The%20Early%20History%20and%20Scope%20of%20Psychology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation



The Early History and Scope of Psychology Define Psychology The science of behavior and mental processes Early History Socrates, and his student Plato (Greek ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:113
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 158
Provided by: aph58


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The%20Early%20History%20and%20Scope%20of%20Psychology

The Early History and Scopeof Psychology
Define Psychology
  • The science of behavior and mental processes

Early History
  • Socrates, and his student Plato (Greek
  • The mind and the body are two separate entities,
    and do not influence each other. There are
    mental reasons for behavior and there are bodily
    causes of behavior, and they act independent of
    each other.

  • Socrates, and his student Plato (Greek
  • Human behavior and knowledge is pre-disposed and
    genetically built-in (Nature).
  • IE. If you are intelligent, you were born with a
    smart brain. If you are athletic, you were born
    with strong muscles and balance. If you are
    violent, depressed, or forgetful, you were born
    with a brain disorder.

  • Aristotle (Greek Philosopher)
  • The mind and the body are inseparable and each
    influences the other with regards to behavior.

  • Aristotle (Greek Philosopher)
  • Human behavior and knowledge is not preexisting
    it grows from the experiences stored in our
    memories (Nurture).
  • IE. You are violent because you watched it on
    television. You are smart because you studied.
    You are kind because you were loved.

(No Transcript)
  • John Locke (British Philosopher)
  • Tabula rasa (Empiricism) literally means blank
  • The theory that the mind is at birth a "blank
    slate" without rules for processing data, and
    that data is added and rules for processing it
    formed solely by our sensory experiences. It also
    emphasized the individual's freedom to author his
    or her own soul. Every experience is new and
    open to individual interpretation.

  • IE. There is no heredity or preconceived notions
    regarding the world. Therefore, my decision to
    drink or not to drink is based solely on my
    sensory experience of the taste and effects of a
    glass of wine, not my parents alcoholism. My
    grades in school and my professional goals are
    based on my study and work habits, not my
    parents idiocy.

  • Rene Descartes (French Philosopher)
  • The body and the mind are separate entities,
    though they do interact and communicate through
    the spirits of the brain, and the passages of
    the body. Knowledge is inborn as well.
  • Early dissections led to the early understanding
    of mind/body connections (biological psychology).

  • Francis Bacon (English Scientist)
  • Stressed the scientific principles of observation
    and experimentation when evaluating human

  • Wilhelm Wundt
  • German professor who established the first
    psychology laboratory at the University of
    Leipzig, Germany.

  • William James (Functionalism)
  • Focused on the physical functions of the brain
    and the body, and how they worked together
  • Also reintroduced the Darwinist theory of human
    evolution, and that body and brain functions
    evolved as humans learned about and experienced
    the world

  • Edward Titchener (Structuralism)
  • Measured and compared individuals definitions,
    memories, and perceptions of smells, sights,
    memories, etc., and how their own individual
    experiences caused them to behave differently
    towards similar items (Introspection)

  • Structuralists break human experiences down into
    their smallest parts in order to understand the
    entire behavior.

  • IE. While explaining a rose, I think about a
    rose in this way, and heres how I describe the
    experience of smelling a rose, seeing a rose,
    holding a rose, etc. When you explain a rose,
    the experience may be completely different and
    stored in the brain differently.

Humanistic Perspective
  • Humanists believe that we choose most of our
    behaviors and these choices are guided by
    physiological, emotional, or spiritual needs.
    Humanists stress free will and individual choice.
  • Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

  • IE. An introverted person chooses to limit
    social contact with others because he or she
    finds that social needs are better satisfied by
    contact with a few close friends rather than
    large groups.

Psychoanalytic Perspective
  • Psychoanalysts believe that the unconscious mind
    (a part of our mind that we do not have conscious
    control over or access to) controls much or our
    thought and action.
  • Sigmund Freud

  • IE. An introverted person avoids social
    situations because of a repressed memory of
    trauma in childhood involving an acutely
    embarrassing experience at a party.

Biopsychology (Neuroscience)
  • Biopsychologists explain human behavior in terms
    of biological processes, including genetics,
    hormones, and brain (dys)functions.

