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Ch15: Age of Jackson (1820-1840)


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Title: Ch15: Age of Jackson (1820-1840)

Ch15 Age of Jackson (1820-1840)
  • 15-1 A New Kind of Politics

  • 1.) Define Missouri Compromise
  • 2.) Describe how the Missouri Compromise led to
    the addition of new states.
  • 3.) Analyze how the Missouri Compromise impacted
    the balance of power in Congress.

The Missouri Compromise
Divisions began in the US that reflected the very
different economies of the country Sectionalism,
began to replace nationalism!
  • Sectionalism stood out when Missouri applied for
  • People in the state wanted slavery.
  • At this time, US had 11 free and 11 slave states,
    and a new slave state would tilt the balance of
    power in Congress (pg.380).

  • Also, Maine applies for statehood
  • Henry Clay suggests that Maine enter as a free
    state and Missouri enter as a slave state to keep
    the balance!
  • Also, slavery would be banned in the Louisiana
    Territory north of the 36th parallel.

Congress accepts this plan Missouri Compromise
of 1820
Andrew Jackson as President
  • Won election of 1828 (1829-1837)
  • Jacksonian Democracy Everyday people began
    gaining more political power.
  • (read aloud page 383 New Political Era today?)

Ch15 Age of Jackson (1820-1840)
  • 15-2 Jacksons
  • Harsh Indian Policy

1830 Jacksons Indian Removal Act Indians must
move to public lands west of the Miss. River to
reservations. (today OK state)
  • Since the War of 1812 the US govt pushed Indians
    west of the Mississippi River.
  • No matter how the Indians behaved whites wanted
    their land.
  • (Cherokee attempts pg. 384)

  • 2 violent examples
  • 1832 Black Hawk War Indians try to return to
    homeland from Iowa reservation stopped by
    Illinois militia!
  • 1835 Seminole Wars Indians fought for 7 years to
    stay in Florida homeland most died, others fled.
  • 1 peaceful example
  • 1832 Cherokee appealed to Supreme Court Justice
    John Marshall who ruled in favor of the Cherokee
    that GA had no right to overrule a federal govt
    treaty with the Indians that protected their land.

  • 1838 Jackson sent troops to physically move
    15,000 Cherokee to reservations.

The Trail of Tears Cherokees refused to obey the
Indian Removal Act, the US govt sent 7,000
troops, who forced them out of their homes. The
Cherokees didn't even get a chance to gather
their belongings, which were soon looted by the
white settlers that came to claim their land.
This started the Trail of Tears, called such
because over 4,000 Cherokee died from the cold
and harsh conditions of the trail. Hunger and
disease also claimed quite a few before they had
reached their allotted western lands.
(No Transcript)
Section 3 Sectional and Financial Controversies
  • I CAN
  • 1.) Define states rights
  • 2.) Explain how states rights continued to
    divide the country
  • 3.) Explain the purpose and effects of tariffs
    enacted before the Civil War

The Doctrine of Nullification
  • VP John Calhoun proposed the doctrine of
  • Congress had no authority to pass laws that
    favored one section of the nation over the others
  • When it did, a state had the right to declare
    that law null and void w/in the state
  • Another version of states rights

The Hayne-Webster Debates
  • Haynes views
  • 1.) Rights of the states came before the unity of
    the nation
  • 2.) State could nullify any federal law it judged
    to be unfair
  • Websters views
  • 1.) Laws made by Congress were not subject to the
    approval of each state
  • 2.) Laws represented the will of the people as a
  • Southern states lost the backing of the western
    states and looked to Pres. Jackson for help
  • Did not get it

South Carolinas Threat
  • Jackson asked Congress to lower the tariff and
    they did
  • SC still thought it was too high and voted to
    nullify it
  • SC said they would secede from the Union if
    Congress tried to enforce it
  • Jackson mad but VP Calhoun said each state chose
    to join and they could choose to leave
  • Jackson announces that he will enforce tariffs
    and send troops to SC if needed
  • Clay steps in w/ a compromise to gradually lower
    tariffs over next 10 yrs
  • Jackson signs it into law and SC stays in Union

Ch15 Age of Jackson 1829-1837

  • Dem.Rep. for Jackson a.k.a. DEMOCRATS (Jackson is
    considered the father)
  • Low tariffs
  • States rights
  • South/Western support
  • Dem.Rep. who opposed Jackson a.k.a. National
  • High tariffs
  • Strong natl govt
  • Northeast

Panic of 1837 next Presidents
  • Jackson left office under US prosperity.
  • By year end, under Van Buren, economic crisis or
    Panic of 1837
  • Paper money value
  • Supply of gold and silver
  • Factories and Jobs

Dem. Van Buren 1837-1841 Whig W.H.Harrison
1841 Whig Tyler 1841-1845 ?? Dem. Polk
1845-1849 Whig Taylor 1849- interesting, huh!
Chapter 16 Changes in American Life (1820-1860)
  • Section 1 The Impact of Immigration

(I Believe) I CAN (Fly)
  • 1.) Define IMMIGRATION
  • 2.) Define NATIVISTS
  • 3.) Explain how the diverse peoples of the US
    developed a common natl identify
  • 4.) Explain how immigration changed geographic
    patterns in the US

Germans in America
  • One of the largest immigrant groups
  • Did not speak English, but were educated and came
    w/ money and skills
  • Settled along Erie Canal and Great Lakes
  • Brought a large community of German Jews who
    settled in the West
  • Opposed slavery

Scandinavian Immigrants
  • Moved to the West and the North
  • Brought deep religious faith and strong sense of

The Irish Experience
  • 1845- Irish potato famine caused 1,000s to leave
    the country
  • Most stayed in NY, Boston, and Philly
  • Took jobs that they could get
  • Lived in crowded shacks and tenements
  • Banded together and joined Democrat Party
  • Became local political leaders
  • Heavily involved in Roman Catholic Church

The Nativist Reaction
  • Some native-born Americans saw the newcomers as a
  • Worried that immigrants would take jobs from
    Americans (sound familiar??)
  • Some refused to hire immigrants, some got
    violent, and some formed secret societies
  • Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner-gt
    Know-Nothings-gt American Party
  • Gained support on East Coast w/ anti-immigration
  • Nativism continues today so does immigration!

