openly against celibacy.

61
The Swiss Reformation
  • When the Zurich city council decided that
    religious matters should be decided by the
    council, Z. presented his Sixty-seven Articles
    he was so convincing that the council declared
    that thereafter all religious teaching was to be
    based on the Bible alone and the state would
    support this principle.
  • The council dissolved the Zurich monasteries and
    took control of the Great Minster (the Cathedral).

62
The Swiss Reformation
  • Tremendous changes followed many priests married
    and set aside the mass.
  • Some dissented but the council stood behind the
    Reformation and eventually abolished the mass and
    image worship altogether (1525).
  • Switzerland was a network of 13 small states, or
    cantons, loosely federated and generally
    democratic as political tensions heightened,
    some Protestant cantons formed a Christian Civic
    League.

63
The Swiss Reformation
  • RC cantons organized also and allied themselves
    with Ferdinand of Austria.
  • In 1531 5 RC cantons attacked Zurich, which was
    unprepared for war, and Z. died in battle.
  • The Second Peace of Kappel (1531) prohibited
    further spread of the Reformation in Switzerland.
  • Heinrich Bullinger, Zs son-in-law, took over
    leadership.

64
The Swiss Reformation
  • Z. directed Swiss reform along civic lines, with
    a view to establishing a model Christian
    community.
  • Z. held that the Lords Supper was a symbol or
    remembrance of the sacrifice of Christ he could
    not agree with Luther, who held that the body and
    blood of Christ were really present in the
    Communion this matter kept the German Swiss
    reformers from uniting at Marburg in 1529.
  • The Zwinglian movement merged into Calvinism
    later in the 16th c.

65
The Swiss Reformation
  • The Anabaptists
  • Not every one who broke with Rome agreed with
    Zwingli or Luther as early as 1523, in Zurich,
    Protestant separatists Conrad Grebel and Felix
    Manz questioned a number of the teachings and
    practices of Romanism and began to insist on
    adult baptism.
  • The council persecuted them and many of their
    followers and fellow preachers were exiled,
    spreading the movement into Germany and Moravia.

66
The Swiss Reformation
  • The Anabaptists
  • Anabaptistbaptized again, 2nd baptism
  • In time Anabaptist became a general term applied
    by Zwinglians, Lutherans, RCs, and others to
    those who rejected a connection between church
    and state, and who rejected infant baptism or for
    some reason insisted on rebaptism later in life.
  • Persecution of Anabaptists was severe and often
    cruel in many countries of Europe.

67
The Swiss Reformation
  • The Anabaptists
  • Anabaptist was a general descriptive, and
    especially in the first generation widely diverse
    views were held among the various groups.
  • Some were pantheistic, some extremely mystical,
    some anti-Trinitarian, some extremely millenarian
    and some quite biblical.
  • Modern Baptists who place themselves in the
    Anabaptist tradition do not always know their
    history well.

68
The Swiss Reformation
  • The Anabaptists
  • Also, although they insisted on water baptism for
    adults, many of them did not baptize by
    immersion.
  • Their doctrinal position is more closely related
    to the modern Mennonite viewpoint than to Baptist
    theology.
  • Anabaptists are usually described as the left
    wing of the Reformation, or as the radical
    Reformation.

69
The Swiss Reformation
  • The Anabaptists
  • Often they are categorized in 3 groups
    Anabaptists proper, spiritualists and religious
    rationalists.
  • Generally, all of them opposed meddling with the
    religious affairs of the people by the state or
    state churches, though some of the early on trued
    to set up a revolutionary theocracy or accepted
    protection of the state.

70
The Swiss Reformation
  • The Anabaptists
  • The rationalists among them tried to put
    intuitive or speculative reason alongside
    Scripture as a basis of authority.
  • From this seedbed came the anti-Trinitarian
    efforts of Socinius and Servetus.
  • Spiritualists either sought revolutionary change
    in society as they set up communities designed to
    be utopias or quietly awaited the dawn of a
    millennial day.