  • IE. An introverted person may lack a certain gene
    for sociability, or an extroverted person may be
    producing an overabundance of a particular
    hormone. There may be a dysfunctional frontal

Evolutionary Perspective
  • Evolutionary psychologists (sociobiologists)
    examine human behavior in terms of natural
    selection and survival traits.
  • Charles Darwin

  • IE. An extroverted person carries a social
    genetic trait based upon the need to make friends
    or allies, thus increasing their chances of
    survival. An introverted person may have a
    genetic quality that precludes isolation as a way
    to avoid predators, thus increasing their chances
    for survival.

Behavioral Perspective
  • Behavioral psychologists explain human thought
    and behavior by looking strictly at observable
    behaviors and what reaction organisms get in
    response to specific behaviors.
  • Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, B.F. Skinner

  • IE. An introverted person may be withdrawn and
    shy because they are punished for speaking at
    home. An extrovert may get monetary rewards for
    garnering attention.

Cognitive Perspective
  • Cognitive psychologists explain human behavior in
    terms of how we interpret, process, and remember
    environmental events. The rules that humans use
    to view the world are important in explaining
    what we think and do.

  • IE. An introvert does not socialize much because
    they interpret friendship as pity, or whispered
    conversations as criticism. An extrovert may
    think that the world is a happy and safe place,
    and therefore all people are potential friends.

Social-Cultural Perspective
  • Sociocultural psychologists emphasize the
    influence of groups and culture on the way that
    we think and act.

  • IE. An female introvert lives in a society where
    women are not allowed to talk, vote, or own land.
    An extrovert lives in a society where gluttony
    and extravagance is encouraged.

Fields in Psychology
  • What can I do with a degree in Psychology?

Fields in Psychology
  • Applied v. Basic Psychology
  • Applied refers to practical and interactive
  • Basic refers mainly to the research fields of

  • Mental and physical rehabilitation regarding
    mental disorders.
  • Can include medications, in/out patient services,
    counseling, etc.

  • Assisting school-aged children, adolescence
    issues, counseling, etc.

  • Conduct research on learning, memory, sensation,
    perception, cognition, motivation, etc.

  • Study mental and physical growth from prenatal
    through childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and
    into old age.

  • Study how people influence each others attitudes,
    prejudices, norms, interpersonal attractions, etc.

  • Diagnosis and treatment of troubled people.
  • Career, marriage, stress counseling.

  • Practical issues of selecting and training a
  • Productivity, job stress, motivation, automation.

Forensic Psychology
  • Provide advice to legislators, judges,
    correctional officers, lawyers and the police
  • Is called upon, for example, to serve as an
    expert witness, diagnose and treat incarcerated
    and probationed offenders and screen and
    evaluate personnel in the law enforcement and
    judicial systems

Sports Psychology
  • Issues and techniques of sport-specific
    psychological assessment and mental skills
    training for performance enhancement and
    satisfaction with participation
  • Goal-setting, visualization and performance
    planning, self-confidence, eating disorders,
    overtraining and burnout counseling, team
    building, sportsmanship

  • Experiment with how we perceive, think, and solve

  • What is the difference between a psychologist
    and a psychiatrist?

Psychology v. Psychiatry
  • Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders.
  • Psychiatrists are medical doctors and can
    prescribe medications to treat the physical and
    mental causes of psychological disorders.

AP Psychology Chapter Two
  • Methods of Research

  • How do psychologists collect data about

  • Regardless of the method used, all research is
    based on the Scientific Method of Psychology
  • Scientific means systematic, testable, and

  • What are the three main principles that guide
    the Scientific Method of Psychology?

  • Step 1 Theory
  • Step 2 Hypotheses
  • Step 3 Research and Observation

Step 1
  • Theories organize known facts and summarizes
    current research in the field. What do we
    already know?

Step 2
  • A hypothesis is then created as a testable
    prediction based on what is currently known and
    what we want to find out. What do we want to
    know more about?

Step 3
  • Research or observation or experiments are
    generated to collect data, which then goes into
    evaluating the hypothesis, which may or may not
    add to the existing theory. What did we find out?

  • What are the two broad types of research that
    psychologists conduct?

Research Designs
  • Quantitative and Qualitative Research

  • Quantitative research emphasizes numbers,
    measurements, deductive logic, statistics,
    control, and experiments.

