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1750

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Title: 1750


1
1750 1914 CE
  • The Modern Era
  • The Age of Industrial Revolutions
  • The Age of Atlantic Revolutions
  • The Age of Nationalism
  • The 2nd Age of Imperialism
  • The Age of European Hegemony
  • The Scramble for Africa

2
Diverse Interpretations
  • Change Give Up the Old Ways for New Ways
  • Improved economic systems
  • Technological Revolution
  • Social Changes including more rights for women
  • An increasing emphasis on secularization
  • Democratic government
  • Modernization or Westernization?
  • How to Modernize without Westernizing
  • Most non-European nations wanted to modernize
  • Dependency Theory
  • Developing nations are economically dependent on
    developed nations
  • Developed nations drain resources from developing
    nations
  • Developing nations export agricultural products,
    raw minerals, labor
  • Developing nations import finished products
  • Dependency inherent in capitalism
  • Marxist Theory
  • Nations which adopt socialism do not need to
    westernize, be dependent

3
INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • Beginnings
  • Capitalization came from Caribbean sugar profits
  • 1750 1820s Began in Great Britain
  • 1800 1850 Spread to France, Belgium, Germany,
    United States
  • 1850 1914 Spread to Russia, Japan, Austria
    (Czech lands)
  • Impact was Global
  • Massive Growth of Global Trade
  • Imports of raw minerals and materials
  • Cottons
  • Fuels
  • Iron
  • Export of finished goods
  • Labor markets became global
  • Slave Trade from 1750 to 1820 more or less
  • Three Slave Trades
  • Atlantic was largest Indian Ocean last to end
  • Immigration to Americas in search of work
  • Indians, Chinese, Vietnamese immigrated to work
    plantations
  • Indentured Servitude, Tenant Farming,
    Sharecropping

4
A 2ND AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
  • Capitalization of the Industrial Revolution
  • Sugar production was highly labor intensive,
    capital intensive
  • Caribbean generated millions in profit, deposited
    in banks
  • British inventors, industrialists could easily
    borrow money
  • Preceded Industrial Revolution by about 50 years
  • 2nd Agricultural Revolution
  • In UK Experimentation with new crops, animal
    breeding
  • Enclosure movements
  • Larger, wealthier landowners enclose public lands
  • Force smaller farmers off their land
  • Increased efficiency
  • Forced smaller farmers off land, to cities
    looking for work
  • Improved farming techniques
  • Mechanization of Agriculture
  • Industrial technologies applied to farming
  • Most pronounced in USA, Canada

5
POPULATION INCREASE
1800 1850 1900
Europe 150 206 291
Russia 37 60 111
Africa 90 95 120
Asia 602 749 937
North America 16 39 106
South America 9 20 38
Oceania 2 2 6
  • European population
  • Between 1700 1800
  • Rose to 190 million
  • Population Explosion
  • Due to increase in birth rate
  • Decline in death rate
  • Birth rate exceeds death rate
  • Sanitary Conditions
  • Medical care improved
  • Nutrition improved
  • Sanitation improved
  • Life Expectancy in developing nations rose
  • Europeans introduced medical, sanitary practices
    abroad

6
IMPROVED TECHNOLOGY
  • New sources of power, energy
  • Muscle power replaced by machines
  • Human labor, animal power
  • Steam power uses coal
  • Later electricity due to natural gas, oil
  • Factory System
  • Mechanization of production
  • Required concentration of labor in one place
  • Success in one area fueled interest in others
  • Inventions applied to other fields
  • Entrepreneurship rewarded by European societies
  • 1st Industrial Revolution 1780 1850
  • Concentrated in power (steam), transportation
  • Mechanization of clothing production
  • 2nd Industrial Revolution 1870 1914
  • Concentrated in chemicals, electricity,
    communications

7
OTHER RELATED REVOLUTIONS
  • Transportation Revolution
  • Steam ships
  • Railroads
  • Communications Revolution
  • Telegraph
  • Trans-Oceanic Cables
  • Rise of Mass Newspapers
  • Urbanization as Revolution
  • Centers of commerce, industry
  • Attracted population to jobs
  • Rise of the Middle Class, Professionals
  • 2nd Scientific Revolution
  • Imperialism as Revolution

