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Genetic Engineering and The Human Genome

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Ethical Issues?? EXAMPLES: Making ... Tahoma Arial Wingdings Calibri Ocean 1_Ocean Genetic Engineering and The Human Genome Selective Breeding Increasing Variation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Genetic Engineering and The Human Genome


1
Genetic Engineering and The Human Genome
2
Selective Breeding
  • Humans use selective breeding to pass desired
    traits on to the next generation.
  • Inbreeding keeps desired traits within a line of
    organisms by breeding related organisms.
  • Traits are controlled by more than 1 set of genes
    Ex/ hair color (POLYGENIC TRAITS)

3
Increasing Variation
  • To increase variation, breeders often introduce
    mutations (the ultimate source for genetic
    variation) into the population.

4
Manipulating DNA
  • Using their knowledge of DNA and various
    techniques, scientists can extract, cut, identify
    and copy DNA.
  • DNA Extraction simple chemical procedure
    separate DNA.
  • DNA Cutting restriction enzymes cut particular
    DNA sequences.
  • Separating DNA gel electrophoresis.
  • Copy using polymerace chain reaction PCR

5
Applications of Biotechnology
  • DNA Finger Printing
  • Uses identity, paternity, crime scenes
  • You need Saliva, blood, body fluids, skin or
    hair
  • Gel Electrophoresis Used to separate DNA into
    fragments based on size
  • How you can tell who did the crime based on gel
    results

6
Gel Electophoresis and PCRSeparates DNA based on
size Magnifying DNA
7
Transgenic Organisms
  • Transgenic organisms contain genes from other
    organisms.
  • Ethical Issues??
  • EXAMPLES
  • Making onions glow using jellyfish DNA.
  • Using bacteria to make human insulin.

8
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9
Cloning
  • A clone is a member of a population of
    genetically identical cells produced from a
    single cell.
  • Dolly, Cows , Cats and more.
  • Bring back endangered or even extinct species.

10
Human Chromosomes
  • 23 pairs of Chromosomes for a total of 46.
  • 1-22 autosomal
  • 23 sex chromosomes
  • Karyotypes, pictures of chromosomes, can be used
    to study our chromosomes.

11
Karyotype
12
Chromosome Disorders
  • Nondisjunction occurs when chromosomes fail to
    separate during meiosis.
  • The result is an abnormal number of chromosomes.
  • Down Syndrome Extra chromosome at position 21.
  • Turners Syndrome a female with only one X
    chromosome
  • Klinefelters syndrome In Males too many X
    chromosomes. Ie. XXXXXY or XXY.

13
Gene Therapy
  • In gene therapy, an absent or faulty gene is
    replaced by a normal, working gene.

14
Human Genome Project
  • An ongoing effort to analyze the human DNA
    sequence
  • Important because it could be used to cure
    genetic disorders
  • -What if a normal gene produces an absent
    gene.useful so body can make correct protein

15
DNA Testing
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vuDumZT5z5R8
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