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Classification

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Classification Dichotomous Key Chart of paired statements used to identify an organism. Classifying into two opposite parts. For Example: 1a. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification


1
Classification
2
Classification
  • The grouping of organisms based on similarities.
  • Allows us to study relationships between species.
  • Helps assign names to organisms.

3
How are organisms classified?
  • Structural similarities
  • Potential to mate
  • Geographic distribution
  • Chromosomes
  • DNA sequence
  • Evolutionary relationship in fossil record

4
7 Levels of Classification (Largest to Smallest)
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

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Taxonomy
  • The science of naming and classifying organisms.
  • Aristotle 1st to classify organisms.
  • Placed into two groups Plants and Animals

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Carlous Linnaeus
  • Swedish botanist who developed the naming system
    for classifying organisms called binomial
    nomenclature.

9
Binomial Nomenclature- system used universally
for naming organisms.
  • Each name consists of two words (Genus and
    Species)
  • First word capitalized
  • Second word lower-case
  • Both word written in italics
  • Ex Ursus arctos- Scientific Name
  • (Genus) (species)
  • Common name is Grizzly Bear.

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Another Example of Naming
  • Acer rubrum (Red maple)
  • Acer genus including
  • all maple trees
  • rubrum red

12
The 6 Kingdoms
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Archaebacteria
  • Unicellular
  • Prokaryote- no nucleus or membrane bound
    organelles (have DNA, cytoplasm and ribosomes)
  • Autotroph or heterotroph.
  • Cell wall without peptidoglycan- a carbohydrate
  • Ex Methanogens, Halophiles

14
An undersea Black Smoker!!
15
Eubacteria
  • Unicellular
  • Prokaryote
  • Autotroph or Heteroptroph
  • Cell wall with peptidoglycan
  • Ex Streptococcus, E. Coli

16
This guy causes 80 of all ulcers!!
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Protista
  • Most unicellular, some multicellular
  • Eukaryote
  • Autotroph or Heterotroph
  • Cell wall of cellulose, some have chloroplasts
  • Ex Amoeba, Paramecium

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Fungi
  • Most multicellular, one unicellular (yeast)
  • Eukaryote
  • Heterotroph
  • Cell wall made of chitin, no chloroplasts
  • Ex Mushrooms, mold, yeast, morel

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Plantae
  • Multicellular
  • Eukaryote
  • Autotroph
  • Cell wall made of cellulose, has chloroplasts
  • Ex mosses, ferns, flowering plants

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Animalia
  • Multicellular
  • Eukaryote
  • Heterotrophs
  • No cell wall, no chloroplast
  • Ex sponges, worms, insects, fish, birds,
    amphibians, reptiles, mammals

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Classification based on Evolutionary Relationships
  • Phylogeny the evolutionary history for a group
    of species.
  • Cladistics classification based on common
    ancestry.
  • Scientists look at more than just physical traits
    when classifying organisms.
  • Cladistics places species in the order in which
    they descended from a common ancestor.

33
Cladogram
  • Cladogram evolutionary tree that proposes how
    species may be related to each other through
    common ancestors.
  • Derived Characters traits that are shared among
    a group of species but not shared with others.
    Used to determine evolutionary relationships.

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Dichotomous Key
  • Chart of paired statements used to identify an
    organism.
  • Classifying into two opposite parts.
  • For Example
  • 1a. Organism has hair or fur..Go to 2
  • 1b. Organism does not have hair or fur.Go to 5

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