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20th Century U.S./Asian Relations

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Title: 20th Century U.S./Asian Relations


1
20th Century U.S./Asian Relations
  • Toughest test of the yearSTUDY!!!

2
1) What were the main reasons that we occupied
Japan after World War II?
  • We wanted to de-militarize their nation
  • Japan was in disarray we forced them to
    restructure their government and re-write their
    constitution (see more details in essay question)

3
2) What was Mao Zedong's program to renew the
spirit of the Chinese revolution called?
  • The Cultural Revolution

4
3) Why is there a North Korea and a South Korea?
  • Korea was divided at the 38th parallel at the
    end of WWI into 2 separate countries

5
4) How was Korea controlled after World War II?
  • North Korea became communist South Korea became
    a democracy a 1 mile buffer zone (the
    DMZdemilitarized zone) still separates the two
    countries.
  • The two countries exist under a cease-fire
    agreement, but the conflict has not officially
    ended.

6
5) How was pre-WWII Japan like other imperialist
nations?
  • They wanted to colonize Asia to gain more land
    access to natural resources as they had limited
    indigenous resources.

7
6) What was common to all of Indochina's
independence movements?
  • The Communist party emerged (usually due to
    Northern influencethink about their neighbors)
  • Outside forces assisted in the defense of these
    countries to fight the spread of communism.

8
7) In Japan, the fewest people work in which
sector? Why is that?
  • Agriculture
  • Japan is a mountainous island nation with limited
    arable land.

9
8) What were the main reasons that Japan went to
war against the U.S.?
  • We placed an embargo on their trade (blocked the
    resources they were taking from China), and
    restricted their access to oil.
  • The wanted to establish a new world order as they
    felt that the US and Europe were unfairly
    monopolizing resources.

10
9) Why did the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor
specifically?
  • They strategized that a surprise attack on the
    main body of the US fleet would be catastrophic.
    Pearl Harbor was the location on these ships.
    The strategy may well have been successful if the
    American aircraft carriers had not been at sea on
    maneuvers.

11
10) The Japanese often fought to the last man in
combat during WWII. This showed adherence to what
belief system?
  • Bushido the samurai code of ethics.
  • Elements of Confucianismseeking HONOR

12
11) Who were the Kamikaze?
  • Military personel who purposefully gave their
    lives for Japan (suicide pilots, bombers, etc.).

13
12) What were the reasons for dropping the
atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
  • They were industrial centers of strategic
    importance.
  • Truman wanted to end the war QUICKLY and the
    Japanese would not surrender.
  • It was believed that this strategy would
    ultimately save lives on both sides.

14
13) Which political party won the civil war in
China and established the People's Republic of
China on October 1, 1949?
  • The Chinese Communist Party

15
14) What country did China model their economic
programs after?
  • The United Soviet Socialist Republic
  • or
  • USSR

16
15) What is the relationship between Tibet and
China, today?
  • Tense! China still controls Tibet, but Tibet
    wants its freedom. This is a prominent issue on
    the international scene.

17
16) A unified China fought with the Allied
Forces during WWII. In 1949, The People's
Republic of China was established as a communist
country. What US political policy was born as a
result?
  • Containment Policy This was founded in the fear
    of the spread of communism. The idea that if one
    country fell to communism, many others in the
    are would also fall was called the Domino Theory.

18
During the Korean War, the United Stated became
involved on behalf of the ___________.
United Nations They were there to help the South
Fight the communists that Were mainly in the
North.
19
18) What was President Truman's MAIN reason for
firing General MacArthur?
  • MacArthur ignored orders got too close to
    ChinaTruman did NOT want a war with China

20
19) During the Korean War, the communists in the
________ were trying to take over the
____________.
North, South
21
20) Korea was divided at the __________
parallel.
38th
22
21) What countries supplied the Communist North
Korea with supplies and resources to fight us?
  • China the Soviet Union (USSR)

23
22) While we were fighting in Korea, the
_________ with the Soviet Union made Americans
apprehensive at home.
Cold War
24
23) Which leader proclaimed the Democratic
Republic of Vietnam?
  • Ho Chi Minh

25
24) How did France try to maintain their
influence in Indo-China?
  • They supported the anti-Communist monarchy
    tried to regain power

26
25) How was Vietnam split after the Geneva
Accords?
  • At the 17th parallel North South Vietnam
    separated (communist north)

27
26) Which country finally defeated the French at
the battle of Dien Bien Phu?
  • North Vietnam

28
27) Describe Diem's rule in Vietnam?
  • Harsh, corrupt, persecuted Buddhists, no
    political freedoms

29
28) Which President increased the greatest
number of combat troops to Vietnam?
  • Lyndon B. Johnson

30
29) _________ was an attack that instigated the
U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.
The Gulf of Tonkin Incident
31
30) Who were the Viet Cong?
  • The rebel guerilla Communist forces in South
    Vietnam that fought for the North Vietnamese.

32
31) This was the turning point of the Vietnam
War after which American forces and the public
began to question whether or not the US could win.
  • The Tet Offensive

33
32) How did Mohandas Gandhi contribute to the
independence movement of India?
  • He led a non-violent, non-cooperation revolution
    in defiance of the British.

34
33) The separation of India and Pakistan in 1947
was called __________.
partition
35
34) Gandhi used ________ methods to gain freedom
for India from the British.
non-violent
36
35) What was the Indian National Congress?
  • The group that fought for equal rights
    eventually home rule for India (led by Gandhi,
    Jinnah, Nehru, etc.)

37
36) Why were India and Pakistan separated?
  • The Muslims in the North wanted their own
    nation they split over religious differences.

38
37) Why did East Pakistan become the country of
Bangladesh?
  • It was too difficult to maintain rule from 2
    different areas (geography!)

39
Short Answer 38. Why was Communism so
appealing to the people of Asia after WWII?
  • Many countries were poor and war-torn following
    WWII and wanted change many of their leaders
    had proved themselves weak during the war

40
39. Did the containment policy work? Why or why
not (explain using specific examples)?
  • Support your opinion with specific examples!

41
40. What factors led to the rise of Communism in
China after WW2?
  • Weak Chinese Nationalist leadership during the
    war
  • government corruption
  • An unhappy peasant class
  • Mao and other communist revolutionaries emerged
    as war heroes after fighting the Japanese in WWII
    people were more willing to listen to their
    political ideas.
  • The Long March had already helped the communists
    gain support.

42
41. Compare and contrast the Vietnam and Korean
Wars
  • Similarities
  • US involved to fight communism
  • Part of Cold War
  • Communist North trying to take whole country
    under communist rule
  • Vietnam
  • We never invaded the Northwe never crossed the
    17th parallel
  • Changed culture and politics of US
  • We were not successful in stopping the communist
    takeover
  • First televised war
  • Lack of public support
  • Demilitarized zone (DMZ) utilized at some point
    between the North South
  • Korea
  • US there on behalf of the United Nations
  • US public support
  • Successfully stopped South Korea from being
    taken over

43
42. How did the United States rebuild Japan after
WWII? Why did they want to rebuild the nation?
  • HOW
  • US wrote Japanese constitution
  • US demilitarized Japan following the war
  • We turned Japan into a parliamentary
    democracy/constitutional monarchy
  • We changed the mission statement of the Japanese
    military to strictly defensive instead of
    offense/defensive.
  • WHY
  • To make them our ally
  • So that we would never have to fight them again
    (remove threat)
  • Create trade partner
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