  • Quantitative researchers use tools, such as
    questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical
    data, and data is in the form of numbers and

  • Qualitative research emphasizes natural settings,
    observation, understanding, themes, verbal
    narratives, and flexible designs.

  • Qualitative data is in the form of words,
    pictures or objects.

  • What are some examples of qualitative research

I. Naturalistic Observation
  • Study behavior in its natural context.
    Spontaneous behavior in a subjects natural
    environment. No interaction with the subject.

  • IE. If you want to study the interactive
    behavior of a specific breed of gorillas, you
    would need to go to where the gorillas live in
    nature (not a zoo). You would need to observe
    them without their knowledge, and without
    manipulating anything.

  • Situation in which a factor unfairly increases
    the likelihood of a researcher reaching a
    particular conclusion

Example of Bias
  • I am researching teenagers behavior and I was
    recently mugged by a group of teenagers am I
    likely to observe teenage behaviors as being
    motivated by evil versus good? Why?

  • The tendency to notice evidence which supports
    one particular point of view or hypothesis

Example of Bias
  • If my hypothesis is that excessive sugar
    intake causes poor test performance, I will
    readily conclude this as fact when three students
    who failed the test were observed drinking a soda
    prior to the test. Other students who failed and
    other factors are ignored.

  • Tendency of research subjects to respond in
    certain ways because they know they are being
  • The subjects might try to behave in ways they
    believe the researcher wants them to behave

II. Case Study
  • A case study is one type of observational data
    collection technique in which one individual is
    studied in-depth in order to identify behavioral,
    emotional, and/or cognitive qualities that are
    universally true, on average, of others. Case
    studies often include face-to-face interviews,
    paper and pencil tests, and more.

  • IE. I want to know why Bart killed thirty-five
    people over a twenty-year period of time. I will
    examine the police files, observe and interview
    Bart, talk to his and the victims families, etc.

III. Survey
  • Questionnaires/ interviews. Getting a large
    amount of information from a large group of

When Creating A Survey
  • Questions need precise answers
  • Language and wording must be simple
  • IE. 77 of New Yorkers where interested in plants
    and trees, but only 39 where interested in
    botany 48 where interested in fossils, but only
    39 where interested in paleontology 42 where
    interested in rocks and minerals, but 53 where
    interested in Geology

When Creating A Survey
  • Ask questions that wont embarrass or humiliate
  • Responders will lie if there is a perceived
    punishment Anonymity is key
  • Dont ask morally ambiguous questions keep it
    simple and to the point
  • Who the interviewer is will affect the responders

When Creating A Survey
  • Shortly phrased questions.
  • IE. As you know, the term Holocaust usually
    refers to the killing of millions of Jews in Nazi
    death camps during WWII. Does it seem possible
    or does it seem impossible to you that the Nazi
    extermination of the Jew never happened?
  • 1 out of 5 Gallup poll responders said that the
    Holocaust never happened due to the phrasing of
    the question

When Creating A Survey
  • Hot Topics/Key Words
  • IE. Do you favor an amendment prohibiting
    abortions? gt50 opposed OR Do you favor an
    amendment protecting the life of an unborn child?
    lt30 opposed it

When Creating A Survey
  • Limited Answer Options
  • Order of Questions easier to more difficult
    works best
  • Fright Terms avoid using terms with big
  • IE. Problem V. Crisis, Past V. Dead, Dealt With
    V. Punish

False Consensus Effect
  • Tendency to overestimate the extent to which
    others share our beliefs and behaviors. Skews
    the reports by jumping to large conclusions that
    fit into our pre-conceived ideas.

  • What is an example of a quantitative research

IV. Experiment
  • An investigation seeking to understand relations
    of cause and effect. The experimenter changes a
    variable (cause), and in turn changes another
    variable (effect). At the same time the
    experimenter hopes to hold all of the other
    variables constant so that they can attribute any
    changes to the manipulation.

  • IE. I want to know if new drug A will help to
    alleviate the symptoms of insomnia. Patients
    will be given different doses at different times
    to see what works and what doesnt. I need to
    control other factors, like mattress softness and
    room temperature, to eliminate them as causes of
    sleep deprivation.

  • How do I create a valid and reliable experiment?