71
The Swiss Reformation
  • The Anabaptists
  • While many of the less radical groups were quite
    ascetic and practiced communal holding of goods,
    mainline Anabaptists have been pacifists, opposed
    the use of oaths and capital punishment, favored
    the free will of man as opposed to
    predestination, stressed individual faith and
    witness, insisted on water baptism and a
    conversion experience and taught separation of
    church and state.
  • Primarily they were the spiritual forefathers of
    modern Mennonites.

72
The Swiss Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • Calvin (1509-1564) was the great second
    generation Reformer he benefited from the work
    of Luther, Zwingli, etc.
  • While C. held a couple of benefices in the RCC
    early in life because his father was an aide to
    the bishop of Noyon (France), he was never
    ordained a priest.
  • His father wanted him to study law he took a
    degree but also studied literature.

73
The Swiss Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • C. made stops at the universities at Paris,
    Orleans and Bourges at the last he studied Greek
    Hebrew and the NT in the original language with
    Wolmar.
  • His conversion probably came in the year 1533 C.
    says it was sudden, through private study, and
    because he failed to find peace in absolutions,
    penances, and intercessions of the RCC.

74
The Swiss Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • For 3 years C. wandered as a refuge in France,
    Germany and Switzerland.
  • During this period in his life, he met Martin
    Bucer, the great Reformer of Strasbourg, who
    later taught at Cambridge and aided Cranmer in
    English Reformation efforts during the reign of
    Edward VI.
  • In Basel in 1536, at age 26, C. published the
    first edition of his Institutes of the Christian
    Religion (the last ed. was in 1559).

75
The Swiss Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • Later in 1536, Calvin decided that after paying a
    last visit to his native France he would settle
    in Strasbourg he passed through Geneva on the
    way and William Farel persuaded C. to remain and
    help him with the Reformation there.
  • In 1535 the city council had broken with the RCC
    and had confiscated its properties the following
    May it committed the city to live according to
    Gods law and Gods word and to abandon
    idolatry, and it enacted laws against
    drunkenness, gambling, dancing, and the like.

76
The Swiss Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • So when C. came the city was ready for a new
    religious order he prepared a catechism and
    articles of faith and insisted on the right of
    the church to exercise discipline over unworthy
    communicants.
  • At this point a tension developed with the
    magistrate who had for centuries controlled much
    of the social behavior of the populace and did
    not want to surrender that control to the church.

77
The Swiss Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • Farel and C. worked very hard from 1536 to 1538
    to establish the community on a theocratic basis,
    but in Feb. 1538 elections brought to leadership
    a faction more favorable to another pattern of
    reform.
  • The opposition of those who wanted a less rigid
    moral control led to the expulsion of the
    reformers, C. going to Strasbourg.
  • The period at S. was happy for C. he pastored a
    congregation of about 500 French refugees, wrote
    his commentary on Romans, produced the text for a
    hymn book, met with reformers in Germany,
    lectured in the academy, and married a widow.

78
The Swiss Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • Meanwhile in Geneva the church fell into
    confusion and the RCC put on a campaign to bring
    the city back into its fold this threat made
    some look to C. for help this development and
    the rise of his friends to power, led C. to
    reluctantly return in 1541.
  • C. worked there the rest of his life though he
    held no office and did not gain citizenship until
    1559, he dominated the city.

79
The Swiss Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • He exercised strict discipline over the morals of
    the Community and drew up a new form of
    government and liturgy for the church.
  • He was also largely responsible for a system of
    universal education for the young and programs to
    care for the poor and aged and he established
    the Academy, later to be the U. of Geneva.

80
The Swiss Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • Michael Servetus was a Spaniard under sentence of
    death by the Inquisition for his unitarian views.
  • He escaped from prison in Lyons and passed
    through Geneva on his way to Zurich and thence to
    Naples evidently he had been warned ahead of
    time that if he went to Geneva it was at his
    peril.
  • In Geneva he was put on trial and judged guilty
    of subversion of religion and the general welfare.

