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Cells

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Cells What are they? Levels of living things Living Levels: CELL (makes up ALL organisms) TISSUE (cells working together ORGAN (heart, brain, stomach ) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cells


1
Cells
  • What are they?

2
Levels of living things
  • Living Levels
  • CELL (makes up ALL organisms)
  • TISSUE (cells working together
  • ORGAN (heart, brain, stomach )
  • ORGAN SYSTEMS (respiratory, circulatory )
  • ORGANISM

3
Organisms are Grouped by their Number of Cells
  • Unicellular Organisms
  • Living Organism Made Up Of One Cell
  • Multicellular Organisms
  • Living Organism Made Up Of Many, Specialized
    Cells

4
Types of cells
  • Prokaryotic- Means before in Greek. Very simple.
    Before a nucleus. No nucleus.
  • Eukaryotic- Eu means true. Has a true nucleus.

5
Prokaryotic
  • Cells that lack a nucleus or membrane-bound
    organelles
  • Includes bacteria
  • Simplest type of cell

http//videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/10309-the-cell
-prokaryotic-cells-video.htm
6
Eukaryotic
  • Cells that HAVE a nucleus and membrane-bound
    organelles
  • Includes protists, fungi, plants, and animals
  • More complex type of cells
  • Contains 3 basic cell structures
  • Nucleus
  • Cell Membrane
  • Cytoplasm with organelles

http//videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/10310-the-cell
-eukaryotic-cells-video.htm
7
Organelles
  • Very small (Microscopic)
  • Perform various functions for a cell
  • Found in the cytoplasm
  • May or may not be membrane-bound

8
Animal Cell Organelles
Ribosome (attached)
Nucleolus
Ribosome (free)
Nucleus
Cell Membrane
Nuclear envelope
Mitochondrion
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Centrioles
Golgi apparatus
9
Plant Cell Organelles
10
Cell or Plasma Membrane
  • Composed of a double layer
  • Surrounds outside of ALL cells
  • Controls what enters or leaves the cell
  • Living layer
  • Lies immediately against the cell wall in plant
    cells

11
Cell Wall
  • Nonliving layer
  • Found in plants, fungi, bacteria
  • Made of cellulose in plants
  • Supports and protects cell
  • Found outside of the cell membrane

Cell Membrane
Cell wall
12
Cytoplasm
  • Cells are filled with a gelatin-like substance
    called cytoplasm
  • Found in ALL cells
  • Constantly flows inside the cell membrane
  • Throughout cytoplasm is cytoskeleton

MICROTUBULES
MICROFILAMENTS
13
Nucleus
  • Controls all cell activities and is separated
    from the cytoplasm by a membrane.
  • Contains the instructions for everything the cell
    does.
  • These instructions are found on long, threadlike,
    hereditary material called DNA.

14
Chloroplasts
  • Found only in producers (organisms containing
    chlorophyll)
  • Use energy from sunlight to make own food
    (glucose)
  • Energy from sun stored in the Chemical Bonds of
    Sugars
  • Contains its own DNA

15
Mitochondria
  • Powerhouse of the cell
  • Generate cellular energy (ATP)
  • More active cells like muscle cells have MORE
    mitochondria
  • Both plants animal cells have mitochondria
  • Site of CELLULAR RESPIRATION (burning glucose)

16
Ribosomes
  • Cells make their own proteins called Ribosomes.
  • Given directions from DNA how and when to make
    proteins.
  • Not membrane-bound
  • Some float freely in cytoplasm other are attached
    to the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • Made in the nucleolus moved into the cytoplasm

17
Ribosomes
  • Can be attached to Rough ER or

Be free (unattached) in the cytoplasm
17
18
Endoplasmic Reticulum ER
  • Extends from the nucleus to the cell membrane.
    Has a folds so materials can be made and moved
    around
  • Two Types
  • Smooth- Smooth ER lacks ribosomes on its surface
  • Rough- Proteins are made by ribosomes on ER
    surface

19
ER
  • Smooth ER- No attached ribosomes processed
    cellular substances such as lipids that store
    energy.
  • Rough ER- Has ribosomes attached and carry out
    the job of making proteins that are moved out of
    the cell or used in the cell.

20
Golgi Bodies
  • Modify, sort, package molecules (proteins) from
    ER for storage OR transport out of cell
  • Packages them into vesicles for temporary
    storage.
  • Stacked flattened membranes

21
Vacuoles
  • Fluid filled sacks for storage
  • Small or absent in animal cells
  • Plant cells have a large Central Vacuole

22
Cell Theory
  • All living things are made of cells
  • Cells are the basic unit of structure and
    function in an organism (basic unit of life)
  • Cells come from the reproduction of existing
    cells (cell division)

23
Exceptions to the cell theory
  • Viruses they are able to reproduce only within a
    living cell.
  • Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
  • Each contain their own genetic information
    different than that in the nucleus.

24
Viruses
  • A virus is a strand of hereditary material
    surrounded by a protein coating
  • Dont have nucleus or other organelles
  • Lack a cell membrane
  • Need a host cell

H1N1
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