Step 1 Choose a Hypothesis
  • A hypothesis expresses a relationship between two
  • IE. My hypothesis is that watching violent
    television programs makes people more aggressive.

Step Two Choose Variables
  • Variables are things that are measured,
    controlled, or manipulated in research.

  • The independent variable is the manipulated
  • IE. Watching television violence is the
    independent variable because I can adjust what
    shows are viewed, for how long, by whom, etc.

  • The dependent variable is measured for change.
  • IE. Measuring the change in aggression levels is
    the dependent variable in our experiment because
    it changes based on what is viewed, for how long,

Step Three Operationalize
  • When you operationalize your variables, you are
    explaining how you will measure them.

  • IE. The operational definition of the
    independent variable (what defines a violent
    show?) would be shows that have scenes of
    fighting, bloodshed, use of weapons, injury,
    kicks, punches, etc.
  • IE. The operational definition of the dependent
    variable (what constitutes an increase in
    aggressive behavior?) would be an increase in
    agitation or tenseness, increased vocal volume,
    threats of bodily harm, kicks, punches, throwing
    objects, etc.

Step Four Identify Potential Extraneous
Variables/Confounding Variables
  • It is important to make sure that during the
    experiment as many other factors that are NOT
    part of the therapy are NOT included. Any factor
    or variable that causes an effect (or potential
    affects) other than the variable being studied is
    considered an extraneous variable.

  • IE. An extraneous variable in our experiment
    would be a phone call from a solicitor during a
    program, the viewer receiving mail including a
    poor report card, a viewer stubbing their toe
    during a show, alcohol abuse, etc. All of these
    could increase aggressiveness, but are not
    related to viewing violent television.

Step Five Identify Who You Will Be Testing
  • The individuals on which the research will be
    conducted are called subjects (or participants).
  • A small group of subjects are drawn from a larger
    potential population.
  • IE. Our subjects will be drawn from the overall
    population of 12th grade males at Middletown High

Step Six How Do We Decide Who Will Be Subjects,
and Who Wont?
  • Since we cant realistically test all 12th grade
    males at Middletown High School, we have to
    create a representative sample of the population
    so that we can generalize our findings to the
    whole group.

Method 1 Rigorous Control Design
  • Designing an experiment with specific,
    hand-picked groups in mind.
  • IE. Only testing males, 18 years old, in AP

Method 2 Sample Design
  • A sample is a representation of the entire
  • A random sample allows that every member of an
    overall population has an equal chance to be in
    the sample.
  • IE. Drawing names from a hat.

Method 3 Stratified Sample
  • Subdivide the population into at least two
    different subpopulations that share the same
    characteristics, then draw a random sample from
    each group.
  • IE. Surveying views on Equal Rights. Split your
    human population into men and women, and then
    randomly draw eight mens and womens names.

Method 4 Systematic Sample
  • Select a starting point from your population and
    then select every ?th participant.
  • IE. Merck corporation wants test the
    effectiveness of a new aspirin on their 100,000
    employees. Get a roster of employees, start at
    1, and then choose every 100th name on the list.

Method 5 Cluster Sampling
  • Divide your population into multiple subgroups,
    randomly choose a subgroup to test, and then test
    the entire population of that subgroup.
  • IE. Split the country up into geographic regions
    (East Coast, Midwest, etc.). Randomly choose a
    region to test, and then test every person in
    those states.

Method 6 Convenience Sampling
  • Use a population that is readily available.
  • IE. Test your neighbors, your family, your
    co-workers, a passer-by on the street.

Step Seven Assignment
  • Once you have chosen your subjects to study, you
    must assign them to one of two groups those that
    will be manipulated, and those that wont.

Group 1 Experimental Group
  • The experimental group receives the independent
    variable and is manipulated throughout the

Group 2 Control Group
  • The control group does not receive the
    independent variable.

  • IE. In our television violence experiment, those
    in the experiment group will watch varying
    degrees of violent program, for varying lengths
    of time, etc., and their changes in levels of
    aggression measured.

  • IE. In our television violence experiment, the
    control group will be shown a variety of
    non-violent programming in order to create a
    baseline to compare the experiment group against.

Method 1 Random Assignment
  • Random assignment means that the subjects have an
    equal chance of being placed into each group. If
    we allow subjects to choose their own group, we
    may have a subject-relevant confounding variable.