8
SPREAD OF INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • Rate of spread dependent on other factors
  • How supportive of industry was society?
  • How supportive of industry was the government?
  • Wars had a tendency to mandate industrialization
  • French Revolution, Napoleon helped UK
  • Crimean War fueled changes in Russia favoring
    industry
  • Germany, France, Russia modernized out of defense
    needs
  • Civil War impacted US factories, railroads
  • Japan forcibly opened by Perry, Meiji Restoration
    follows
  • Trade and Imperialism spread industry
  • Europe, Japan needed raw materials, sought them
    abroad
  • Trade flourished as all nations involved in trade
  • Asia, Africa, Latin America were sources of raw
    materials
  • Many Europeans built factors abroad in colonies
  • Some empires began to train a local native
    technical class

9
THE PROCESS
  • Factories Built
  • Near access to ports, power, workers
  • Shift of people
  • From countryside to city
  • Due to poor harvests, too many to feed
  • Too little land to work
  • Allure of city life away from farm
  • Increased urbanization
  • Middle Class arose
  • Factory managers, shop owners
  • Professionals such as lawyers, accountants,
    technocrats
  • Brutal working conditions
  • Reactions Call for Reforms
  • Radicalization of workers including rise of
    unions, welfare systems
  • Radicalization of some political ideologies
    Socialism, Marxism
  • Calls for reform including political and social

10
RESPONSES TO INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • Reform Movements
  • Socialism
  • Utopianism sought ideal solutions
  • Work with state, factory owners
  • Marxism
  • Class struggle natural, instrument of change
  • State always serves those with money
  • Rich (bourgeoisie) get richer, poor (proletariat)
    get poorer
  • Change only can come about as a violent
    revolution
  • Successful revolution would establish workers
    paradise
  • Communism or Bolshevism
  • Marxism was basis but needed a revolutionary
    party to lead
  • Conditions do not have to be right for a
    revolution, make one!
  • Reform Socialism
  • Change through ballot box, elections does not
    have to be violent
  • Trade Unionism
  • Workers seek to redress grievances through
    collective action, strikes
  • State Initiated Reforms
  • Often called Liberalism

11
GENDER ISSUES
  • Changes
  • Poor women
  • had to migrate to cities for work
  • Worked in factories, brought in a second income
  • Sweatshop industries became common
  • Upper class women
  • More wealth, more servants to manage
  • Less power outside home than in previous eras
  • Middle Class housewives
  • A new class has a new group of women
  • Tended to imitate upper class moral standards,
    lifestyles
  • Cult of Domesticity, Victorian Age of Women
    encouraged
  • But some women could now get university
    educations
  • Women became active in some reform movements
  • Colonies and Women
  • European women had great influence abroad, set a
    standard for others
  • Native women acquired some of same roles of
    Middle Class housewives
  • Continuities
  • Women still had family responsibilities

12
WOMENS SUFFRAGE
  • Abolition preceded womens suffrage
  • Women very involved in abolition movements
  • Suffrage took a second place to abolition
  • Women became involved in other reform movements
    temperance, Progressives
  • Seneca Falls Declaration in 1848
  • Frederick Douglass attended as delegate
  • A Slow Process Two Steps Forward, One Back
  • Role of Enlightenment
  • Women ran salons, fostered ntellectual freedom
  • French Revolution
  • Women granted full rights and vote until Napoleon
  • Olympia de Gouges, Mary Wollstonecraft
  • Napoleon took back gains, no vote until 1944
  • In UK, US
  • Reforms, progressive movements met resistance
  • World War I in UK, US won women the vote, rights
  • Africa, Asia, Middle East gave women vote as part
    of decolonization
  • Latin America, Russia, China, Japan depended on
    other factors
  • Socialism, Communism often granted women the vote
    for first time

13
ABOLITIONS, EMANCIPATIONS
  • Abolition of the Slave Trade, Slavery
  • Calls for its abolition
  • Religious groups were instrumental Methodists,
    Quakers
  • UK was the leader in the movement to abolish both
  • Enlightenment, French Revolution began process
  • Abolished in Americas as part of national
    independence processes
  • Industry was not compatible with slavery
  • Slaves had no reason to work hard, no tendency to
    innovate, experiment
  • Factories could not use slaves as they were too
    expensive
  • US, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Brazil were last
    American nations to abolish slavery
  • Emancipation of Russian Serfs
  • Reasons
  • Rising violence and rebellion amongst serfs
  • Serfs bound to land, had no reason to work harder
    for someone else
  • Russian needed workers in factories
  • Russia lacked an internal market, serfs were
    potential customers
  • Russia lost Crimean War, reformers blamed loss on
    backwardness
  • Emancipation of 1861
  • Serfs were free, no longer bound to land, now
    could work elsewhere