81
The Swiss Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • Geneva consulted with other Swiss leaders and
    Melanchthon, who supported the accusations and
    recommended the death penalty.
  • Oct. 25, 1563 he was judged guilty on 14 counts
    and condemned to death by fire, contrary to
    provisions of the city ordinances, which limited
    punishment to banishment.

82
The Swiss Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • RCs executed thousands of Protestants throughout
    the century, and they probably would have burned
    S. at the stake if he had not escaped.
  • C. took part in only the one execution and he
    argued for a more humane form of execution.
  • Further, the event had political overtones Cs
    enemies sought to use Servetus to overthrow C.
    and expel his friends from power in the city
    government.

83
The Swiss Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • C. was probably the most influential leader of
    the Reformation at the school in Geneva men were
    trained who spread Presbyterianism all over
    Western Europe.
  • In part his influence was due to the fact that
    Geneva generously welcomed refugees from almost
    every country in Europe often they returned home
    to spread the variety of Christianity they had
    come to know in Geneva.

84
The Swiss Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • It was Cs theology and form of church government
    that triumphed in the Protestant church of
    France, the Reformed church of Germany, the
    Church of Scotland, the Reformed church in
    Hungary, the Reformed church in Holland and in
    Puritanism in England and New England.

85
The Swiss Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • Cs biblical and theological writings also have
    been very influential he wrote commentaries on
    every book of the Bible except the Song of
    Solomon and Revelation his Institutes of the
    Christian Religion became the dominant systematic
    theology of the Reformation in all except
    Lutheran lands and he wrote numerous pamphlets
    on current issues.

86
The Swiss Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • His literary output was so large that he
    influenced the development of modern French he
    has been credited along with Rabelais as being
    the co-founder of modern French prose.
  • C. has also been called the father of the
    historical-grammatical method of biblical
    interpretationa method that attempt to discover
    what the Scripture meant to those who wrote it,
    and what it means according to the common
    definition of its words and its grammatical
    intent.

87
The Swiss Reformation
  • John Calvin
  • Modern interpreters have so taken this method for
    granted that they have little realization of the
    part that C. had in its development and of the
    fact that it was virtually nonexistent in the
    church before the Reformation.

88
The Reformation in France
  • As the 16th c. wore on, the RCC in France fell
    into a progressively deplorable condition.
  • In addition to the general slackness of the
    Renaissance era, it suffered increasingly from
    the Concordat of Bologna (1516).
  • This agreement between Francis I of France and
    Pope Leo III gave the French king the right to
    appoint the 10 archbishops, 38 bishops, and 527
    heads of religious houses in the realm.

89
The Reformation in France
  • Thus the church became a part of the vast
    patronage system, and individuals won church
    positions by purchase or service to the crown.
  • Standards for parish priests declined so that
    only 10 could read.
  • The kings dependence on the patronage system and
    revenues helps to explain why Francis I and Henry
    II were so zealous in their persecution of
    Protestants they could not afford to allow the
    system to crumble.

90
The Reformation in France
  • Impetus for the French Protestant movement came
    from Geneva and its advance was achieved
    especially through the printed pagethe French
    Bible, Calvins Institutes, and other
    publications.
  • The most literate element of the population was
    largely won converts were numerous at the
    universities and among professionals and the
    merchant classes and the artisans the illiterate
    peasantry was hardly touched.

91
The Reformation in France
  • Besides the attraction of the gospel, special
    forces worked to move many into the Protestant
    camp.
  • Lawyers and other professionals were
    traditionally anticlerical, merchants and
    financiers were discontented with the financial
    strain of Francis Italian wars, and many of the
    lesser nobles were at war with a social and
    political system that victimized them.

92
The Reformation in France
  • Some have estimated that 40 of all French nobles
    joined the Huguenot cause.
  • Many were not real converts but used
    Protestantism to weaken royal absolutism.
  • In spite of persecution, Protestants increased
    rapidly at the beginning of Henry IIs reign
    (1547-1559) the number may have been 400,000 by
    the end they had come to be known commonly as
    Huguenots (meaning uncertain) and they had 2,150
    congregations with ca. 2 million adherents10 of
    the population.