Subject-Relevant Confounding Variables
  • A subject-relevant confounding variable would
    allow those people that liked violent movies or
    were prone to violence already to choose to be in
    the experimental group. We therefore could not
    accurately find that viewing violence led to

  • To help avoid this confounding variable, we
    prescribe a single-blind design. The subjects do
    not know whether they have been randomly placed
    in the control or experiment group.

Method 2 Group Matching
  • When assigning members to the experiment or
    control group, it is important that the
    characteristics of both groups need to be as
    similar as possible.

  • IE. After rigorously or randomly determining our
    subjects, as many white, black, tall, short,
    overweight, slim members should be in the control
    group as there are in the experiment group.

Step Eight Address Other Potential Issues With
  • Situation-relevant confounding variables refer to
    making sure that the situations that the
    experiment and control groups are placed in are
    exactly the same. We must have equivalent
  • IE. We cannot have those watching violent films
    in a large auditorium, and those viewing sitcoms
    in a small living room.

Experimenter Bias
  • Experimenter Bias occurs when the experimenter
    unconsciously treats members of the control and
    experiment groups differently, which increases
    the chances of confirming their hypothesis.
  • IE. The experimenter gives soda to the control
    group, and beer to the violent viewers. The
    experimenter speaks more abruptly with the
    violence crowd (inciting them?).

  • To help avoid this type of confounding
    variable, we employ a double-blind design, where
    neither the subjects nor the researcher may know
    which is the control or the experiment group. A
    third-party has the appropriate records so that
    the date can be analyzed later.

  • The Hawthorne Effect refers to the fact that some
    subjects will alter their behaviors simply
    because they know that they are part of an
    experiment, regardless of what is being done to

  • The Placebo Effect refers to the phenomenon that
    a patient's symptoms can be alleviated by an
    otherwise ineffective treatment, apparently
    because the individual expects or believes that
    it will work.

  • Hindsight Bias is the tendency to believe, once
    the outcome is already known of course, that you
    would have foreseen itthat even though it's over
    and you know the outcome, you knew it all along.

  • Overconfidence occurs when we tend to think that
    we know more than we do. Make over-generalization
    s when reporting results, forcing results into
    preconceived hypothesis to say I told you so,
    instead of letting the results speak for
    themselves, etc.

  • Only experimental data can conclusively
    demonstrate causal relations between variables
    (A causes B to happen).

V. Correlation Study
  • A correlation study is a statistical measure of
    the relationship between two or more variables
    without assigning a cause and effect relationship.

Correlation Study
  • You cannot conclude a cause and effect
    relationship from this statistical analysis you
    can only imply or predict a strong or a weak
    relationship between variables !!!

  • IE. Student scores on the SAT are collected, as
    are senior year GPAs. We want to see if a high
    GPA correlates to a high SAT score. We cant say
    one causes the other, but we can imply that
    students who have high/low GPAs score high/low
    on SATs. Can we use GPA as a predictor of SAT

  • Once I have completed my research, how do I
    present my findings ?

Descriptive Statistics
  • Descriptive Statistics describe a set of data.

  • If I want to report findings from an observation
    or a survey, I may want to use a frequency
  • A frequency distribution may be a simple chart, a
    list, or a graph.
  • A graph of information always plots the frequency
    along the y-axis, and the subject of the graph
    along the x-axis.

Measures of Central Tendency
  • Measures of central tendency provide statistics
    that indicate the average or typical score in the
    distribution. There are three measures of central
  • Mean
  • Median
  • Mode

  • The mean is the arithmetic average of all the
    scores in the distribution. It is calculated by
    adding all the scores in the distribution and
    then dividing this sum by the number of scores.

  • The median is the middle score of the
    distribution, the point that divides a
    rank-ordered distribution into halves containing
    an equal number of scores. Thus 50 of the scores
    lie below the median and 50 lie above the

  • The mode is simply the score in the distribution
    that occurs most frequently.

Graphing Measures of Central Tendency
  • When graphing the mean, median and mode of a
    distribution, roughly speaking, a distribution
    has positive skew if the right tail is longer and
    negative skew if the left tail is longer.

Positively Skewed
  • This distribution has a positive skew. Note that
    the mean is larger than the median.