14
IMAGES OF ABOLITION
15
MOVEMENTS
  • Exchanges of Ideas and Goods
  • Increased contacts made this inevitable
  • Modernization came with a Western bias
  • Modernization often carried with it
    westernization
  • Popular Movements
  • Rural to Urban Migration throughout world
  • Immigration
  • European immigration to Americas between 35-50
    million
  • European population transformed Americas, Oceania
  • African Slave Trade not abolished until early
    1800s
  • Africans transported to Americas but also SW
    Asia, Indian Ocean
  • Substitute Labor for Plantations
  • Indians, Chinese, Vietnamese filled need
  • Often agricultural labor but small business
    owners, wives followed
  • Settlement of frontiers
  • Russians, Americans, Chinese, Boer Afrikaaners,
    Brazilians, Argentines

16
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17
STATE STRUCTURES NATIONALISM
  • Previous State Structures
  • Decentralized
  • Feudal Monarchy
  • Aristocratic privilege, vassals, feudal lords,
    hierarchy
  • Centralized
  • Divine Right Monarchy and Absolute Monarchy
  • Loyalty to one man, centralized state apparatus,
    elites
  • Rise of Nationalism
  • Loyalty to the state, a national consciousness
  • Strong ideology amongst middle classes but spread
    to all classes
  • Fueled by French Revolution, Napoleon
    nationalism spread
  • Nationalism threatens multi-national empires
    Austria, Russia, Ottoman
  • Reactions
  • Congress of Vienna opposed nationalism
  • Balance of Power Great powers manage change,
    prevent change
  • Restored monarchs to thrones, redrew national
    boundaries
  • Burgeoning European nationalisms
  • Unite one ethnic group under an independent
    ethnic state
  • Germany Prussia and Bismarck united Germany in
    1870

18
STAGES OF POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS
  • The Stage is Set
  • State is economically weak, government is
    ineffective
  • New ideas arise, new groups arise to challenge
    status-quo, intellectual movements influence
    change
  • Old Regime Loses Control
  • Old elites attempt to reassert privileges
  • Some short term event sparks a conflict, disaster
    rallies forces who oppose old elites
  • Government too divided and weak to suppress
    revolt
  • Moderate Phase of the Revolution
  • Moderates come to power, initiate changes
  • Electorate expanded, constitution liberalized,
    some reforms initiated
  • Reaction to the Moderates Arise
  • Moderates enact only limited reforms
  • Radicals mobilize their supporters demanding more
    extensive reforms
  • Radicals Seize Control
  • Radicals take control of state and revolution
  • Radicals enact sweeping changes, eliminate old
    institutions completely
  • Radical Reign of Terror
  • Foreign, domestic opposition arises to challenge
    radicals
  • Radicals react, remove opponents, seek to
    institutionalize, spread their ideology

19
REVOLUTIONS 1750 1914
  • American Revolution 1776 1783
  • French Revolution 1789 1799
  • Haitian Revolution 1793 1802
  • Latin American Revolutions 1810 1822
  • Mehmet Ali in Egypt, 1820s
  • European Revolutions 1820s 1848
  • Belgium revolts from Netherlands
  • Greece revolts from Ottoman Empire
  • French Revolutions in 1830 and 1848
  • European Revolutions in 1848 Germany, Italy,
    Central Europe
  • Meiji Restoration (Japan) 1867
  • Young Turks (Ottoman Empire) 1908 1920s
  • 1st Iranian Revolution 1905
  • 1st Russian Revolution 1905
  • Mexican Revolution 1910 1920
  • Chinese Revolution 1911 1912

20
LATIN AMERICA
  • Stages
  • Enlightenment, US Revolution, French Revolution
    influences creoles
  • Creoles feel marginalized by peninsulares, mother
    countries government
  • French Revolution, Napoleon occupy Iberia, make
    changes which creoles, peninsulares hate
  • Colonies left on their own and begin to make
    decisions without benefit of mother country
  • Creoles lead independence movements, form
    militias, resist return of Spain
  • Civil wars, turmoil, suffering followed as
    creoles battle Spain for control
  • Conservatives take control of new states after
    independence
  • Result
  • Many newly independent nations
  • Mexico Grito de Dolores, Fr. Hidalgo Morelos,
    Iturbide
  • South America Simon Bolivar (North), Jose de San
    Martin (Central)
  • Brazil Different peaceful split from Portugal,
    new ruler becomes emperor
  • Haiti Different a slave revolt, rebellion led
    to independence
  • After Independence
  • Life for majority of people (mestizos, mulattos,
    Blacks, Indians) little changed, marginalized
  • Societies remained largely casted
  • Small powerful elite of creole families ruled
    independent states
  • Church is part of the government structure
    assists governing elite rise of
    anti-clericalism