16-2 SPIRIT OF REFORM 1820-1860
  • I Can explain how diverse peoples of the US
    developed a common natl ID.
  • I Can describe historical limitations on
    participation of women in US society and their
    efforts to gain equal rights.

Second Great Awakening
  • A revival of religious faith in the early 1800s
    inspired by worries about the future, Americans
    felt a need to solve new issues/changes and
    religious preachings led to a spirit of reform
    it would help solve societys problems.
  • 1740, First Great Awakening
  • This movement was led by women within the church.

I Can explain how diverse peoples of the US
developed a common natl ID. I Can describe
historical limitations on participation of women
in US society and their efforts to gain equal
American Reform 1820-1860
I Can explain how diverse peoples of the US
developed a common natl ID. I Can describe
historical limitations on participation of women
in US society and their efforts to gain equal
  • School
  • Children- a demand for free and good public
    education for all children.
  • Women- at first banned from HS and college, some
    started going to schools for females.
  • AA- North elementary schools for blacks, few
    going to college. South illegal to school blacks.
  • Work Conditions
  • Early labor mvmt got a few health and safety laws
    Pres. Van Buren backed a 10 hour work day.

American Reform 1820-1860
                    A large group of women and
some men gathered outside of Family Groceries in
Waynesville, Ohio during the Women's Temperance
Crusade of 1873-1874. The women were protesting
the sale of alcoholic beverages.
I Can explain how diverse peoples of the US
developed a common natl ID. I Can describe
historical limitations on participation of women
in US society and their efforts to gain equal
  • Rehabilitation
  • Prisoners- organize prisons to separate types of
    criminals men, women and children.
  • Mentally ill- improve their hospital conditions
    and care to include specialized institutes.
  • Temperance giving up alcohol to improve quality
    of life.
  • From sermons to pledges to state laws being
    passed and then repealed, this mvmt. had power.

Section 3 Call for Equality
  • I CAN
  • 1.) Define the abolitionist movement
  • 2.) Explain how the abolitionist movement
    continued to divide the country
  • 3.) Identify Fredrick Douglass and his role in
    the abolitionist movement
  • 4.) Identify Elizabeth Cady Stanton and her role
    in the fight for womens rights

Expanding Democracy
  • At this point, most white men can vote
  • Specifically in direct elections for govt
  • Also in natl conventions to choose party
    delegates for Pres. and VP
  • This gave ordinary people a stronger voice in the
    party nominations

Equality vs. Slavery
  • Abolitionists wanted to abolish, or put an end
    to, slavery
  • Fredrick Douglass
  • Born a slave
  • Escaped to Massachusetts
  • He spoke about his life and against slavery in
    his newspaper, The North Star
  • Sojourner Truth
  • Freed slave
  • One of the first AA women to speak against
  • Underground RR
  • Informal system moving runaway slaves north with
    help from conductors through hiding places
    called stations
  • Harriet Tubman
  • Escaped slave
  • Most famous conductor who risked over 19 trips to
    the South to help free over 300 slaves

Womens Rights
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and other women attended
    intl conference against slavery yet were
    silenced by men
  • Most state laws kept married women as property of
    the husband
  • Seneca Falls Convention
  • 1848 NY meeting of men and women about womens
  • Stantons speech Declaration of Sentiments
    declared all men and women were created equal
  • The Convention called for womens equality at
    work, school, church, plus before the law
  • Susan B. Anthony
  • Active in Temperance, an Abolitionist, and
    womens rights movement
  • Most influential leader for womens suffrage

16-4 A New American Culture
  • I Can explain how the diverse peoples of the US
    developed a common natl identity!

  • A spirit of democracy and equality swept through
    the country changing attitudes American life.
  • By mid 1840s, American writers were taking pride
    in their countrys culture. They were creating a
    unique American philosophy and style. This helped
    create a common national identity a New
    American Culture.

  • Ralph Waldo Emerson lectures and writings based
    on Jacksonian ideals and realities of American
  • Emerson taught it was important for people to
    truly understand themselves to be self-reliant
    and be able to survive.
  • His teachings led to a new American philosophy
    known as Transcendentalism
  • (a belief or way of life emphasizing human
    thought and spirituality
  • over science and material things)
  • He urged Americans to develop their own way of
    thinking no longer based on European influence!

(No Transcript)
Henry David Thoreau a student of Emerson, he
believed in simplicity and living in harmony with
nature. He influenced many future world leaders
through a practice of passive resistance in
refusing to obey unfair laws, peacefully.
I Can explain how the diverse peoples of the US
developed a common national identity!
  • 1800s American Literature and Art
  • R.W.Emersons teachings writings
  • Transcendentalism
  • H.D.Thoreau

Slavery (1820-1855)