93
The Reformation in France
  • Some have estimated that 40 of all French nobles
    joined the Huguenot cause.
  • Many were not real converts but used
    Protestantism to weaken royal absolutism.
  • In spite of persecution, Protestants increased
    rapidly at the beginning of Henry IIs reign
    (1547-1559) the number may have been 400,000 by
    the end they had come to be known commonly as
    Huguenots (meaning uncertain) and they had 2,150
    congregations with ca. 2 million adherents10 of
    the population.

94
The Reformation in France
  • There are several reasons why the F. Reformation
    developed as it did and why it was embroiled in
    the civil wars.
  • 1. Many younger nobility became Ps entitled to
    carry swords, they often protected church
    meetings from hostile bands of RCs their
    concerns quarrel with the crown very much
    affected the actions of the church.
  • 2. There were 3 major groups of mutually jealous
    nobility in France.

95
The Reformation in France
  • The Bourbons controlled most of western F. their
    leadership largely Huguenot.
  • The powerful Guises, staunch Roman Catholics, had
    extensive holdings in the east.
  • The Montmorencys controlled much of the central
    part of the country their leadership was divided
    between Protestant and Catholic.
  • 3. when Henry II died, he left behind him three
    young sons who were dominated by his queen,
    Catherine de Medici.

96
The Reformation in France
  • The Bourbons controlled most of western F. their
    leadership largely Huguenot.
  • The powerful Guises, staunch Roman Catholics, had
    extensive holdings in the east.
  • The Montmorencys controlled much of the central
    part of the country their leadership was divided
    between Protestant and Catholic.
  • 3. when Henry II died, he left behind him three
    young sons who were dominated by his queen,
    Catherine de Medici.

97
The Reformation in France
  • She was determined to maintain personal control
    and advance the power of her sons and the central
    government.
  • She was opposed by many of the nobility who were
    jealous of their old feudal rights and wanted to
    restrict the power of the monarchy.
  • 4. Foreign affairs furnished another ingredient
    to the mix as civil war boiled, the English and
    Spanish sent aid to appropriate factions to serve
    their respective national interests.

98
The Reformation in France
  • 5. The rising middle class, as political and
    social outsiders and put upon by heavy financial
    exactions, opposed the crown for reasons of their
    own the fact that they were largely Huguenot
    only complicated their antipathy to the
    establishment.
  • Such animosities provided the tinder to ignite
    armed conflict 8 wars were fought between RC and
    Prot. forces in F.
  • Leading the Ps early on was Gaspard de Coligny,
    but he was among the 15-20,000 who died in the
    St. Bartholomews Day massacre, Aug. 24, 1572, at
    the instigation of Catherine de Medici.

99
The Reformation in France
  • Thereafter Henry of Navarre, of the Bourbon
    family, led the Ps.
  • Ultimately, with the death of others in the royal
    line, he became heir to the throne.
  • Lacking enough strength to complete his conquest,
    he turned RC and won the crown as Henry IV his
    switch obviously was for political reasons, and
    perhaps because he wanted to stop the blood bath.
  • At any rate, in 1598 he published the Edict of
    Nantes, a grant of toleration for the Huguenots.

100
The Reformation in France
  • It guaranteed them the right to hold public
    office, freedom of worship in most areas of
    France, the privilege of educating their children
    in other than RC schools, and free access to
    universities and hospitals.
  • The edict was the first significant recognition
    of the rights of a religious minority in an
    otherwise intolerant age.
  • Though the Hs enjoyed a period of great
    prosperity after that, they became a defensive
    minority, and finally Louis XIV revoked the edict
    in 1685 then thousands were driven into exile to
    England, Holland, Prussia and America.

101
The Reformation in England
  • Henry VIIIs break with Rome
  • Hs marital problems led to Es break with Rome.
  • Not only was he tired of Catherine of Aragon and
    enamored with Anne Boleyn, but he was concerned
    that Catherine had not provided him with a male
    heir such a situation could well have led to
    civil war after Hs death.
  • H sought annulment of his marriage at the hands
    of the pope.