21
WESTERN HEGEMONY
  • Continuity
  • European continued economic dominance of world
  • European empires continued to exist
  • Persistence of social norms in most areas
    resisting change
  • Change
  • Europeans expanded dominance of world to Africa,
    Asia
  • Europeans became industrial, commercial center of
    world
  • Europeans lost political control of the Americas
  • US, Japan, Germany join great powers
  • Westernization, modernization impacts mass
    society
  • Prior to 1750
  • Asians, Africans controlled own countries
  • Europeans allowed trading rights, bases but
    limited influence
  • Internal trade left to locals, Asian states
    licensed groups to trade
  • Europeans controlled trans-Oceanic trade
  • Change Begins
  • Dutch, English, French challenge Spain, Portugal
  • Spain, Portugal relied on royal monopolies
  • Newcomers used privately owned companies,
    initiative

22
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23
EUROPE CARVES UP THE WORLD
24
NEW ACTORS
  • United States Liberal democracy with expanding
    suffrage but no rights for women, blacks
  • 1750 13 British Colonies with strong traditions
    of self-rule
  • 1800 Successful revolution, new government
    Mississippi border, Manifest Destiny, Monroe
    Doctrine
  • 1850 War With Mexico Acquires West but country
    at height of sectionalism over slavery
  • 1875 Fought Civil War, Slavery Ended US
    Industrial Power as 3 in world
  • 1914 US acquires an empire in Pacific,
    Caribbean Mass Immigration Open Door Policy
  • Germany Autocratic democracy struggling with
    socialism, industrialization
  • 1750 400 states, Prussia and Austria were the
    largest
  • 1800 Germany was a dependent of Napoleon, whose
    rule created German nationalism
  • 1850 Industrial Revolution, nationalism gripped
    Germany democracy was clear loser in 1848
  • 1875 Prussia had united Germany, humiliated
    France and Austria, created an autocratic empire
  • 1914 Germany was the 2 industrial power in
    world, 2 navy, 1 army
  • Russian Empire autocratic state plagued by
    struggle for reform, rights dominated by elite
  • 1750 New great power having defeated Sweden,
    Ottoman Empire
  • 1800 One of two free great powers left to
    oppose Napoleon, revolution, liberalism
  • 1850 Europes policeman, opposed revolution,
    nationalism, liberalism
  • 1875 Had lost Crimean War emancipation of
    serfs had not helped spreading radicalism,
    industry
  • 1914 1905 Revolution by workers, soviets
    crushed reforms limited internally very weak
  • Japan From Shogunate to Constitutional Monarch
    dominated by elite industries, military

25
DIPLOMACY
  • Rise of Diplomacy and Diplomats
  • Renaissance saw rise of diplomats as a class,
    institution
  • Rules of conduct set extraterritoriality of
    diplomats, embassies
  • Enlightenment growth of works on international
    law, treaties
  • Alliances
  • Temporary alliances of states with similar
    objectives not new
  • Diplomatic Revolution of 1750s Rise of Prussia,
    Great Britain
  • Grand Alliance /Holy Alliance against France,
    Revolution
  • Balance of Power
  • No one state should dominate states team up to
    restore balance
  • War is failed diplomacy use force to achieve
    objectives
  • Alliance Systems
  • Germany upset balance in 1870 France humiliated
  • Germany and France become the center of two
    competing alliances
  • Triple Alliance Germany, Austria, Italy (Ottoman
    Empire)
  • Triple Entente France, Russia, United Kingdom
    (Japan)

