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Eukaryotic Cell Structure

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Eukaryotic Cell Structure – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Eukaryotic Cell Structure


1
Eukaryotic Cell Structure
2
Essential Questions
  • What are the functions of the major cell
    structures?

3
Organelles
  • Little organs
  • Specialized structures of the cell
  • Each organelle has unique functions
  • These organelles allow the cell to function
    properly

4
Organelle Groups
  • Cell biologists divide organelles into three
    groups based on their location
  • Nucleus nucleolus, chromatin, nuclear envelope
  • Cytoplasm mitochondria, vacuole, Golgi
    apparatus, centrioles, lysosomes, ribosomes,
    chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum
  • Surface cell membrane, cell wall

5
Nucleus
  • 1. Nucleus
  • Control center of the cell
  • Contains nearly all cell DNA
  • 2. Nuclear Envelope
  • Surrounds the nucleus
  • Contains nuclear pores
  • Allows material to move into and out of the
    nucleus

6
Nucleus cont
  • 3. Chromatin
  • Consists of DNA bound to a protein
  • Condenses to form chromosomes
  • 4. Nucleolus
  • Small, dense region
  • Assembly of ribosomes begin here

7
5. Cytoplasm
  • The portion of the cell outside the nucleus
  • Contains many organelles
  • Gel-like substance that protects the organelles
  • Allows movement

8
Cytoplasmic Organelles
  • 6. Ribosome
  • Small particles of RNA and protein found
    throughout the cytoplasm
  • Responsible for the assembly of proteins
  • Follows coded instructions from the nucleus
  • Numerous in cells active in protein synthesis

9
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  • Site where lipid components, proteins and other
    materials are exported from the cell
  • 7. Rough ER
  • Involved in the synthesis of proteins
  • Ribosomes are found on its surface
  • 8. Smooth ER
  • Contains collections of enzymes
  • Synthesis of membrane lipids
  • Detoxification of drugs

10
  • 9. Golgi Apparatus (Golgi Bodies)
  • Proteins in the rough ER move next into the Golgi
    Apparatus
  • It modifies, sorts, and packages proteins for
    storage or secretion
  • Ships proteins to their final destination

11
  • 10. Lysosomes
  • Small organelles filled with enzymes
  • clean up crew
  • Digestion, or breakdown, of lipids,
    carbohydrates, and proteins so the rest of the
    cell can use them
  • Removes dead organelles

12
  • 11. Vacuoles
  • Saclike structures that stores materials
  • Plant cells the vacuoles is a single, large
    central organelle filled with liquid
  • Allows for support of leaves and flowers
  • Help maintain homeostasis
  • Also found in some animal cells

13
  • 12. Mitochondria
  • Power house of the cell
  • Responsible for providing the cell with energy
  • Converts stored energy in food into compounds
    that the cells can use
  • Contains its own DNA
  • Some scientists believe that mitochondria, at one
    point, may have been a prokaryotic cell

14
  • 13. Chloroplasts
  • Only found in plant cells
  • Capture energy form sunlight and convert it into
    chemical energy
  • This process is called photosynthesis
  • Contains chlorophyll
  • Gives plants its color

15
  • 14. Centrioles
  • Come from structures called microtubules
  • Located near the nucleus
  • Help to organize cell division
  • Only in Animal Cells

16
15. Cytoskeleton
  • A network of protein filaments that help the cell
    maintain its shape
  • Also aids in movement
  • Flagellum
  • Cilia

17
  • 16. Cell membrane
  • Cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves
    the cell
  • Provides protection and support
  • 17. Cell wall
  • Main function is to provide support and
    protection
  • Only in plant cells

18
TIME FOR A MINI QUIZ!!
  • Take out a piece of paper.
  • Fold it in half length-wise (hot dog)
  • Head one side Animal Cell and number it 1-19
  • Label the other side Plant Cell and number it
    1-10
  • Label the organelles to their corresponding
    numbers as you see them on each slide.
  • You may use your notes but NOT your books!

19
Nucleus Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Rough ER Smooth
ER Mitochondria Golgi Body Vacuole Lysosome
20
Nucleus Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Rough
ER Chloroplasts Ribosome Mitochondria Golgi
Body Vacuole Cell Wall
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