102
The Reformation in England
  • But Pope Clement VII, under the influence of HRE
    Charles V of Spain (nephew of Catherine) would
    not agree.
  • H managed to install Thomas Cranmer as Archbishop
    of Canterbury and to win from his annulment of
    his marriage to Catherine.
  • Though the rupture with Rome resulted from Hs
    marital difficulties, the Reformation came to
    England for more complex reasons.

103
The Reformation in England
  • Social, economic, political, cultural and
    theological factors combined with personal
    matters to contribute to the success of the
    movement.
  • The general spirit of anticlericalism, antipathy
    to Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Tyndales NT (1525),
    Erasmus humanism, the influence of Lollardy, the
    contributions of the New Devotion, and the impact
    of numerous Lutheran converts were additional
    specific elements that helped to spark the
    Reformation.

104
The Reformation in England
  • The break with Rome came in 1534, when Parliament
    passed the Supremacy Act, making Henry head of
    the Church of England.
  • Soon after, H, needing money, closed the
    monasteries of England.
  • But H. did not provide a Protestant theology he
    merely changed the headship of the church his
    efforts were always directed toward political
    control rather than theological change.

105
The Reformation in England
  • That he wanted no change in doctrine is evident
    from his promulgation of the Act of the Six
    Articles (1539), a very Catholic creed, and his
    persecution of individuals of a Lutheran
    persuasion.
  • His one innovation was the publication of the
    Great Bible (1537) and its installation in the
    parish churches of the realm.
  • Edward VI and Protestant Gains
  • There was a marked change, however, during the
    reign of Edward VI (1547-1553).

106
The Reformation in England
  • Coming to the throne at a very early age, he was
    ruled by regents who were of Protestant
    persuasion.
  • The liturgy was changed, services conducted in
    English, a prayer book composed, marriage allowed
    for clergy, images done away with, and the mass
    abolished.
  • Archbishop Cranmer and others composed the
    Forty-two Articles, which later became the
    Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England.

107
The Reformation in England
  • A blend of Lutheran and Calvinist teachings, they
    were subscribed to by the king, but not by
    Parliament.
  • During his reign a stream of refugees and
    immigrants came to England from the Continent,
    most of them inclined to Zwinglian or Calvinistic
    views.
  • Queen Mary I and the Catholic Reaction
  • Edward died in the midst of a RC reaction, so
    when Mary I (1553-1558) to the throne was a RC,
    she was well received.

108
The Reformation in England
  • In 1554 she married Philip of Spain but had no
    children, so no question of the two nations ever
    arose.
  • Edwards religious policy had been too sudden in
    one direction and Marys was too strong in the
    other M. brought the church once more within the
    Roman fold.
  • Many Protestants fled the country some 300 were
    martyred including such leaders as Cranmer,
    Ridley, and Latimer.
  • Of special importance to the future was that many
    Marian exiles went to Geneva.

109
The Reformation in England
  • There they were converted to Calvinism and later
    returned to England to help launch a Puritan
    opposition to Elizabeths establishment.
  • Though Mary enjoyed some success in restoring the
    RCC in England, she experienced considerable
    opposition in Parliament though the 1554
    Parliament consented to marriage to Philip, it
    refused to allow Mary to disinherit Elizabeth and
    bequeath the crown by will, and it rejected the
    restoration of laws against the Lollards, the
    reinstatement of the Six Articles, and the
    reestablishment of the monasteries.

110
The Reformation in England
  • Queen Elizabeth I
  • After the persecutions by Mary and the unpopular
    Spanish alliance, the reign of Elizabeth I
    (1558-1603) was well received by the people.
  • Persecution came to an end, as did the Spanish
    alliance the C. of E. was reestablished, a
    prayer book drawn up, and the Forty-two Articles
    revised to Thirty-nine and adopted by Parliament.