26
HOW ALLIANCES WORK
27
IMPERIALISM, COLONIALISM
  • Imperialism
  • Powerful nations extend control over
    less-powerful nations
  • Control can be direct, indirect, political,
    economic, social
  • 1492-1820 is an age of colonialism
  • Colonialism tends towards recreating European
    cultures and settler colonies
  • 1830-1914 is an age of imperialism
  • Imperialism tends towards exploiting other
    nations to benefit the mother country
  • Less concern with making the colony a settler
    colony
  • Spurred By
  • Nationalism and nationalist competition
  • Desire for prestige, military power, glory
  • Desire to maintain balance of power
  • France defeated by Germany in 1870 sought balance
    in colonies
  • Russia, Germany seek to rival UK in Asia, acquire
    colonies
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Seek markets for your goods
  • Seek sources for raw materials especially fuels
  • Results Of
  • Increased life expectancy, literacy

28
COLONIAL ADMINISTRATIONS
  • Types
  • Direct
  • Favored by France, Germany, Belgium, Spain,
    Portugal, Japan
  • Replace local leaders with men sent out by mother
    countries
  • Introduce own laws, law systems, courts,
    governmental bodies
  • Did not believe locals were capable of governing
    themselves
  • Indirect
  • Favored by UK, US, Netherlands
  • Rule through existing elites, institutions
  • Change as few customs, traditions as possible
  • Senior officials appointed by mother country
  • Establish schools to educate young men for civil
    service jobs
  • Dominions
  • Settler colonies granted virtual independence,
    self-rule
  • Applies to Canada, Australia, NZ, South Africa
  • The United States
  • Beginning in 1867, US expanded into Pacific
    Wake Island, Alaska
  • In 1898 acquired Hawaii, Philippines, Puerto
    Rico, Guam, Samoa
  • Expansion due in large part to industrialization,
    nationalism, navy

29
OTHER IMPERIALISMS
  • Economic Imperialism
  • Actually described by Marx, Lenin
  • Involved dominance of industry, finance
  • Let to competitions between national firms
  • US, UK, Germany were three greatest rivals to
    1914
  • Examples
  • US loan money, invested in Mexico, Central
    America, Caribbean
  • UK invested heavily in South America
  • Germany invested heavily in Eastern Europe,
    Balkans, Turkey
  • France invested heavily in Russia
  • Europeans built Latin American infrastructure to
    help exports
  • Racism and Social Darwinism
  • Theory of Evolution and Darwin led to this
    development
  • Natural selection, survival of fittest applied to
    imperialism
  • Social Darwinism theorized that certain nations,
    races were superior
  • The inferior races should be dominated by
    superior, civilized nations

30
LOCAL REACTIONS REFORM, RESIST, REBEL
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Causes
  • Russia attacks Ottomans, supports Pan-Slavic
    nationalism
  • Egypt begins to modernize, break away
  • Local Reaction
  • Turks fight back, seek support of UK, France
  • Turkey seeks to modernize Tanzimat Reforms,
    Young Turk Movement
  • Outcome
  • Ottoman Empire seen as the sick man of Europe
  • Turks loose control of Balkans, North Africa,
    Caucasus
  • India
  • Causes
  • Europeans vie for control of Indian Ocean trade,
    ports under the Mughals
  • European rivalry spills over into India
  • British East India Company builds a trading
    empire in India
  • Local Reaction
  • Initially none from Mughals but local princes try
    to oppose British, ally with French
  • Marathas, Sikhs, others oppose British expansion
  • Sepoy Rebellion on 1857 Indian Muslims and
    Hindus join forces against British

31
LOCAL REACTIONS REFORM, RESIST, REBEL
  • Japan
  • Causes
  • US under Commodore Perry forces Japan to open its
    ports to the West in 1854
  • Japan sees what has happened in China
  • Local Reaction
  • Shogun deposed, Emperor returned to power under
    Meiji Restoration in 1867
  • Meiji Restoration modernizes, industrializes, but
    only moderately westernizes 1867 - 1912
  • Outcome
  • Japan becomes a major power able to resist
    Europeans, defeats Russians in 1904 war
  • Annexes islands, parts of China, Korea and
    creates its own empire (1877 1910)
  • China
  • Causes
  • Foreign merchants trade even if opium trade is
    forbidden Western influence continues to grow
  • Discontent with Manchu (Qing) Dynasty
  • Local Reaction
  • Western-educated, intellectuals seek reforms but
    conservatives, Confucians block reforms
  • Taiping Rebellion Christian messianic traditions
    blend with Confucianism, poor peasants rebel
  • Boxer Rebellion against Western influence
    supported by Dowager Empress, fails
  • Outcome