  • IE. In a neighborhood of relatively low incomes,
    a few millionaires move in. Those few high
    salaries will inflate the mean (average), but the
    median will remain relatively low.

Negatively Skewed
  • This distribution has a negative skew. The median
    is larger than the mean.

  • IE. In a particular well-to-do neighborhood, a
    few low-income residents move in. The overall
    average income will drop a bit, but the median
    will remain relatively high.

Measures of Variability
  • Measures of variability show how spread out the
    distribution of scores is from the mean, or how
    much dispersion or scatter exists in the
    distribution. If there is a large degree of
    dispersion, that is, if the scores are very
    dissimilar, we say the distribution has a large
    or high variability, or variance. If the scores
    are very similar, there is a small degree of
    dispersion and a small variance.

Measures of Variability
  • Range
  • Standard Deviation

  • The range is simply the numerical difference
    between the highest and lowest scores in the

Standard Deviation
  • The measure of variability used most often in
    research is the standard deviation, a statistic
    that indicates the average distance of the scores
    from the mean of the distribution.

  • IE. Our class took Unit Exam 2. I scored a 76.
    I want to know how well I did in relation to the
    rest of the class to see whether or not that
    score was good or bad. I need to figure out what
    the class average was, figure out the standard
    deviation from the mean, and Ill know how well I

Standard Deviation
Graphing Standard Deviation
  • Find the mean of your distribution set.
  • Calculate the SD on your calculator.
  • The mean is set at 0.
  • 1 and -1 are your SD above and below the mean.
  • IE. Your mean is 56 with a SD of 6. 1 would be
    62, and -1 would be 50.
  • Calculate - 2 and - 3 in the same manner.

Graphing Standard Deviation
  • What does this tell us?
  • If the mean of a set of class scores on a unit
    exam was 72, with a SD of 8, 68 of students
    scored between a 64 and an 80. Your score of a
    76 would be close to being better than 68 of the
    rest of the class.
  • Approximately 95 of the class scored between a
    56 and an 88. Your score of a 50 would indicated
    that roughly 96 of the class did better than you
    on the test.

Graphing Data
  • Scatterplot A graphed cluster of dots that
    represent the values of two variables.

  • The SLOPE of the points suggests whether there is
    a positive, negative, or non-existent
    relationship between two variables.

  • POSITIVE CORRELATION as one set of scores
    increases, so does the other

  • NEGATIVE CORRELATION as one set of scores goes
    up, another set goes down


  • No correlation relates to a score of 0.00
  • A positive correlation ranges from 0.00 to 1.00
  • A negative correlation ranges from 0.00 to -1.00

  • How closely the dots are to each other along the
    line indicates the strength or weakness of the
    correlation as well

Research Methods
  • APA Ethical Guidelines

  • The APA American Psychological Association
  • Responsible for setting the ethical guidelines
    for human and animal research.
  • The IRB Institutional Review Board
  • Part of the APA responsible for reviewing
    research proposals for ethical violations and/or
    procedural errors.

Animal Research
  • Ethical studies using laboratory animals must
    meet the following requirements

  • 1. The must have a clear scientific purpose.
  • The research must answer a specific, important
    scientific question. Animals are chosen based on
    their ability to help answer the question

  • 2. The animals must be cared for and housed in a
    humane way.

  • 3. The animal subjects must be acquired in a
    legal manner.
  • The animals used in the experiment must be
    purchased from accredited companies, and if
    trapped in the wild, they must be trapped in a
    humane manner.

  • 4. The experiment must be designed with
    procedures in place that employ the least amount
    of suffering on the part of the animals.

(No Transcript)
  • Research involving human subjects must meet the
    following standards

  • 1. Informed Consent
  • Participants must know that they are involved in
    research and give their consent.

  • 2. Coercion
  • Participation in a research study must be

  • 3. Anonymity/Confidentiality
  • The participants privacy must be protected. No
    identities and actions may be revealed. A
    researched must not share any results that could
    match a participant and their specific responses.
    A researcher will not identify the source of any
    data as well.

  • 4. Risk
  • Participants cannot be placed at any significant
    mental or physical risk.

  • 5. Debriefing Procedures
  • Participants must be told the purpose of the
    study and provided with ways to contact the
    researcher about the study results.