111
The Reformation in England
  • Queen Elizabeth I
  • E. loved an ornate service, and under her
    influence the C. of E. developed its liturgy in
    that direction.
  • In that development E. was opposed by the
    Puritans.
  • The Ps, known to have existed as early as the
    days of Edward, stressed rigid morals, church
    discipline and a conversion experience as a
    prerequisite to church membership they
    deemphasized ritualism.

112
The Reformation in England
  • Queen Elizabeth I
  • At first they did not oppose a church government
    controlled by bishops, but the oppressive
    measures by E. and the return of the Marian
    exiles with their Calvinist views changed the
    character of English Puritans.
  • Ultimately a great many of them argued for a
    presbyterian form of church government, insisted
    that only Christ could be considered the head of
    the church, and called for a general purification
    of the church and English society.

113
The Reformation in England
  • Queen Elizabeth I
  • Some of them came to prefer a congregational form
    and were called Congregationalists or
    Independents some Congregationalist (Brownists
    or Separatists, later Pilgrims) held to complete
    separation of church and state.
  • At about the end of Es reign the Baptists
    appeared, drawing members from the ranks of the
    Puritans or Separatists.

114
The Reformation in England
  • Queen Elizabeth I
  • Baptists insisted on separation of church and
    state, congregational government, and a
    conversion experience prior to church membership
    and baptism.
  • Normally they also held that baptism should be by
    immersion.
  • To what extent E. intended to follow a middle way
    (via media) or a compromise in the establishment
    in the C. of E. or was forced to do so by
    circumstances is open to question.

115
The Reformation in England
  • Queen Elizabeth I
  • The Anglican establishment was a compromise
    between elements of Catholicism and
    Protestantism.
  • The liturgy, prayer book and the government were
    largely RC the Thirty-Nine Articles and the
    theology generally, the preaching, and the
    service in the vernacular were Protestant
    elements.
  • The success was due to many factors, but to none
    more than the longevity of Es reign.

116
The Reformation in England
  • Queen Elizabeth I
  • During that 45 years (1558-1603) the English
    populace knew nothing but the establishment she
    had brought into being.
  • By the end of her reign, for most English that
    meant only their grandparents could remember a
    time when a different religious system existed.
  • There was an important political by-product of
    the E. Reformation both Henry VIII and E. sought
    the approval and support of Parliament in their
    efforts.

117
The Reformation in England
  • Queen Elizabeth I
  • H. did so in the break with Rome and E. in the
    formal establishment and regulation of the C. of
    E. these actions gave a power and prestige to P.
    that it had not previously had and set the nation
    on a new course politically.
  • The rise of Parliament would be important for E.,
    her American colonies, and the future United
    States.

118
The Reformation in England
  • James I, the Puritans, the Bible
  • James VI of Scotland became James I of England in
    1603 and is significant to Protestants for his
    interest in the Bible translation that bears his
    name (1611).
  • He is also important because he increased the
    opposition of the Puritans to the crown by
    arranging for Sunday sports and by encouraging
    Arminianism in England.
  • This animosity grew until in the days of Charles
    I it erupted in civil war (1642-1646).

119
The Reformation in England
  • James I, the Puritans, the Bible
  • Prior to the outbreak of the war, many Englishmen
    had given up hope of any appreciable change in
    English religious life.
  • Some, as Separatists (Pilgrims), had gone to
    Holland and/or Plymouth, Massachusetts, and
    others (Puritans) had established the
    Massachusetts Bay Colony.

120
The Reformation in England
  • James I, the Puritans, the Bible
  • From 1640 to 1660, Parliament and Oliver Cromwell
    ruled the nation.
  • The Puritan divines worked with the commissioners
    of the Church of Scotland to compose the
    Westminster Confession, which was adopted by the
    Church of Scotland in 1647 and in part by the
    English Parliament in 1648.