32
ASIA 1789 1914
33
LOCAL REACTIONS REFORM, RESIST, REBEL
  • Africa
  • Egypt
  • Mehmet Ali An Albanian officer in Turkish Army
    comes to control Egypt
  • Seeks to modern country on European model army,
    industry, society
  • Greatest resistance comes from Europeans who
    defeat his navy, limit his regime, influence
  • East Africa
  • The Sudan
  • Sudan controlled by a corrupt Turkish-Egyptian
    regime
  • Man claiming to be the Madhi or promised one
    preceding the end of time appears, rallies region
  • Preaches a reformed, puritanical Islam stripped
    of western ideas, concepts
  • Defeats Egyptian force led by a British general
  • British re-invade in 1898 and crush regime, rule
    Sudan as a co-dominion with Egypt
  • Ethiopia
  • Italy seeks to create an empire in East Africa,
    occupies Eritrea, Somalia advanced against
    Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia under Menelik II had modernized,
    acquired western arms defeats Italy
  • Southern Africa
  • The Zulus
  • Rise of Shaka Zulu in early 1800s creates a Zulu
    Empire, produces Mkfane or dispersal of Bantu
    tribes
  • Zulus threaten British settlers in Natal Province
    and Boer Republics, clash with British

34
AFRICA 1830 1914
35
SOUTHEAST ASIA
36
INTELLECTUAL CHANGES
  • Arts Art, Music, and Literature
  • Classicism Idealization of the Past (Greeks,
    Romans)
  • Romanticism Idealization of nation, national
    culture
  • Realism look at society as it is, not idealized
  • Impressionism as reaction to, fascination with
    industrialization
  • Post-Impressionism begins movement towards
    emotions
  • Philosophy
  • Materialism
  • Idealism
  • Progressivism
  • Sciences
  • Physics Einstein, Currie, Roentgen
  • Psychology as a result of Freuds studies
  • Biology and Genetics Mendel, Darwin
  • Medicine Jenner, Pasteur, Koch, Lister, Walter
    Reed

37
ESSAYS
  • The prompts which follow can be either a
    Change/Continuity over Time essay or
    Compare/Contrast essay.
  • The same prompts with documents become DBQ
    essays.

38
INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • Compare the causes and phases on the Industrial
    Revolution in Great Britain or the United States
    with Russia or Japan.
  • Compare industrial development in Brazil or South
    America with economic developments in China,
    India, or Russia.
  • Compare and contrast the importance of trade and
    international economic relations on any two
    civilizations, one European and one non-European.
    Non-European can include Eastern Europe
    specifically Austria-Hungary and Russia.
    Non-European nations should include the Ottoman
    Empire, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, India, Egypt,
    China, and Japan.

39
REVOLUTIONS
  • Compare the American or French Revolution with
    one of these revolutions Haiti 1798 Latin
    American 1820 Mehmet Ali in Egypt 1822 Mexico
    1911, Russia 1905 Taiping Rebellion 1850 China
    1911 or Iran 1910.
  • Compare nationalism in the following pairs China
    and Japan, Egypt and Italy, Pan-Africanism and
    the Indian National Congress
  • Compare the process of modernization as opposed
    to Westernization in any two non-European nations
    in the 19th or 20th century.

40
IMPERIALISM RESPONSE
  • Compare and contrast the reactions and responses
    of any two of these states to Western influence
    and imperialism China, Japan, Ottoman Empire,
    Southeast Asia, and India.
  • Compare nationalism and nationalist movements in
    any two of these states Cuba, Philippines,
    China, Japan, Ottoman Empire, Egypt, India, and
    Vietnam.
  • Compare forms of Western intervention in any two
    regions Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and
    Southeast Asia.
  • Compare and contrast any two colonial empires
    including methods of government, economic
    development, and social changes France, Great
    Britain, United States, Russia, and Japan.

41
SOCIAL, MOVEMENTS
  • Compare the roles of upper class/aristocratic
    women with women from the working, peasant, and
    poor classes in Western Europe and any one
    non-Western nation.
  • Compare the spread of Christianity and Islam in
    Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Compare the movement by populaces to settle
    interior lands in any two frontier societies
    United States, Russia, Brazil, South Africa,
    Australia, and China.
  • Compare the process and problems of urbanization
    in any two of these cities Tokyo, London, Paris,
    New York, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Singapore, Bombay,
    Cairo, Constantinople, and Mexico City.
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