121
The Reformation in Scotland
  • Probably in no other country were the RC clergy
    more depraved than in Scotland at the time of the
    Reformation.
  • The pioneer Reformer in S. was Patrick Hamilton
    he had been influenced by Luthers views while a
    student in Paris.
  • The 2nd great leader was George Wishart, who had
    a Zwinglian and Calvinistic orientation.
  • Wishart was martyred in 1546 martyrs blood
    stirred many a heart in Scotland.

122
The Reformation in Scotland
  • By the time Cardinal Beaton presided over the
    martyrdom of Wishart, he had made so many enemies
    that a band of nobles (only one of whom was
    Protestant) entered his castle at St. Andrews and
    killed him.
  • Wisharts most ardent follower was John Knoxa
    leader with all the enthusiasm of Luther and the
    steadfastness of Calvin.
  • K. had just completed his university training at
    St. Andrews about the time of Ws martyrdom.

123
The Reformation in Scotland
  • At great personal danger, K. fled for safety to
    the castle of St. Andrews, where the assassins of
    Beaton and an increasing crowd of Protestants
    were holed up after some months, a French fleet,
    coming to the assistance of the Scottish queen,
    took the castle, captured its occupants, and sold
    Knox as a galley slave after 19 mo. the English
    rescued him and he ministered in England during
    the reign of Edward VI.

124
The Reformation in Scotland
  • Leaving E. when Bloody Mary came to the throne,
    he ministered briefly among English exiles in
    Frankfurt and then became pastor of a group of
    English exiles in Geneva his chapel was close to
    Calvins cathedral.
  • In 1555 he made a brief visit to E. where he
    married and subsequently preached in Scotland for
    9 mo. with great courage then he returned to
    Geneva for another 3 years.

125
The Reformation in Scotland
  • Meanwhile the R. message spread widely in
    Scotland important to the success was that in
    1543 Parliament legalized the reading of the
    Bible in English or Scots moreover, a great of
    Protestant doctrinal literature was coming into
    the country.
  • The R. was successful among all classes of the
    population of special importance in winning them
    were the plays, ballads and pamphlets that
    blanketed the country lyrics on sacred themes
    taught doctrine, ridiculed the papacy and
    provided a hymnody for the masses.

126
The Reformation in Scotland
  • Students were constantly moving to and from
    centers of learning on the Continent, where they
    came in contact with the ideas of Hus, Luther,
    Calvin and others.
  • K. himself said that merchants and mariners had
    a prominent role in bringing religious books and
    ideas from the mainland.
  • Amazingly, all this R. development was going on
    when there were hardly any Protestant preachers
    in Scotland and no semblance of church
    organization.

127
The Reformation in Scotland
  • The political situation after the death of
    James V (1542), S. was ruled by his wife, Mary of
    Guise, from a noble French family.
  • Her daughter Mary was sent to France when 6 yrs
    old for 17 months she was queen of France.
  • At the time of her mothers death in 1560 she was
    occupied as queen of France thus S. was left
    without a ruling sovereign.
  • Knox had returned in 1559 and set about
    organizing a reformation that had already become
    a reality.

128
The Reformation in Scotland
  • Without waiting for the absent queen to express
    an opinion, Parliament approved the First
    Scottish Confession and established the Church of
    Scotland in August of 1560.
  • Mary returned in 1561 and experienced the
    outspoken opposition of Knox her determination
    to restore the RCC in S. brought her many
    enemies, but her love affairs with worthless men
    sealed her downfall.

129
The Reformation in Scotland
  • The refusal of the nobles to permit her third
    husband, the Earl of Bothwell (evidently a
    murderer), to rule as king led to a military
    confrontation, her defeat, and imprisonment in
    1567.
  • M. abdicated in favor of her son, James VI and
    her half brother, the Earl of Moray, became
    regent.
  • After M. fled to England for safety and was
    imprisoned there, plots against Elizabeth I began
    to swirl around M. finally, in 1587 Elizabeth
    was pressured into executing M.

130
Reformation in the Netherlands
  • The teachings of Luther and especially of Calvin
    were readily accepted in the Netherlands.
  • Erasmus of Rotterdam had already done effective
    work there, writing devastating satires on the
    Roman church and other instit
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